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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Both pediatric and adult patients with a primary immunodeficiency/immune dysregulation (PID/PIDR) diagnosis report inferior quality of life (QOL) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as compared with their healthy peers. Recognition of the negative impact on QOL and PROs provides an opportunity for clinicians to intervene with supportive measures. However, provider perceptions of PID/PIDR patients' quality of life, physical well-being, psychosocial health and neurocognition, and access to supportive resources have yet to be systematically evaluated. METHODS: We report specialty providers' perception of the QOL and psychosocial and physical well-being of their pediatric and adult patients with PID/PIDR through the utilization of an online survey assessing QOL and the impact of disease or its associated treatment on their physical well-being, mental health, social relationships, neurocognition, and work/school performance. RESULTS: Clinicians trended towards believing adult PID/PIDR patients had worse overall QOL than children with PID/PIDR. Providers additionally identified their adult patients' QOL to be more deleteriously affected by co-morbidities than their pediatric patients. Clinicians distinguished anxiety and social relationships as the psychosocial aspects most often affected by a complex immunological diagnosis in all patients. Of physical health considerations, energy, rather than mobility or pain, was perceived to be more negatively influenced by PID/PIDR in both adult and pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of these clinician perceptions can affect communication of findings with patients, as well as ongoing management, and thus, it is important to understand these fully to improve healthcare delivery to, and clinical management of, these patients.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 108-121, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204009

RESUMO

Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is life threatening with genetic, immunologic, and environmental etiologies. Approximately half of all cases remain unexplained. Recurrent ALF (RALF) in infants describes repeated episodes of severe liver injury with recovery of hepatic function between crises. We describe bi-allelic RINT1 alterations as the cause of a multisystem disorder including RALF and skeletal abnormalities. Three unrelated individuals with RALF onset ≤3 years of age have splice alterations at the same position (c.1333+1G>A or G>T) in trans with a missense (p.Ala368Thr or p.Leu370Pro) or in-frame deletion (p.Val618_Lys619del) in RINT1. ALF episodes are concomitant with fever/infection and not all individuals have complete normalization of liver function testing between episodes. Liver biopsies revealed nonspecific liver damage including fibrosis, steatosis, or mild increases in Kupffer cells. Skeletal imaging revealed abnormalities affecting the vertebrae and pelvis. Dermal fibroblasts showed splice-variant mediated skipping of exon 9 leading to an out-of-frame product and nonsense-mediated transcript decay. Fibroblasts also revealed decreased RINT1 protein, abnormal Golgi morphology, and impaired autophagic flux compared to control. RINT1 interacts with NBAS, recently implicated in RALF, and UVRAG, to facilitate Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicle transport. During nutrient depletion or infection, Golgi-to-ER transport is suppressed and autophagy is promoted through UVRAG regulation by mTOR. Aberrant autophagy has been associated with the development of similar skeletal abnormalities and also with liver disease, suggesting that disruption of these RINT1 functions may explain the liver and skeletal findings. Clarifying the pathomechanism underlying this gene-disease relationship may inform therapeutic opportunities.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057537

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies and immune dysregulatory disorders (PIDDs; now referred to as inborn errors in immunity) are rare disorders with a prevalence of 41. 4 or 50.5 per 100,000 persons (1). The incidence of malignancy in PIDD patents is the second-highest cause of death in children as well as adults, after infection, and is higher in certain PIDDs compared to others. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify reports of B cell and T cell neoplasias in PIDDs and clustered them based on their classification in the IUIS schema. As would be expected, higher susceptibility to malignancies are typically reported in patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), combined immunodeficiencies affecting cellular immunity, in particular, DNA repair defects, or in the context of impaired immune regulatory control. There is not much evidence of increased risk for cancer in patients with innate immune defects, indicating that not all types of infection or genetic susceptibility predispose equally to cancer risk. Viral infections, in particular EBV, HHV and HPV, have been shown to increase susceptibility to developing cancer, but also patients with defects in immune regulation, such as Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS), activated p110delta syndrome (APDS type 1) and IL-10 receptor deficiency among others have a higher incidence of neoplastic disease, particularly lymphomas. In fact, lymphomas account for two-thirds of all malignancies reported in PIDD patients (2), with either a combined immunodeficiency or DNA repair defect predominating as the underlying immune defect in one registry, or antibody deficiencies in another (3). The vast majority of lymphomas reported in the context of PIDDs are B cell lymphomas, though T cell lymphomas have been reported in a few studies, and tend to largely be associated with chromosomal breakage disorders (4) or Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia (5). There appears to be a much higher prevalence of T cell lymphomas in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies (6), though this could reflect treatment bias. We reviewed the literature and summarized the reports of B and T cell lymphoma in PIDD patients to survey the current state of knowledge in this area.

