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1.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e076, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432927

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of opioid analgesics prescribed by Brazilian dentists, potential regional differences and their association with socioeconomic and health-related factors. Data for all opioid prescriptions by dentists was obtained from the 2012 database of the National Controlled Substances Management System, regulated by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. The number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day for each Brazilian state were calculated as the primary outcomes. DDDs were compared by regions and Brazilian states. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient was used to determine the influence of the states' characteristics, such as the Human Development Index; poverty; education; number of dentists per 100,000 inhabitants; visit to the dentist; dental care plan; good or very good oral health; number of pharmaceutical establishments per 100,000/inhabitants; and ability to get all prescribed medications. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0. A total of 141,161 prescriptions for opioids analgesics by 36,929 dentists were recorded, corresponding to 658,855 doses of opioids dispensed in 2012. The most commonly dispensed opioids were codeine associated with paracetamol (83.2%; n = 117,493). The national DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day was 0.0093 (range: 0.0002-0.0216). DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day was positively associated to visits to dentists (rs = 0.630; P < 0.001) and inversely associated to poverty (rs = -0.624; p = 0.001). There are significant differences in opioid prescriptions in dentistry among the Brazilian states. These differences may be associated with non-clinical factors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Codeína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tramadol/uso terapêutico
2.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 341-349, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013391

RESUMO

Resumo Por meio de pesquisa qualitativa, este trabalho buscou identificar as percepções de estudantes de medicina sobre o ensino da ética na graduação. Foram entrevistados 24 alunos de universidade pública e realizada análise categorial temática, preservando o anonimato das informações por códigos. Duas categorias foram destacadas. A primeira expõe a importância da reflexão sobre a complexidade do processo ensino-aprendizagem. Nela, entrevistados relatam a desvalorização e dissociação do ensino de ética em relação à prática, ressaltando a necessidade de qualificação dos docentes. A segunda categoria apresenta sugestões, como aprofundar e exigir o conteúdo em humanidades durante todo o curso. Conclui-se que, para qualificar o ensino de ética, é preciso criar mais oportunidades de interação entre educadores e estudantes, favorecendo assim a construção do conhecimento e o reconhecimento da abrangência dos problemas identificados. Dessa forma, o processo de ensino-aprendizagem aperfeiçoaria o indivíduo ao desenvolver a dimensão ética necessária aos profissionais de saúde.


Abstract This study sought to identify the perceptions of medical students regarding the teaching of ethics in undergraduate courses. It is a qualitative approach research which interviewed 24 public university students. Thematic categorical analysis was carried out, preserving the anonymity of the information by the use of alphanumeric codes. Two categories of analysis were highlighted. The first describes perceptions regarding ethics teaching, showing that it is necessary to reflect on the complexity of the teaching-learning process. There are perceptions of devalued education, dissociated from the practice and highlighting the need for the qualification of educators. The second category presents suggestions for the teaching of ethics, among them, to deepen and demand the humanities content throughout the course. To qualify the teaching of ethics, it is necessary to provide interactive and participative moments, between educators and students, that favor the knowledge and comprehensiveness of the problems identified. Thus, the teaching-learning process leads to the improvement of the individual, by contributing to improve the ethical dimension required for health professionals.


Resumen Por medio de una investigación cualitativa, este trabajo identificó las percepciones de los estudiantes de medicina sobre la enseñanza de la ética en la carrera de grado. Se entrevistó a 24 estudiantes de una universidad pública y se realizó un análisis categorial temático, preservando el anonimato de las informaciones mediante códigos. Se destacaron dos categorías de análisis. La primera, expone la importancia de la reflexión sobre la complejidad del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje. En ella, los entrevistados relatan la desvalorización y la disociación de la enseñanza de ética en relación con la práctica, resaltando la necesidad de cualificación de los docentes. La segunda categoría analítica presenta sugerencias, como profundizar y exigir contenido de humanidades durante toda la carrera. Se concluye que, para cualificar la enseñanza de la ética, se hace necesario crear más oportunidades de interacción entre educadores y estudiantes, favoreciendo así la construcción del conocimiento y el reconocimiento del alcance de los problemas identificados. De esta forma, el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, impactaría en el perfeccionamiento del individuo al desarrollar la dimensión ética necesaria para los profesionales de salud.

3.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 27(1): 86-92, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989541

RESUMO

Introdução A definição de parâmetros assistenciais é de relevância para a execução de ações de saúde pública. Objetivo Descrever um percurso para elaboração de parâmetros de produção e de cobertura para endodontia e periodontia. Método Parâmetros de cobertura foram calculados a partir das necessidades normativas identificadas no levantamento epidemiológico de saúde bucal em Minas Gerais. Parâmetros de produção per capita foram calculados a partir das necessidades normativas, dos dados de produção do SIA/SUS e da capacidade instalada nos serviços. A análise foi desenvolvida no módulo Complex Samples do Programa SPSS. Resultados 6,2% (IC 95% 5,2%-7,3%) e 2,9% (IC 95% 2,2%-3,9%) dos indivíduos apresentavam, pelo menos, uma necessidade de tratamento endodôntico e periodontal, respectivamente. Em relação à produção, tanto a capacidade potencial de produção dos serviços especializados quanto a produção média registrada no SIA/SUS são muito inferiores às necessidades normativas globais da população. Conclusão A endodontia apresentou cobertura populacional e média de procedimentos maiores do que a periodontia. Os parâmetros de cobertura populacional podem ser utilizados para a organização dos serviços.


