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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 145-148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407075

RESUMO

Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) is related to unfavorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There lacks a clear understanding how the DCI load affects cognitive function after SAH. We conducted a literature review on the clinical classification systems on brain hemorrhages and cerebral infarction and devised a Delayed Cerebral Infarction Load Scoring System (DCI Score). DCI Score significantly correlated with Symbol Digit Modalities Test (-0.334, p = 0.032), Color Trail Test (-0.310, p = 0.032), Hong Kong List Learning Test (-0.318, p = 0.036), Verbal Digit Span Forward (-0.382, p = 0.017), and Visual Digit Span Backward (-0.425, p = 0.012). In conclusion, higher DCI load impacted significantly on memory and executive function. DCI Score is a useful system for clinical quantification of DCI load and clinical research.

2.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119025732, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409268

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, identifying the underlying stroke mechanisms may inform secondary prevention. We aimed to propose reproducible classification criteria for stroke mechanisms based on routine neuroimaging in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and explore their clinical implications. Methods- We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50% to 99% intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in anterior circulation from 2 centers. Two investigators independently classified probable stroke mechanisms as parent artery atherosclerosis occluding penetrating artery, artery-to-artery embolism, hypoperfusion, and mixed mechanisms, with prespecified criteria based on infarct topography and magnetic resonance/computed tomography angiography. These stroke mechanisms were correlated with features of the patients at baseline and recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory or relevant transient ischemic attack within 1 year. Results- Among 153 patients recruited, the most common stroke mechanisms were isolated hypoperfusion (35.3%) and mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion (37.3%) that was associated with higher incidence of dyslipidemia (P=0.045) and hypertension (P=0.033) than patients with other stroke mechanisms. The proposed criteria showed substantial to excellent intrarater and interrater reproducibilities (κ, 0.791-0.908). Overall, 31 patients received interventional treatment of the diseased intracranial artery; 122 received medical treatment, among whom a mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion at baseline was associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in the same territory within 1 year (24.4% versus 7.8%; hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.25-9.20; log-rank P=0.010) than other mechanisms combined. Conclusions- Artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion commonly coexist in ischemic stroke attributed to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, which may be associated with higher risk of stroke relapse.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of recent regular participation leisure activities upon cognitive functions between 3 and 6 months after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We also explored whether the cognitive effects interacted with the severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of cerebral white matter disease, in patients with low or high education. METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two subjects with mean age of 66.1 (11.0) years were recruited at median 161(131-180) days post index event. WMH volume was evaluated using a semi-automated method on MRI brain. Cognitive functions were measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the associations between leisure activity participation with WMH and the moderating effects of leisure activities upon relationship between WMH and MoCA. Analyses were further stratified by low (<6 years) or high education (≥6 years). All models were adjusted with age, sex, and years of education. RESULTS: Physical activity (PA), but not intellectual activity (IA), was negatively related to WMH volume (P < .05). IA exerted a main effect on MoCA performance (b = 3.21, P < .001). PA, but not IA, significantly interacted with WMH volume (b = -0.18, P < .01) on MoCA performance, but the interaction was only significant in the lower education group (b = 0.28, P < .01) but not in the higher education group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stroke/TIA, IA confers general cognitive benefits. Regular participation in PA negatively correlated with WMH volume. In patients with low education, PA increases resilience against vascular cognitive impairment.