6.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(5): 460-466, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990878

RESUMO

Pathogenic hemizygous variants in the SH2D1A gene cause X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare primary immunodeficiency usually associated with fatal Epstein-Barr virus infection. Disease onset is typically in early childhood, and the average life expectancy of affected males is ∼11 years. We describe clinical, radiographic, neuropathologic, and genetic features of a 49-year-old man presenting with central nervous system vasculitis that was reminiscent of adult primary angiitis but which was unresponsive to treatment. The patient had 2 brothers; 1 died of aplastic anemia at age 13 and another died of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in his sixties. Exome sequencing of the patient and his older brother identified a novel hemizygous variant in SH2D1A (c.35G>T, p.Ser12Ile), which encodes the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). Molecular modeling and functional analysis showed that this variant had decreased protein stability, similar to other pathogenic missense variants in SH2D1A. The family described in this report highlights the broadly heterogeneous clinical presentations of XLP and the accompanying diagnostic challenges in individuals presenting in adulthood. In addition, this report raises the possibility of a biphasic distribution of XLP cases, some of which may be mistaken for age-related malignancies and autoimmune conditions.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

8.
J Asthma ; : 1-10, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma poses an increased risk for serious pneumococcal disease, but little is known about the influence of asthma status on the 23-valent serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody response. We examined differences in antibody titers between pre- and post-vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) in relation to asthma status. METHODS: Asthma status was retrospectively ascertained by the Predetermined Asthma Criteria in an existing vaccine cohort through comprehensive medical record review. Twenty-three serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody titers measured at baseline and 4-6 weeks post-vaccination were analyzed. Vaccine responses to PPSV-23 were calculated from pre- to post-vaccine titers for each of the serotypes. RESULTS: Of the 64 eligible and enrolled subjects, 18 (28%) had asthma. Controls (i.e., subjects without asthma) demonstrated a statistically significant fold change response compared to their baseline for all serotypes, while those with asthma did not mount a significant response to serotypes 7F, 22F, and 23F. The overall vaccine response as measured by fold change over baseline was lower in subjects with asthma than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer humoral immune responses to PPSV-23 as measured by fold change were more likely to be observed in subjects with asthma compared to controls. We recommend the consideration of asthma status when interpreting vaccine response for immune competence workup through larger studies. Further studies are warranted to replicate these findings.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

10.
Vaccine ; 37(10): 1350-1355, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of the responses to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax®23, PPV) has proven challenging. In addition, there are few studies documenting the longevity of these responses. METHODS: The age-specific PPV IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG2 concentrations were determined pre, 4-6 weeks and 6 years post-vaccination in the serum of Prevnar®-naïve adults using VaccZyme™ pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide ELISAs. RESULTS: The median pre-vaccination concentrations were; PPV IgM 53 U/mL (5-95% CI: 16-169 U/mL), IgA 23 U/mL (6-103 U/mL), IgG 41 mg/L (10-184 U/mL) and IgG2 18 mg/L (3-95 U/mL). 4-6 weeks post-vaccination there was a median 6-fold (5-95% CI: 2-24) increase in PPV IgM (median 315 U/mL (5-95% CI: 60-1133 U/mL), 18-fold (4-74) increase in IgA (369 U/mL (78-1802 U/mL)), 9-fold (2-19) increase in IgG (375 mg/L (77-1238 mg/L)) and 8-fold (1-20) increase in IgG2 (141 mg/L (25-573 mg/L)). This was significant for all isotypes in all age ranges (p < 0.0001). Six years post-vaccination median PPV concentrations were; IgM 54 U/mL (17-128), IgA 85 U/mL (19-279), IgG 148 mg/L (30-997) and IgG2 57 mg/L (9-437). The median concentrations for all ages 6 years post-vaccination were significantly elevated compared to the pre-vaccination titres for PPV IgA, IgG and IgG2 isotypes only. The PPV IgM and IgA responses were influenced by age. At 6 years post vaccination, in individuals with normal PPV IgG, 34 individuals had PPV IgM and/or IgA concentrations below the lower limit of the healthy adult ranges. We also used the healthy adult reference ranges developed in this study to assess a cohort of primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients. CONCLUSION: These ranges will help to provide a framework for assessment and definition of normal response to PPV, which will facilitate clinical interpretation of a deficient polysaccharide response in those suspected of antibody deficiency.