Background The definition of care parameters is relevant to the implementation of public health actions. Objective Describe a methodologic route for the elaboration of parameters on population coverage and production in endodontics and periodontics. Method Coverage parameters were calculated from the normative needs identified in the epidemiological survey of oral health in Minas Gerais. Production parameters were calculated based on normative requirements, SIA/SUS production data and installed capacity in the services. The analysis was developed in the Complex Samples module of the SPSS Program. Results 6.2% (95% CI 5.2%-7.3%) and 2.9% (CI 95% 2.2%-3.9%) needed endodontic and periodontal treatment, respectively. Both the potential production capacity of the specialized services and the average production recorded in the SIA/SUS were much lower than the overall normative needs of the population. Conclusion Endodontics presented a population coverage and average of procedures greater than that of periodontics. Population coverage parameters can be used to organize services.


Assuntos
Humanos
4.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1900, 02/2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-986718

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a Atenção Básica quanto aos insumos, imunobiológicos e medicamentos disponibilizados nos serviços de saúde da família de município de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de pesquisa transversal, analítica, conduzida em 2014, a partir de instrumento ministerial intitulado Autoavaliação para Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica, de equipes de saúde da família. Oito itens foram considerados, com valores entre zero a 10 pontos, da total inadequação à total adequação da Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS), ao item avaliado. Classificaram-se as unidades em padrões de qualidade "muito insatisfatório" a "muito satisfatório" e analisou-se conforme localização rural e urbana, nível de significância p<0,05. Resultados: Participaram 75 equipes, que apresentaram expressiva inadequação nos itens: UBS dispor todas as vacinas exigidas no calendário básico, 5,95 (±4,003); possuir insumos e medicamentos para abordagem inicial de urgência/emergência, 2,33 (±2,500); apresentar os medicamentos básicos com regularidade, 3,68 (±3,146). A classificação foi regular para 45,3% das unidades e insatisfatória para 29,3%, sem diferenças quanto à localização urbana ou rural (p=0,479). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se avaliação insatisfatória, com inadequações relativas às vacinas, à abordagem inicial nas situações de urgência e emergência e à disponibilidade dos medicamentos. Tal situação prejudica o elenco de ações e a resolutividade dos serviços, afetando a capacidade da equipe para atender, efetivamente, as demandas de saúde da população


Objective: To evaluate the Basic Care regarding the supplies, immunobiologicals and medicines available in the family health services of the municipality of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional, analytical research, conducted in 2014, from a ministerial instrument titled Self-Assessment for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care, of family health teams. Eight items were considered, with values between zero and 10 points, of the total inadequacy to the total adequacy of the Basic Health Unit (UBS), to the evaluated item. The units were classified in quality standards "very unsatisfactory" to "very satisfactory" and analyzed according to rural and urban locations, level of significance p<0.05. Results: 75 teams participated, which presented significant inadequacy in the items: UBS dispose of all the vaccines required in the basic calendar, 5.95 (±4.003); to have supplies and medicines for the initial emergency/emergency approach, 2.33 (±2.500); presenting the basic medicines regularly, 3.68 (±3.146). The classification was regular for 45.3% of the units and unsatisfactory to 29.3%, without differences in urban or rural locations (p=0.479). Conclusion: There was an unsatisfactory evaluation, with inadequacies related to vaccines, the initial approach in emergency and emergency situations and the availability of medicines. Such a situation undermines the list of actions and the resolution of services, affecting the capacity of the team to effectively meet the population's health demands.


Objetivo: Evaluar la Atención Básica en cuanto a los insumos, inmunobiológicos y medicamentos disponibles en los servicios de salud de la familia del municipio de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de investigación transversal, analítica, conducida en 2014, a partir de instrumento ministerial titulado Autoevaluación para la mejora del acceso y de la calidad de la atención básica, de los equipos de salud de la familia. Se consideraron ocho ítems, con valores entre cero y diez puntos, de la total inadecuación a la total adecuación de la Unidad Básica de Salud (UBS), al ítem evaluado. Se clasificaron las unidades en estándares de calidad "muy insatisfactorio" a "muy satisfactorio" y se analizó según ubicación rural y urbana, nivel de significancia p<0,05. Resultados: Participaron 75 equipos, que presentaron expresiva inadecuación en los ítems: UBS disponer todas las vacunas requeridas en el calendario básico, 5,95 (±4,003); poseer insumos y medicamentos para el enfoque inicial de urgencia/emergencia, 2,33 (±2,500); presentar los medicamentos básicos con regularidad, 3,68 (±3,146). La clasificación fue regular para el 45,3% de las unidades e insatisfactoria para el 29,3%, sin diferencias en cuanto a la ubicación urbana o rural (p=0,479). Conclusión: Se evidenció una evaluación insatisfactoria, con inadecuaciones relativas a las vacunas, al abordaje inicial en las situaciones de urgencia y emergencia y a la disponibilidad de los medicamentos. Tal situación perjudica el elenco de acciones y la resolutividad de los servicios, afectando la capacidad del equipo para atender efectivamente las demandas de salud de la población.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Insumos Farmacêuticos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
5.
Braz Dent J ; 29(5): 500-506, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517450