4.
Neuroimage ; 199: 87-92, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129301

RESUMO

Long-term married couples have been reported to share personality and behavioural similarities, but whether long-term marriage would shape the brain is hitherto unknown. In this study, 35 pairs of long-term married couples, who have married and living together at least 30 years, were recruited, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural correlates of long-term marriage between couples. Seven intrinsic connectivity networks were extracted using spatially constrained group independent component analysis, and the spatial similarity of each network as well as functional connectome similarity between couples were investigated respectively. The significant spatial similarities in the salience and frontoparietal networks as well as marginally significant connectome similarity were observed in long-term married couples. In addition, the marital duration showed a significantly positive correlation with the spatial similarity in the frontoparietal network and connectome similarity. The results provide objective evidence that long-term marriage would shape brain network organization, and the combination of initial personality traits and long-term common experience of the couples may be potential factors that account for similar brain network organizations between couples.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 85(5): 752-764, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hemodynamic features of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (sICAS) might correlate with the risk of stroke relapse, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. METHODS: In a cohort study, we recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50 to 99% ICAS confirmed by computed tomographic angiography (CTA). With CTA-based CFD models, translesional pressure ratio (PR = pressurepoststenotic /pressureprestenotic ) and translesional wall shear stress ratio (WSSR = WSSstenotic - throat /WSSprestenotic ) were obtained in each sICAS lesion. Translesional PR ≤ median was defined as low PR and WSSR ≥4th quartile as high WSSR. All patients received standard medical treatment. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory (SIT) within 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 245 patients (median age = 61 years, 63.7% males) were analyzed. Median translesional PR was 0.94 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.87-0.97); median translesional WSSR was 13.3 (IQR = 7.0-26.7). SIT occurred in 20 (8.2%) patients, mostly with multiple infarcts in the border zone and/or cortical regions. In multivariate Cox regression, low PR (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.16, p = 0.026) and high WSSR (adjusted HR = 3.05, p = 0.014) were independently associated with SIT. Patients with both low PR and high WSSR had significantly higher risk of SIT than those with normal PR and WSSR (risk = 17.5% vs 3.0%, adjusted HR = 7.52, p = 0.004). INTERPRETATION: This work represents a step forward in utilizing computational flow simulation techniques in studying intracranial atherosclerotic disease. It reveals a hemodynamic pattern of sICAS that is more prone to stroke relapse, and supports hypoperfusion and artery-to-artery embolism as common mechanisms of ischemic stroke in such patients. Ann Neurol 2019;85:752-764.

6.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(4): 428-435, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), may guide anticoagulant decisions for atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the risk of warfarin-associated ICH in Chinese patients with AF with CMBs. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicentre study, we recruited Chinese patients with AF who were on or intended to start anticoagulation with warfarin from six hospitals in Hong Kong. CMBs were evaluated with 3T MRI brain at baseline. Primary outcome was clinical ICH at 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, mortality of all causes and modified Rankin Scale ≥3. Outcome events were compared between patients with and without CMBs. RESULTS: A total of 290 patients were recruited; 53 patients were excluded by predefined criteria. Among the 237 patients included in the final analysis, CMBs were observed in 84 (35.4%) patients, and 11 had ≥5 CMBs. The mean follow-up period was 22.4±10.3 months. Compared with patients without CMBs, patients with CMBs had numerically higher rate of ICH (3.6% vs 0.7%, p=0.129). The rate of ICH was lower than ischaemic stroke for patients with 0 to 4 CMBs, but higher for those with ≥5 CMBs. CMB count (C-index 0.82) was more sensitive than HAS-BLED (C-index 0.55) and CHA2DS2-VASc (C-index 0.63) scores in predicting ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF on warfarin, presence of multiple CMBs may be associated with higher rate of ICH than ischaemic stroke. Larger studies through international collaboration are needed to determine the risk:benefit ratio of oral anticoagulants in patients with AF of different ethnic origins.

7.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X18805209, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351176

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the roles of antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Patients with apparently normal cerebral perfusion distal to a symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1 stenosis were enrolled. Computational fluid dynamics models were built based on CT angiography to obtain a translesional pressure ratio (PR) to gauge the residual antegrade flow. Leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs) were scaled on CT angiography. Cerebral perfusion metrics were obtained in CT perfusion maps. Among 83 patients, linear regression analyses revealed that both translesional PR and LMC scale were independently associated with relative ipsilesional mean transit time (rMTT). Subgroup analyses showed that ipsilesional rMTT was significantly associated with translesional PR ( p < 0.001) rather than LMC scale in those with a moderate (50-69%) MCA stenosis, which, however, was only significantly associated with LMC scale ( p = 0.051) in those with a severe (70-99%) stenosis. Antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow have complementary effects in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an ICAS, while cerebral perfusion may rely more on the collateral circulation in those with a severe stenosis.