11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(10): 1351-1362, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical utility of a 9-analyte complement serology panel (COMS) covering complement function (CH50 and AH50), components (C3, C4), factor B (CFB), factor H, and activation markers (C4d, Bb, and soluble membrane attack complex) for the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). METHODS: Physician orders for COMS from January 19, 2015, through November 4, 2016, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, patient diagnosis, and laboratory parameters were recorded. RESULTS: There were 177 COMS orders for 147 patients. The median patient age was 44.9 years (range, 0.9-88.0 years). Common reasons for ordering COMS included monitoring and diagnosis of C3 glomerulopathy and renal dysfunction and differentiation of aHUS from other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs). Forty-four patients had COMS ordered for TMAs: 8 had aHUS and all had 1 or more abnormalities within the alternative pathway of complement. Although the sensitivity of this finding for the diagnosis of aHUS is 100%, the specificity is only 28%, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Patients with aHUS had lower CH50, C3, and CFB than did those with secondary non-aHUS TMA (all P<.01). A combined CFB of 20.9 mg/dL or less and CH50 of 56% or less led to sensitivity of 75% with increased specificity of 88.9% and a diagnostic odds ratio of 24. CONCLUSION: A COMS abnormality should not be interpreted in isolation. In conjunction with clinical presentation, a decrease in both CFB and CH50 may be an important clue to support the diagnosis of aHUS.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 128(12): 5222-5234, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179220

RESUMO

The mechanisms that drive T cell aging are not understood. We report that children and adult telomerase mutation carriers with short telomere length (TL) develop a T cell immunodeficiency that can manifest in the absence of bone marrow failure and causes life-threatening opportunistic infections. Mutation carriers shared T cell-aging phenotypes seen in adults 5 decades older, including depleted naive T cells, increased apoptosis, and restricted T cell repertoire. T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) were also undetectable or low, suggesting that newborn screening may identify individuals with germline telomere maintenance defects. Telomerase-null mice with short TL showed defects throughout T cell development, including increased apoptosis of stimulated thymocytes, their intrathymic precursors, in addition to depleted hematopoietic reserves. When we examined the transcriptional programs of T cells from telomerase mutation carriers, we found they diverged from older adults with normal TL. Short telomere T cells upregulated DNA damage and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, while older adult T cells upregulated extrinsic apoptosis pathways and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression. T cells from mice with short TL also showed an active DNA-damage response, in contrast with old WT mice, despite their shared propensity to apoptosis. Our data suggest there are TL-dependent and TL-independent mechanisms that differentially contribute to distinct molecular programs of T cell apoptosis with aging.

13.
Transplantation ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT) requires a functional immune system. We assessed the association between quantitation and function of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells and CMV infection in SOT recipients. METHODS: During a 10-year period, selected kidney, heart, lung, pancreas, liver and composite tissue recipients were tested for CMV-specific CD8+ T cells immune competence (CMV-CD8+), as measured by enumeration, interferon-gamma production and CD107a/b degranulation. Quantitative and functional data were used to assemble T cell immune competence (TIC) score. CMV infection was diagnosed by PCR in blood and other samples, or histopathology. RESULTS: Of 130 patients tested, 59 had CMV infection or disease. The median onset to CMV infection was 10.5 months (IQR 5.5-18.7). Gastrointestinal disease (28.8%), pneumonia (20.3%), and CMV syndrome (17%) were most common presentation. An impaired nonspecific or CMV-CD8+ TIC score was associated with tissue-invasive disease (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.03-11.81; p=.04). Patients with impaired CMV-CD8+ TIC score had longer viremia duration (42.4 vs. 18.8 days, p<.001). Patients with impaired nonspecific or CMV-CD8+ TIC score had higher risk of relapse (68.8% vs. 27.9%; HR 2.56, 95 % CI 1.09-5.89; p=0.03). Patients with CMV infection or disease had lower median absolute lymphocyte count (380 [IQR 240-540] vs. 940 [IQR 551-1210] cells/mm, p<.0001) and CD4+ T cell count (29 cells/mm [IQR 1.3-116.0] vs. 325.5 cells/mm [IQR 151.5-589.8], p<.0001). CONCLUSION: Nonspecific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cell function correlated with the course of CMV after SOT, and measuring these has the potential to assist in its clinical management.

14.
Blood Adv ; 2(15): 1828-1832, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061307

RESUMO

DNA ligase 4 deficiency (LIG4-SCID) causes lymphopenia (T-B-NK+) and a radiosensitive SCID (RS-SCID) phenotype. We demonstrate, for the first time, flow cytometric-based kinetic analysis of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) in lymphocyte subsets, especially NK cells, for the assessment of LIG4-SCID. Measurement of phosphorylated (p) ATM, SMC1, and H2AX (γH2AX) was performed by flow cytometry to assess DNA repair defects in a 3-year-old girl. Functional assessment (phosphorylation) was measured in T and NK cells (B cells were absent) before irradiation (background control) or after low-dose (2Gy) irradiation (1 and 24 hours). We observed maximal γH2AX at 1 hour postirradiation, with dephosphorylation at 24 hours postirradiation in healthy control patients. The patient showed normal frequencies (percentage) of T cells and NK cells for γH2AX, but increased levels of γH2AX compared with control patients at 1 hour postirradiation. At 24 hours postirradiation, there was a lack of dephosphorylation in a substantial proportion of lymphocytes (with differences observed between T and NK cells) compared with healthy control patients. Although there was dephosphorylation of γH2AX at 24 hours in patient lymphocytes compared with 1 hour, the amount remained elevated at 24 hours compared with in control patients. The data from pATM and pSMC1 were uninformative. Flow-based kinetic analysis of γH2AX is a useful marker for the diagnosis of LIG4-SCID.