RESUMO

This study describes the structure of oral health services in primary health care in Brazil and the instruments available for the provision of oral health care and to compare the number of instruments according to organizational characteristics of health services and among the macroregions. Of the 23,251 oral health teams (OHTs) in the Public Health System, 17,513 (75.3%) participated in this study. Trained researchers observed the structures of the health services and determined the presence of and whether a sufficient quantity of 36 dental instruments existed. The score of each oral health service was determined by the sum of the number of dental instruments present in sufficient quantity (0 to 36). Central tendency measures were compared along with the variability in these scores according to the organizational characteristics of the services and according to the Brazilian macroregion. No instrument was found to be present in all evaluated services. Basic, surgical and restorative instruments were the most frequently found. Periodontal, endodontic and prosthetic instruments exhibited the lowest percentages. The mean and median numbers of dental instruments were higher for teams that operated over more shifts, those with an oral health technician and those in the South and Southeast regions. The oral health services were equipped with basic, surgical and restorative instruments. Instruments designed for periodontal diagnosis, emergency care and denture rehabilitation were less frequently found in these services. The worst infrastructure conditions existed in the OHTs with the worst forms of care organization and in regions with greater social issues.

6.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 500-506, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974178

RESUMO

Abstract This study describes the structure of oral health services in primary health care in Brazil and the instruments available for the provision of oral health care and to compare the number of instruments according to organizational characteristics of health services and among the macroregions. Of the 23,251 oral health teams (OHTs) in the Public Health System, 17,513 (75.3%) participated in this study. Trained researchers observed the structures of the health services and determined the presence of and whether a sufficient quantity of 36 dental instruments existed. The score of each oral health service was determined by the sum of the number of dental instruments present in sufficient quantity (0 to 36). Central tendency measures were compared along with the variability in these scores according to the organizational characteristics of the services and according to the Brazilian macroregion. No instrument was found to be present in all evaluated services. Basic, surgical and restorative instruments were the most frequently found. Periodontal, endodontic and prosthetic instruments exhibited the lowest percentages. The mean and median numbers of dental instruments were higher for teams that operated over more shifts, those with an oral health technician and those in the South and Southeast regions. The oral health services were equipped with basic, surgical and restorative instruments. Instruments designed for periodontal diagnosis, emergency care and denture rehabilitation were less frequently found in these services. The worst infrastructure conditions existed in the OHTs with the worst forms of care organization and in regions with greater social issues.


Resumo Este estudo descreve a estrutura dos serviços de saúde bucal na atenção primária em saúde no Brasil e os instrumentos disponíveis para a assistência à saúde bucal e compara o número de instrumentais de acordo com as características organizacionais dos serviços de saúde e entre as macrorregiões. Das 23.251 equipes de saúde bucal (ESB) no Sistema Único de Saúde, 17.513 (75,3%) participaram deste estudo. Pesquisadores treinados observaram a estrutura dos serviços de saúde e determinaram a presença e a existência de uma quantidade suficiente de 36 instrumentais odontológicos. A pontuação de cada serviço de saúde bucal foi determinada pela soma do número de instrumentos dentários presentes em quantidade suficiente (0 a 36). As medidas de tendência central e de variabilidade desse escore foram comparadas com as características organizacionais dos serviços e de acordo com a macrorregião brasileira. Nenhum instrumental foi encontrado em todos os serviços avaliados. Os instrumentos básicos, cirúrgicos e restauradores foram os mais frequentemente encontrados. Os instrumentos periodontais, endodônticos e para realização de prótese exibiram as percentagens mais baixas. O número médio e mediano de instrumentos dentários foi maior para as equipes que operavam em mais turnos, aqueles com um técnico em saúde bucal e aqueles nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. Os serviços de saúde bucal estavam equipados com instrumentos básicos, cirúrgicos e restauradores. Os instrumentos indicados para diagnóstico periodontal, cuidados de emergência e reabilitação com próteses dentárias foram menos frequentemente encontrados nesses serviços. As piores condições de infra-estrutura existiam nos ESB com as piores formas de organização de cuidados e em regiões com maiores problemas sociais.

