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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 25-29, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945037

RESUMO

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(6): 805-811, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058922

RESUMO

Importance: Given high rates of opioid-related fatal overdoses, improving naloxone access has become a priority. States have implemented different types of naloxone access laws (NALs) and there is controversy over which of these policies, if any, can curb overdose deaths. We hypothesize that NALs granting direct authority to pharmacists to provide naloxone will have the greatest potential for reducing fatal overdoses. Objectives: To identify which types of NALs, if any, are associated with reductions in fatal overdoses involving opioids and examine possible implications for nonfatal overdoses. Design, Setting, and Participants: State-level changes in both fatal and nonfatal overdoses from 2005 to 2016 were examined across the 50 states and the District of Columbia after adoption of NALs using a difference-in-differences approach while estimating the magnitude of the association for each year relative to time of adoption. Policy environments across full state populations were represented in the primary data set. The association for 3 types of NALs was associated: NALs providing direct authority to pharmacists to prescribe, NALs providing indirect authority to prescribe, and other NALs. The study was conducted from January 2017 to January 2019. Exposures: Fatal and nonfatal overdoses in states that adopted NAL laws were compared with those in states that did not adopt NAL laws. Further consideration was given to the type of NAL passed in terms of its association with these outcomes. We hypothesize that NALs granting direct authority to pharmacists to provide naloxone will have the greatest potential for reducing fatal overdoses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Fatal overdoses involving opioids were the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were nonfatal overdoses resulting in emergency department visits and Medicaid naloxone prescriptions. Results: In this evaluation of the dispensing of naloxone across the United States, NALs granting direct authority to pharmacists were associated with significant reductions in fatal overdoses, but they may also increase nonfatal overdoses seen in emergency department visits. The effect sizes for fatal overdoses grew over time relative to adoption of the NALs. These policies were estimated to reduce opioid-rated fatal overdoses by 0.387 (95% CI, 0.119-0.656; P = .007) per 100 000 people in 3 or more years after adoption. There was little evidence of an association for indirect authority to dispense (increase by 0.121; 95% CI, -0.014 to 0.257; P = .09) and other NALs (increase by 0.094; 95% CI, -0.040 to 0.227; P = .17). Conclusions and Relevance: Although many states have passed some type of law affecting naloxone availability, only laws allowing direct dispensing by pharmacists appear to be useful. Communities in which access to naloxone is improved should prepare for increases in nonfatal overdoses and link these individuals to effective treatment.

4.
Int J Drug Policy ; 53: 1-7, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several countries and many U.S. states have allowed, for cannabis to be used as therapy to treat chronic conditions or pain., This has increased the use of cannabis, particularly among older people.Because cannabis has been linked to adverse cardiac events in the medical literature, there may be unintended consequences on increased use among older people. METHODS: We analyze cardiac-related mortality data from the U.S. National Vital Statistics System for 1990-2014. We use difference-in-difference fixed-effects models to assess whether there are increased rates of cardiac-related mortality following passage of medical cannabis programs. We also analyze whether states with more liberal rules on dispensing cannabis show higher mortality rates. RESULTS: For men, there is a statistically significant 2.3% increase in the rate of cardiac death following passage. For women, there is a 1.3% increase that is also statistically significant. he effects increase or both men and women with age. The effects are also stronger in states with more a lax approach to cannabis dispensing. CONCLUSION: Policymakers should be aware of a potential unintended consequence of allowing broader use of cannabis, specifically for those more at risk of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Legislação de Medicamentos/tendências , Maconha Medicinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Public Health Policy ; 39(1): 68-85, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109518

RESUMO

Following Flint's switching from the Detroit Water Authority to the Flint River as the source of its tap water, we show, using birth records, that there were lower average birthweights and higher incidence of low birthweight (< 2500 g) among infants. We compare these observed reductions in Flint birthweights to a series of counterfactuals. We find that among white mothers, there was a 71 g reduction in birthweight and a 26% increase in the incidence of low birthweight relative to what would have likely occurred without the water change. For infants of black mothers, we were unable to verify that the smaller reduction in birthweight was statistically different than what would have occurred without the water change. We consider lead contamination and stress as potential causes of the poor birth outcomes, as well as the reasons for the null effect among the infants of black mothers.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Resultado da Gravidez , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Declaração de Nascimento , Água Potável/química , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/análise , Michigan , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
6.
JAMA ; 318(21): 2111-2118, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209720