8.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185118795327, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185071

RESUMO

Background One significant barrier to incorporate Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging biomarkers into diagnostic criteria is the lack of standardized methods for biomarker quantification. The European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium-Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (EADC-ADNI) Harmonization Protocol project provides the most authoritative guideline for hippocampal definition and has produced a manually segmented reference dataset for validation of automated methods. Purpose To validate automated hippocampal volumetry using AccuBrain™, against the EADC-ADNI dataset, and assess its diagnostic performance for differentiating AD and normal aging in an independent cohort. Material and Methods The EADC-ADNI reference dataset comprise of manually segmented hippocampal labels from 135 volumetric T1-weighted scans from various scanners. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Pearson's r were obtained for AccuBrain™ and FreeSurfer. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a separate cohort of 299 individuals (150 normal controls, 149 with AD) were obtained from the ADNI database and processed with AccuBrain™ to assess its diagnostic accuracy. Area under the curve (AUC) for total hippocampal volumes (HV) and hippocampal fraction (HF) were determined. Results Compared with EADC-ADNI dataset ground truths, AccuBrain™ had a mean DSC of 0.89/0.89/0.89, ICC of 0.94/0.96/0.95, and r of 0.95/0.96/0.95 for right/left/total HV. AccuBrain™ HV and HF had AUC of 0.76 and 0.80, respectively. Thresholds of ≤ 5.71 mL and ≤ 0.38% afforded 80% sensitivity for AD detection. Conclusion AccuBrain™ provides accurate automated hippocampus segmentation in accordance with the EADC-ADNI standard, with great potential value in assisting clinical diagnosis of AD.

9.
Neurology ; 91(9): e832-e842, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of enlarged perivascular spaces (ePVS) with cognition in elderly without dementia. METHODS: We included 5 studies from the Uniform Neuro-Imaging of Virchow-Robin Space Enlargement (UNIVRSE) consortium, namely the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study, Study of Health in Pomerania, Rotterdam Study, Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study, and Risk Index for Subclinical Brain Lesions in Hong Kong study. ePVS were counted in 4 regions (mesencephalon, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and centrum semiovale) with harmonized rating across studies. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and general fluid cognitive ability factor (G-factor) were used to assess cognitive function. For each study, a linear regression model was performed to estimate the effect of ePVS on MMSE and G-factor. Estimates were pooled across studies with the use of inverse variance meta-analysis with fixed- or random-effect models when appropriate. RESULTS: The final sample size consisted of 3,575 persons (age range 63.4-73.2 years, 50.6% women). Total ePVS counts were not significantly associated with MMSE score (mean difference per ePVS score increase 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.007 to 0.008, p = 0.885) or G-factor (mean difference per ePVS score increase 0.002, 95% CI -0.001 to 0.006, p = 0.148) in age-, sex-, and education-adjusted models. Adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers did not change the results. Repeating the analyses with region-specific ePVS rendered similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that ePVS counts were not associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general population. Future studies with longitudinal designs are warranted to examine whether ePVS contribute to cognitive decline.

10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 37(9): 2149-2160, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994088

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke is recognized as a common cerebral vascular disease in aging people. Accurate diagnosis and timely treatment can effectively improve the blood supply of the ischemic area and reduce the risk of disability or even death. Understanding the location and size of infarcts plays a critical role in the diagnosis decision. However, manual localization and quantification of stroke lesions are laborious and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method to segment acute ischemic stroke from diffusion weighted images (DWIs) using deep 3-D convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method can efficiently utilize 3-D contextual information and automatically learn very discriminative features in an end-to-end and data-driven way. To relieve the difficulty of training very deep 3-D CNN, we equip our network with dense connectivity to enable the unimpeded propagation of information and gradients throughout the network. We train our model with Dice objective function to combat the severe class imbalance problem in data. A DWI data set containing 242 subjects (90 for training, 62 for validation, and 90 for testing) with various types of acute ischemic stroke was constructed to evaluate our method. Our model achieved high performance on various metrics (Dice similarity coefficient: 79.13%, lesionwise precision: 92.67%, and lesionwise F1 score: 89.25%), outperforming the other state-of-the-art CNN methods by a large margin. We also evaluated the model on ISLES2015-SSIS data set and achieved very competitive performance, which further demonstrated its generalization capacity. The proposed method is fast and accurate, demonstrating a good potential in clinical routines.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 290, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765301