7.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e89, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110087

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and discriminate the associated factors between enamel fractures and other trauma/trauma sequelae in 8 to 10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. A representative sample of 1,201 children from public and private schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics were answered by parents. The outcome variable (traumatic dental injury, TDI) was multi-categorized. Independent individual variables were sex, age, number of residents in household, parents/caregivers' level of education, family income, dental caries, and overjet. Type of school was considered an independent contextual variable. Multilevel analysis, bivariate, and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of TDI was 14.0% (2.8% with other trauma/trauma sequelae). The multilevel analysis revealed no significant difference between the type of school and TDI. The multinomial logistic regression showed that boys (OR = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.8), older children (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and individuals with an overjet > 3 mm (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.0-6.2) were more likely to present other trauma/trauma sequelae. Enamel fracture was not significantly associated with any variables. The prevalence of TDI in 8 to 10-year-old schoolchildren was 14% but only 2.8% of other trauma/trauma sequelae. Differences regarding the associated factors of TDI involving enamel fracture or other trauma/trauma sequelae were detected, suggesting that the different TDI classification cannot be evaluated as a single category.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/lesões , Fraturas dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Fraturas dos Dentes/etiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e54, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898022

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is an insidious and increasingly prevalent disease that can cause fractures and affect patients' quality of life. The current study comparatively evaluates patients with and without loss of bone mass in terms of salivary calcium, viscosity, and pH. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups of 32 postmenopausal women subjected to a bone densitometry scan and later referred for dental management at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The patients were assigned to two groups: Group 1 - patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) and Group 2 - patients without bone mineral changes. The following salivary parameters were evaluated: calcium concentration, flow rate, viscosity, pH, and average total protein. An oral examination was performed for assessment of DMFT variables and tongue coating. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting a p-value < 0.05. The patients' mean age was 60 years (± 7.35). Salivary flow, pH, and viscosity were similar among the groups. Average total protein was 14.8 mg/mL and 19.0 mg/mL in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Tongue coating and salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). Salivary calcium is an important screening tool and may eventually be used for the diagnosis of bone mineral changes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Saúde Bucal , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Saliva/química , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas/análise , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Língua/fisiopatologia , Viscosidade
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e54, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952137

RESUMO

Abstract Osteoporosis is an insidious and increasingly prevalent disease that can cause fractures and affect patients' quality of life. The current study comparatively evaluates patients with and without loss of bone mass in terms of salivary calcium, viscosity, and pH. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups of 32 postmenopausal women subjected to a bone densitometry scan and later referred for dental management at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The patients were assigned to two groups: Group 1 - patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) and Group 2 - patients without bone mineral changes. The following salivary parameters were evaluated: calcium concentration, flow rate, viscosity, pH, and average total protein. An oral examination was performed for assessment of DMFT variables and tongue coating. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting a p-value < 0.05. The patients' mean age was 60 years (± 7.35). Salivary flow, pH, and viscosity were similar among the groups. Average total protein was 14.8 mg/mL and 19.0 mg/mL in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Tongue coating and salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). Salivary calcium is an important screening tool and may eventually be used for the diagnosis of bone mineral changes.

10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e89, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952166

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and discriminate the associated factors between enamel fractures and other trauma/trauma sequelae in 8 to 10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. A representative sample of 1,201 children from public and private schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics were answered by parents. The outcome variable (traumatic dental injury, TDI) was multi-categorized. Independent individual variables were sex, age, number of residents in household, parents/caregivers' level of education, family income, dental caries, and overjet. Type of school was considered an independent contextual variable. Multilevel analysis, bivariate, and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of TDI was 14.0% (2.8% with other trauma/trauma sequelae). The multilevel analysis revealed no significant difference between the type of school and TDI. The multinomial logistic regression showed that boys (OR = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.8), older children (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and individuals with an overjet > 3 mm (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.0-6.2) were more likely to present other trauma/trauma sequelae. Enamel fracture was not significantly associated with any variables. The prevalence of TDI in 8 to 10-year-old schoolchildren was 14% but only 2.8% of other trauma/trauma sequelae. Differences regarding the associated factors of TDI involving enamel fracture or other trauma/trauma sequelae were detected, suggesting that the different TDI classification cannot be evaluated as a single category.