RESUMO

Importance: In 2011, critical congenital heart disease was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns, but whether state implementation of screening policies has been associated with infant death rates is unknown. Objective: To assess whether there was an association between implementation of state newborn screening policies for critical congenital heart disease and infant death rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study with group-level analyses. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted using the National Center for Health Statistics' period linked birth/infant death data set files for 2007-2013 for 26 546 503 US births through June 30, 2013, aggregated by month and state of birth. Exposures: State policies were classified as mandatory or nonmandatory (including voluntary policies and mandates that were not yet implemented). As of June 1, 2013, 8 states had implemented mandatory screening policies, 5 states had voluntary screening policies, and 9 states had adopted but not yet implemented mandates. Main Outcomes and Measures: Numbers of early infant deaths (between 24 hours and 6 months of age) coded for critical congenital heart disease or other/unspecified congenital cardiac causes for each state-month birth cohort. Results: Between 2007 and 2013, there were 2734 deaths due to critical congenital heart disease and 3967 deaths due to other/unspecified causes. Critical congenital heart disease death rates in states with mandatory screening policies were 8.0 (95% CI, 5.4-10.6) per 100 000 births (n = 37) in 2007 and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.9-9.9) per 100 000 births (n = 13) in 2013 (for births by the end of July); for other/unspecified cardiac causes, death rates were 11.7 (95% CI, 8.6-14.8) per 100 000 births in 2007 (n = 54) and 10.3 (95% CI, 5.9-14.8) per 100 000 births (n = 21) in 2013. Early infant deaths from critical congenital heart disease through December 31, 2013, decreased by 33.4% (95% CI, 10.6%-50.3%), with an absolute decline of 3.9 (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) deaths per 100 000 births after states implemented mandatory screening compared with prior periods and states without screening policies. Early infant deaths from other/unspecified cardiac causes declined by 21.4% (95% CI, 6.9%-33.7%), with an absolute decline of 3.5 (95% CI, 3.2-3.8) deaths per 100 000 births. No significant decrease was associated with nonmandatory screening policies. Conclusions and Relevance: Statewide implementation of mandatory policies for newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease was associated with a significant decrease in infant cardiac deaths between 2007 and 2013 compared with states without these policies.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Programas Obrigatórios , Triagem Neonatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade/tendências , Triagem Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais
7.
J Health Econ ; 54: 17-24, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349865

RESUMO

Many states have banned electronic cigarette sales to minors under the rationale that using e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional combustion cigarettes. Such sales bans would be counterproductive, however, if e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are substitutes, as bans might push teenagers back to smoking the more dangerous combustion cigarettes. We provide evidence that these sales bans reduce the incidence of smoking conventional cigarettes among high school seniors. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that sales bans reduced e-cigarette usage as well. This evidence suggests that not only are e-cigarettes and smoking regular cigarettes positively related and not substitutes for young people, banning retail sales to minors is an effective policy tool in reducing tobacco use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 3(4): 34, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376140

RESUMO

Screening newborns for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry is recommended to allow for the prompt diagnosis and prevention of life-threatening crises. The present review summarizes and critiques six previously published estimates of the costs or cost-effectiveness of CCHD screening from the United Kingdom, United States, and China. Several elements that affect CCHD screening costs were assessed in varying numbers of studies, including screening staff time, instrumentation, and consumables, as well as costs of diagnosis and treatment. A previous US study that used conservative assumptions suggested that CCHD screening is likely to be considered cost-effective from the healthcare sector perspective. Newly available estimates of avoided infant CCHD deaths in several US states that implemented mandatory CCHD screening policies during 2011-2013 suggest a substantially larger reduction in deaths than was projected in the previous US cost-effectiveness analysis. Taking into account these new estimates, we estimate that cost per life-year gained could be as low as USD 12,000. However, that estimate does not take into account future costs of health care and education for surviving children with CCHD nor the costs incurred by health departments to support and monitor CCHD screening policies and programs.

9.
Matern Child Health J ; 20(7): 1526-38, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26987859

RESUMO

Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p < 0.05) and gestational age (1.64 days, p < 0.01), as well as reductions in very low birthweight (-0.4 %, p < 0.05) and preterm birth (-1.5 %, p < 0.01); Restrictive (workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p < 0.05). Among less restrictive regulations: Moderate (workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Mães , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
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