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are common in acute ischemic stroke patients. Although WMH volume has been reported to influence post-stroke cognition, it is still not clear whether WMH location, independent of acute ischemic lesion (AIL) volume and location, contributes to cognitive impairment after stroke. Here, we proposed a multiple-lesion symptom mapping model that considers both the presence of WMH and AIL to measure the additional contribution of WMH locations to post-stroke cognitive impairment. Seventy-six first-ever stroke patients with AILs in the left hemisphere were examined by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at baseline and 1 year after stroke. The association between the location of AIL and WMH and global cognition was investigated by a multiple-lesion symptom mapping (MLSM) model based on support vector regression (SVR). To explore the relative merits of MLSM over the existing lesion-symptom mapping approaches with only AIL considered (mass-univariate VLSM and SVR-LSM), we measured the contribution of the significant AIL and/or WMH clusters from these models to post-stroke cognitive impairment. In addition, we compared the significant WMH locations identified by the optimal SVR-MLSM model for cognitive impairment at baseline and 1 year post stroke. The identified strategic locations of WMH significantly contributed to the prediction of MoCA at baseline (short-term) and 1 year (long-term) after stroke independent of the strategic locations of AIL. The significant clusters of WMH for short-term and long-term post-stroke cognitive impairment were mainly in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and posterior thalamic radiation. We noted that in some regions, the AIL clusters that were significant for short-term outcome were no longer significant for long-term outcome, and interestingly more WMH clusters in these regions became significant for long-term outcome compared to short-term outcome. This indicated that there are some regions where local WMH burden has larger impact than AIL burden on the long-term post-stroke cognitive impairment. In consequence, SVR-MLSM was effective in identifying the WMH locations that have additional impact on post-stroke cognition on top of AIL locations. Such a method can also be applied to other lesion-behavior studies where multiple types of lesions may have potential contributions to a specific behavior.

12.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(9): 918-926, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individual neuroimaging features of small vessel disease (SVD) have been reported to influence poststroke cognition. This study aimed to investigate the joint contribution and strategic distribution patterns of multiple types of SVD imaging features in poststroke cognitive impairment. METHODS: We studied 145 first-ever ischaemic stroke patients with MRI and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) examined at baseline. The local burdens of acute ischaemic lesion (AIL), white matter hyperintensity, lacune, enlarged perivascular space and cross-sectional atrophy were quantified and entered into support vector regression (SVR) models to associate with the global and domain scores of MoCA. The SVR models were optimised with feature selection through 10-fold cross-validations. The contribution of SVD features to MoCA scores was measured by the prediction accuracy in the corresponding SVR model after optimisation. RESULTS: The combination of the neuroimaging features of SVD contributed much more to the MoCA deficits on top of AILs compared with individual SVD features, and the cognitive impact of different individual SVD features was generally similar. As identified by the optimal SVR models, the important SVD-affected regions were mainly located in the basal ganglia and white matter around it, although the specific regions varied for MoCA and its domains. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple types of SVD neuroimaging features jointly had a significant impact on global and domain cognitive functionings after stroke on top of AILs. The map of strategic cognitive-relevant regions of SVD features may help clinicians to understand their complementary impact on poststroke cognition.