11.
Arq. odontol ; 54: 1-8, jan.-dez. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-948848

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre hábitos alimentares e de higiene bucal de crianças de 2 a 14 anos e nível de escolaridade dos pais/responsáveis. Métodos: Este estudo transversal foi realizado com uma amostra de conveniência de 214 pais/responsáveis por crianças, selecionadas em cinco escolas públicas de Belo Horizonte, sudeste do Brasil. Um formulário preenchido pelos pais/responsáveis forneceu informações sobre seu nível de escolaridade e sobre hábitos dietéticos e de higiene bucal das suas crianças. A amostra foi estratificada em dois grupos: pais/ responsáveis de crianças de 2 a 6 anos (n=119; 55,6%) e de 7 a 14 anos (n=95; 44,4%). O estudo recebeu aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A análise dos dados foi realizada pelo teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Teste Exato de Fisher (p < 0,05). Resultados: Maior nível educacional dos pais e responsáveis foi associado ao consumo de leite pelas crianças de 7 a 14 anos (OR=6,37; 95% IC: 2,27-17,88; p < 0,001) e inversamente relacionada ao consumo de balas na faixa etária de 2 a 6 anos (OR=0,26; 95% IC: 0,11-0,58, p < 0,001) e chicletes nos dois grupos (2 a 6 anos, p <0,001 e 7 a 14 anos p=0,014). A educação parental mais alta foi associada ao maior uso de pasta de dente infantil pelas crianças de 2 a 6 anos (OR=3,32; 95% IC: 1,52-7,24; p = 0,002), a uma frequência maior de escovação nas crianças de 2 a 6 anos (OR=4,26; 95% IC:1,50-12,08; p = 0,004) e ao uso de fio dental na faixa etária de 7 a 14 anos (OR=3,10; 95% IC:1,27-7,58; p = 0,011). Conclusões: O maior nível de escolaridade dos pais/responsáveis foi associado a hábitos alimentares mais saudáveis e melhores práticas de higiene bucal de suas crianças.(AU)


Aim: To investigate the association between eating and oral hygiene habits of 2 to 14-year-old children and the parent's/guardian's level of education. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 214 parents/guardians of children, selected from five public schools in Belo Horizonte, in the southeastern region of Brazil. A questionnaire completed by the parents/guardians collected information about their educational level and about their children's eating and oral hygiene habits. The sample was stratified into two groups: parents/ guardians of children from 2 to 6 years old (n=119, 55.6%) and from 7 to 14 years old (n=95, 44.44%). The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson chi-square test and Fisher's Exact Test (p < 0.05). Results: Higher parental education was associated with children's milk consumption in the 7 to 14-year-old group (OR=6.37; 95% CI: 2.27-17.88; p < 0,001) and was inversely related to the consumption of candies from 2 to 6-year-old children (OR=0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; p < 0.001) and chewing gum in both groups (2 to 6 year olds, p < 0.001 and 7 to 14 year olds, p = 0.014). The highest parental education was associated with the use of children's toothpaste by 2 to 6-year-old children (OR=3.32; 95% CI: 1.52-7.24; p = 0.002) and higher tooth brushing frequency (OR=4.26; 95% CI: 1.50-12.08; p = 0.004) and dental floss usage in the group of 7 to 14-year-old children. Conclusions: The higher educational level of the parents/guardians was related to healthier food choices and better oral hygiene habits.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Higiene Bucal , Pais , Consumo de Alimentos , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudos Transversais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Braz Dent J ; 28(5): 638-646, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215691

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to assess comprehensiveness of care from dentists using a combination of classical test theory and item response theory. A 46-item instrument was developed and tested by a panel of experts, followed by a pilot test and administration to 187 primary care dentists in a large Brazilian city. The 46 items were evaluated using the following criteria: acceptability, internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-item correlation, and tetrachoric correlation. This evaluation led to a shortened version consisting of 11 items that met all the criteria previously described. The temporal stability was measured using Cohen's kappa, and all 11 items presented values greater than 0.5. The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.72. None of the 11 items had missing data on the distribution of responses, and the model considering the discrimination as varying fit the data better than the model considering discrimination as a constant parameter (p<0.001). Item characteristic curves showed that 54.5% of items could be considered difficult, i.e., only dentists with a good understanding of comprehensiveness responded favorably. The 11-item instrument to assess comprehensiveness of care by dentists is considered to have good psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Odontólogos , Psicometria , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(11): e00072416, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166477

RESUMO

International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3%) dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.


Assuntos
Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Esterilização
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(11): e00072416, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889612

RESUMO

International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3%) dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.


As diretrizes internacionais destacam a importância do ambiente físico dos serviços de saúde para prevenir e controlar as infecções. Procuramos descrever o ambiente físico em serviços de saúde bucal no Brasil em 2014, com enfoque nas características programadas para controlar as infecções. Precisamente 16.202 consultórios odontológicos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) participaram na pesquisa. Pesquisadores treinados coletaram informações sobre as características do controle de infecções nesses serviços de saúde, utilizando um instrumento padronizado. Utilizamos dados de 12 perguntas dicotômicas que avaliavam as condições das paredes, piso, pia e torneira e a presença e as condições do equipamento de esterilização. Calculamos um escore pela soma do número de características administradas adequadamente para o controle de infecções, variando de 0 a 12. Foram desenvolvidas análises hierárquicas de clusters. Nenhum dos 12 critérios foi atendido por todas as equipes de saúde bucal. Apenas 208 (1,3%) dos consultórios odontológicos realizavam todas as 12 práticas de controle de infecções. Foram identificados dois clusters com distintas frequências de estruturas para controle de infecções nos consultórios odontológicos. As regiões Sul e Sudeste mostraram as maiores frequências no Cluster 1, com melhor estrutura de controle de infecções nos consultórios odontológicos. De maneira geral os serviços de saúde bucal não atendiam as diretrizes para o controle de infecções, referentes à planta física e equipamento dos consultórios. A aderência às diretrizes variava de acordo com a região do país.