15.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 40-44, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145329

RESUMO

B cell activation by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligands is dependent on STAT3 and is important for optimal antibody responses to microbial antigens. B cells from patients with common variable immune deficiency (CVID) have impaired proliferation and differentiation in response to the TLR9 ligand CpG, despite normal levels of TLR9 expression. We demonstrate that CpG-driven STAT3 phosphorylation, but not activation of NFκB and p38, is selectively impaired in B cells from CVID patients. These results suggest that defective STAT3 activation contributes to the defective TLR9 and antibody response of B cells in CVID.

16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(7): 834-839, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976374

RESUMO

Short telomere syndromes (STSs) are accelerated aging syndromes with multisystemic manifestations that present complex management challenges. In this article, we discuss a single-institution experience in diagnosing and managing patients with inherited STSs. In total, we identified 17 patients with short telomeres, defined by flow-fluorescence in-situ hybridization telomere lengths of less than first centile in granulocytes/lymphocytes OR the presence of a characteristic germline pathogenic variant in the context of a highly suggestive clinical phenotype. Genetic variations in the telomere complex were identified in 6 (35%) patients, with 4 being known pathogenic variants involving TERT (n=2), TERC (n=1), and DKC1 (n=1) genes, while 2 were variants of uncertain significance in TERT and RTEL1 genes. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) (n=12 [71%]), unexplained cytopenias (n=5 [29%]), and cirrhosis (n=2 [12%]) were most frequent clinical phenotypes at diagnosis. At median follow-up of 48 (range, 0-316) months, Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival, median (95% CI), was 182 (113, not reached) months. Treatment modalities included lung transplantation for IIP (n=5 [29%]), with 3 patients developing signs of acute cellular rejection (2, grade A2; 1, grade A1); danazol therapy for cytopenias (n=4 [24%]), with only 1 out of 4 patients showing a partial hematologic response; and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for progressive bone marrow failure (n=2), with 1 patient dying from transplant-related complications. In summary, patients with STSs present with diverse clinical manifestations and require a multidisciplinary approach to management, with organ-specific transplantation capable of providing clinical benefit.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 540-541, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781065

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in some of the author names and affiliations. The correct list of author names and affiliations is below, with the corrections in bold.

19.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 320-329, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675737

RESUMO

Genetic testing plays a critical role in diagnosis for many primary immunodeficiency diseases. The goals of this report are to outline some of the challenges that clinical immunologists face routinely in the use of genetic testing for patient care. In addition, we provide a review of the types of genetic testing used in the diagnosis of PID, including their strengths and limitations. We describe the strengths and limitations of different genetic testing approaches for specific clinical contexts that raise concern for specific PID disorders in light of the challenges reported by the clinical immunologist members of the CIS in a recent membership survey. Finally, we delineate the CIS's recommendations for the use of genetic testing in light of these issues.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 307-319, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671115

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a female infant identified by newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (NBS SCID) with T cell lymphopenia (TCL). The patient had persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with IgA deficiency, and elevated IgM. Gene sequencing for a SCID panel was uninformative. We sought to determine the cause of the immunodeficiency in this infant. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the patient and parents to identify a genetic diagnosis. Based on the WES result, we developed a novel flow cytometric panel for rapid assessment of DNA repair defects using blood samples. We also performed whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) on fibroblast RNA from the patient and father for abnormal transcript analysis. RESULTS: WES revealed a pathogenic paternally inherited indel in ATM. We used the flow panel to assess several proteins in the DNA repair pathway in lymphocyte subsets. The patient had absent phosphorylation of ATM, resulting in absent or aberrant phosphorylation of downstream proteins, including γH2AX. However, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive condition, and the abnormal functional data did not correspond with a single ATM variant. WTS revealed in-frame reciprocal fusion transcripts involving ATM and SLC35F2 indicating a chromosome 11 inversion within 11q22.3, of maternal origin. Inversion breakpoints were identified within ATM intron 16 and SLC35F2 intron 7. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel ATM-breaking chromosome 11 inversion in trans with a pathogenic indel (compound heterozygote) resulting in non-functional ATM protein, consistent with a diagnosis of AT. Utilization of several molecular and functional assays allowed successful resolution of this case.

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