Las directrices internacionales destacan la importancia del ambiente físico de los servicios de salud para prevenir y controlar infecciones. Procuramos describir el ambiente físico en servicios de salud bucal en Brasil en 2014, centrándonos en las características programadas para controlar las infecciones. Precisamente 16.202 consultorios odontológicos del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) participaron en la investigación. Investigadores entrenados recogieron información sobre las características del control de infecciones en esos servicios de salud, utilizando un instrumento estandarizado. Utilizamos los datos procedentes de 12 preguntas dicotómicas que evaluaban las condiciones de las paredes, suelo, fregadero y grifo, además de la existencia y condiciones del equipamiento de esterilización. Calculamos una puntuación para la suma del número de características administradas adecuadamente para el control de infecciones, variando de 0 a 12. Se desarrollaron análisis jerárquicos de clúster. Ninguno de los 12 criterios fue observado por todos los equipos de salud bucal. Solamente 208 (1,3%) de los consultorios odontológicos realizaban las 12 prácticas de control de infecciones al completo. Se identificaron dos clústeres con distintas frecuencias de estructuras para el control de infecciones en los consultorios odontológicos. Las regiones Sur y Sudeste mostraron las mayores frecuencias en el Clúster 1, con una mejor estructura de control de infecciones en los consultorios odontológicos. De manera general, los servicios de salud bucal no atendían a las directrices para el control de infecciones, referentes a las instalaciones físicas y equipamiento de los consultorios. La adherencia a las directrices variaba de acuerdo con la región del país.

15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(11): e00072416, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889626

RESUMO

International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3%) dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.


As diretrizes internacionais destacam a importância do ambiente físico dos serviços de saúde para prevenir e controlar as infecções. Procuramos descrever o ambiente físico em serviços de saúde bucal no Brasil em 2014, com enfoque nas características programadas para controlar as infecções. Precisamente 16.202 consultórios odontológicos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) participaram na pesquisa. Pesquisadores treinados coletaram informações sobre as características do controle de infecções nesses serviços de saúde, utilizando um instrumento padronizado. Utilizamos dados de 12 perguntas dicotômicas que avaliavam as condições das paredes, piso, pia e torneira e a presença e as condições do equipamento de esterilização. Calculamos um escore pela soma do número de características administradas adequadamente para o controle de infecções, variando de 0 a 12. Foram desenvolvidas análises hierárquicas de clusters. Nenhum dos 12 critérios foi atendido por todas as equipes de saúde bucal. Apenas 208 (1,3%) dos consultórios odontológicos realizavam todas as 12 práticas de controle de infecções. Foram identificados dois clusters com distintas frequências de estruturas para controle de infecções nos consultórios odontológicos. As regiões Sul e Sudeste mostraram as maiores frequências no Cluster 1, com melhor estrutura de controle de infecções nos consultórios odontológicos. De maneira geral os serviços de saúde bucal não atendiam as diretrizes para o controle de infecções, referentes à planta física e equipamento dos consultórios. A aderência às diretrizes variava de acordo com a região do país.


Las directrices internacionales destacan la importancia del ambiente físico de los servicios de salud para prevenir y controlar infecciones. Procuramos describir el ambiente físico en servicios de salud bucal en Brasil en 2014, centrándonos en las características programadas para controlar las infecciones. Precisamente 16.202 consultorios odontológicos del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) participaron en la investigación. Investigadores entrenados recogieron información sobre las características del control de infecciones en esos servicios de salud, utilizando un instrumento estandarizado. Utilizamos los datos procedentes de 12 preguntas dicotómicas que evaluaban las condiciones de las paredes, suelo, fregadero y grifo, además de la existencia y condiciones del equipamiento de esterilización. Calculamos una puntuación para la suma del número de características administradas adecuadamente para el control de infecciones, variando de 0 a 12. Se desarrollaron análisis jerárquicos de clúster. Ninguno de los 12 criterios fue observado por todos los equipos de salud bucal. Solamente 208 (1,3%) de los consultorios odontológicos realizaban las 12 prácticas de control de infecciones al completo. Se identificaron dos clústeres con distintas frecuencias de estructuras para el control de infecciones en los consultorios odontológicos. Las regiones Sur y Sudeste mostraron las mayores frecuencias en el Clúster 1, con una mejor estructura de control de infecciones en los consultorios odontológicos. De manera general, los servicios de salud bucal no atendían a las directrices para el control de infecciones, referentes a las instalaciones físicas y equipamiento de los consultorios. La adherencia a las directrices variaba de acuerdo con la región del país.

16.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(5): 638-646, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888692

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to assess comprehensiveness of care from dentists using a combination of classical test theory and item response theory. A 46-item instrument was developed and tested by a panel of experts, followed by a pilot test and administration to 187 primary care dentists in a large Brazilian city. The 46 items were evaluated using the following criteria: acceptability, internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-item correlation, and tetrachoric correlation. This evaluation led to a shortened version consisting of 11 items that met all the criteria previously described. The temporal stability was measured using Cohen's kappa, and all 11 items presented values greater than 0.5. The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.72. None of the 11 items had missing data on the distribution of responses, and the model considering the discrimination as varying fit the data better than the model considering discrimination as a constant parameter (p<0.001). Item characteristic curves showed that 54.5% of items could be considered difficult, i.e., only dentists with a good understanding of comprehensiveness responded favorably. The 11-item instrument to assess comprehensiveness of care by dentists is considered to have good psychometric properties.


Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar as propriedades psicométricas de um instrumento para avaliar a integralidade do cuidado por dentistas, usando uma combinação da teoria clássica e teoria da resposta ao item. Um instrumento com 46 itens foi desenvolvido e testado por um painel de experts, seguido por um teste piloto e aplicação em 187 dentistas da atenção primária de uma grande cidade brasileira. Os seguintes critérios foram utilizados para avaliar os 46 itens: aceitabilidade, consistência interna, estabilidade temporal, correlação inter-item e correlação tetracórica. Essa avaliação resultou em uma versão reduzida de 11 itens que preencheram todos os critérios descritos acima. A estabilidade temporal foi medida utilizando o Cohen Kappa. Os 11 itens apresentaram valores maiores que 0,5. O alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,72. Nenhum dos 11 itens apresentou perda na distribuição das respostas, e o modelo que considera a discriminação como variante se adequa melhor aos dados do que o modelo que considera a discriminação como um parâmetro constante (p <0,001). Curvas características mostraram que 54,5% dos itens pode ser considerado difícil, ou seja, apenas os dentistas com uma boa compreensão da integralidade respondeu favoravelmente. O instrumento de 11 itens para avaliar a integralidade do cuidado por dentistas é considerado como tendo boas propriedades psicométricas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Odontólogos , Psicometria , Brasil
17.
J Public Health Dent ; 77(4): 317-324, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Item response theory (IRT) is a method used to design, analyze, and score tests, questionnaires, and similar instruments measuring abilities, attitudes, or other variables. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of dental care questions in the "Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade da Atenção Básica-PMAQ-AB," Brazil, using IRT. METHODS: Dentists in primary health care units in Brazil (n = 12,403) were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The questions were primarily dichotomous, with a no answer/do not know option. The items about dental care from a Brazilian national evaluation survey were analyzed using the IRT model (20 items). Oral health teams (OHTs) received scores that varied from the lowest performance level to the highest performance level. Scores for the Brazilian states and the Federal District were calculated to evaluate the regional distribution of OHT performance. RESULTS: The questions about dental care exhibited higher discrimination power for OHTs with below average performance. In general, the teams, including those with low performance, performed the actions, and procedures included in the questionnaire. Actions such as making prostheses and tracking and monitoring oral cancer cases characterized the high-performing teams. The performance of the teams distributed throughout the Brazilian states indicated that OHTs in the south and southeast performed better than OHTs in the rest of the country. CONCLUSIONS: Although the analyzed items are insufficient to determine the performance of OHTs, the items related to prosthesis and oral cancer tend to discriminate high-performing OHTs from other OHTs.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 17(1): e3668, 13/01/2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-914452

RESUMO

Objective: To describe and group some demographic and healthcare characteristics of hospital dental care for the special health care needs population. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional census survey with a total of 1,063 visits with special health care need patients under general anesthesia or sedation at the Brazilian Health System Minas Gerais, Brazil, over 12 months. Clinical diagnosis was divided into "mental and behavioral disorders and diseases of the nervous system" and "others". Age group, gender, clinical diagnosis and care by a general dentist were submitted to descriptive and multivariate cluster analysis. The analysis was performed using the software SPSS version 19.0. Results: Cluster 1 (N=173) had no ICD codes for nervous system (NS) diseases and mental and behavioral disorders. Clusters 2 (N=564) and 3 (N=326) are quite similar except for gender distribution. Cluster 1 was 3.5 times more frequent among non-host cities than HER host cities. Dental treatment was mostly performed on males diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders and diseases of the NS who were over the age of 25 years and were seen by general dentists. The clusters were distributed unevenly between EHR host and non-host cities. Conclusion: Non-host performed more frequently treatment for patients with no mental and behavioral disorders and diseases of the NS than EHR host cities.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Pessoas com Deficiências , Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Anestesia Geral , Brasil , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Sistema Único de Saúde
19.
Arq. odontol ; 53: 1-9, jan.-dez. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-906443

RESUMO

Objetivo: Este estudo objetiva realizar uma revisão de literatura que relata o uso de analgésicos opioides e sua eficácia após extração de terceiros molares, comparando-os com outros tipos de fármacos. Métodos: Foi realizada a busca de artigos na base PubMed, de 2006 a 2016, resultando em um total de 131 artigos. Desses, foram excluídos 122 artigos que não relatavam o uso de opioides, que não eram da área da Odontologia, ou que não relataram o uso de opioides após extração de terceiros molares. Artigos de revisão de literatura ou que não eram comparativos também foram excluídos. Com isso, 9 artigos foram considerados e incorporados à revisão. Resultados: Esta revisão identificou alguns ensaios clínicos que compararam a utilização de analgésicos opioides com outras opções medicamentosas. Dos ensaios que compararam analgésicos opioides com outro AINES (N=3), sem associações medicamentosas, observou-se que os AINES apresentam maior eficácia, ou, no caso de analgesia preemptiva, tiveram o mesmo efeito. Os estudos que compararam associação de analgésicos opioides com AINES (N=4) revelaram que a associação é mais benéfica do que o uso isolado dos opioides. Um único estudo que testou a associação entre opioide e corticosteroide relevou que essa associação é mais eficaz do que a associação entre opioide e AINE. Um único estudo testou a associação entre opioide e paracetamol com AINES concluiu que a eficácia foi semelhante entre os grupos. Conclusão: Analgésicos opioides são, geralmente, menos eficazes que AINES no controle da dor após a extração de terceiros molares. Sua associação com AINES está indicada em algumas situações clínicas. O uso de opioides como primeira escolha parece estar restrito a pacientes com contraindicação ao uso dos AINES. (AU)


Aim: This study aims to perform a literature review that reports on the use of opioid analgesics and their efficacy after extracting third molars, comparing them with other types of drugs. Methods: The search of articles in the PubMed database was carried out from 2006 to 2016, resulting in a total of 131 articles. Of these, 122 articles that did not report the use of opioids that were not from the Dentistry area, or that did not report the use of opioids after the extraction of third molars, were excluded. Literature reviews or non-comparative articles were also excluded. Thus, 9 articles were considered and incorporated into the review. Results: This review identified some clinical trials comparing the use of opioid analgesics with other drug options. From the trials comparing opioid analgesics with other NSAIDs (N = 3), with no drug combinations, NSAIDs proved to be more effective or, in the case of preemptive analgesia, had the same effect. Studies comparing the association of opioid analgesics with NSAIDs (N = 4) have shown that the association is more beneficial than the use of opioids alone. A single study that tested the association between opioids and corticosteroids has shown that this association is more effective than the association between opioids and NSAIDs. One study, which tested the association between opioids and paracetamol with NSAIDs concluded that the efficacy was similar between groups. Conclusion: Opioid analgesics are generally less effective than NSAIDs in controlling pain after the extraction of third molars. Its association with NSAIDs is recommended in some clinical situations. The use of opioids as the first choice seems to be restricted to patients with a contraindication to the use of NSAIDs.(AU)


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios , Dente Serotino , Cirurgia Bucal , Extração Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento , Revisão
20.
Arq. odontol ; 52(3): 160-164, jul.-set. 2016. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-832134

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a tendência histórica de extrações dentárias no Estado de Minas Gerais entre os anos de 1998 e 2012. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de série temporal de exodontias de dentes permanentes no Estado de Minas Gerais, tendo sido os dados coletados no Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do Sistema Único de Saúde em 2013. Duas taxas de exodontias foram calculadas, ano a ano. A primeira refere-se à razão entre número total de exodontias de dentes permanentes dividida por todos os procedimentos preventivos, restauradores e cirúrgicos da atenção primária. A segunda foi a razão entre o número total de exodontias de dentes permanentes pelo número de habitantes. A análise estatística envolveu a construção de curvas de tendência histórica. Resultados: As duas taxas de exodontias comportaram-se de maneira errática no período avaliado. Houve uma ligeira tendência de aumento na taxa de exodontias por procedimentos da atenção primária e ligeira tendência de redução na taxa de exodontias pela população do Estado de Minas Gerais. Conclusão: As ligeiras tendências de aumento ou redução das taxas de exodontias revelam que as mesmas permaneceram constantes no período avaliado no Estado de Minas Gerais.(AU)


Aim: To evaluate the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in the state of Minas Gerais between the years 1998 and 2012. Methods: This is a timeseries study of permanent tooth extraction in the state of Minas Gerais. Data were collected in the Brazilian National Health Information System in 2013. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated. The first was the ratio of the extractions of permanent teeth in relation to the total number of individual dental procedures in primary care. The second was the ratio of the number of extractions of permanent teeth divided by the total population. The statistical analysis of the time series was performed. Results: The two extractions rates behaved erratically during the study period. There was a slight tendency to increase in tooth extraction rate via primary care procedures and slight downward trend in tooth extraction rate in Minas Gerais state population. Conclusions: The slightly tendency in increase or decrease of the tooth extraction rates reveal that they remained constant in this period in the state of Minas Gerais.(AU)


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Cirurgia Bucal , Sistema Único de Saúde , Análise Estatística , Estudos de Séries Temporais
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