13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 51: 52-56, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530384

RESUMO

Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016. Patients' presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grading, rate of obliteration and complication were reviewed and analyzed with the modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (RS score). Six patients had excision of AVM under awake mapping during this period of time. Two were SM Grade II and four were SM Grade III. Five located at the peri-rolandic region while one at the temporal language area. None had failed mapping. Five out of six achieved complete obliteration (83.3%). Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed better treatment outcome with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS with the obliteration rate of 100% versus 96% for RS score ≤1.00, 100% versus 78% for RS score 1.01-1.50, and 66% versus 50% for RS score >2.00 respectively. In conclusion, awake mapping and excision of AVMs at the eloquent area is feasible. Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed higher obliteration rate with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/cirurgia , Craniotomia/métodos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Vigília , Adolescente , Adulto , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Arteriovenosa/epidemiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(7): 680-686, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are radiological markers which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage. Researchers are exploring how CMBs can guide anticoagulation decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) exposure and prevalence of CMBs in Chinese patients with AF. METHODS: We prospectively recruited Chinese patients with AF on NOAC therapy of ≥30 days for 3T MRI brain for evaluation of CMBs and white matter hyperintensities. Patients with AF without prior exposure to oral anticoagulation were recruited as control group. RESULTS: A total of 282 patients were recruited, including 124 patients in NOAC group and 158 patients in control group. Mean duration of NOAC exposure was 723.8±500.3 days. CMBs were observed in 103 (36.5%) patients. No significant correlation was observed between duration of NOAC exposure and quantity of CMBs. After adjusting for confounding factors (ie, age, hypertension, labile hypertension, stroke history and white matter scores), previous intracerebral haemorrhage was predictive of CMBs (OR 15.28, 95% CI 1.81 to 129.16), particularly lobar CMBs (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 22.6). While white matter score was predictive of mixed lobar CMBs (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), both exposure and duration of NOAC use were not predictive of presence of CMBs. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF, duration of NOAC exposure did not correlate with prevalence and burden of CMBs. Further studies with follow-up MRI are needed to determine if long-term NOAC therapy can lead to development of new CMBs.

15.
Neuroradiology ; 60(4): 357-363, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426978

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intracranial artery calcification (IAC) has been demonstrated to be correlated with ischemic stroke, cognitive decline, and other vascular events by accumulating evidences from both Western and Asian populations. The proposed study aimed to investigate its potential mechanisms by evaluating the blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral arteries. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital were recruited after excluding those with atrial fibrillation or poor temporal window. Quantitative measurements of IAC severity were assessed on brain CT scans. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and vertebral-basilar artery (VBA). RESULTS: In total, 318 patients were analyzed. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated both high MCA systolic flow velocity and high MCA PI were correlated with IAC Agatston score, p < 0.001 individually. Similar correlation was also found between IAC Agatston score and high VBA velocity/high VBA PI, p ≤ 0.001 individually. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed IAC Agatston score was an independent risk factor for high MCA velocity (OR 1.533; 95% CI 1.235-1.903), high VBA velocity (OR 1.964; 95% CI 1.381-2.794), and high VBA PI (OR 1.200; 95% CI 1.016-1.418), respectively. CONCLUSION: Heavier IAC might cause generalized artery flow velocity changes and increased pulsatility index, which may indicate high resistance within cerebrovasculature.


Assuntos
Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Pulsátil/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011551, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by Ktrans. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. SEARCH METHODS: Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), and Web of Science Core Collection (Science Citation Index Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index). The most recent search for this review was run on 9 November 2016.We also identified 'grey literature' from online records of conference proceedings from the American College of Radiology, European Society of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology and European Society of Neuroradiology in the last 20 years. SELECTION CRITERIA: The titles and abstracts from the search results were screened to obtain full-text articles for inclusion or exclusion. We contacted authors to clarify or obtain missing/unpublished data.We included cross-sectional studies that performed dynamic susceptibility (DSC) or dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion or both of untreated LGGs and HGGs, and where rCBV and/or Ktrans values were reported. We selected participants with solid and non-enhancing gliomas who underwent MR perfusion within two months prior to histological confirmation. We excluded studies on participants who received radiation or chemotherapy before MR perfusion, or those without histologic confirmation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted information on study characteristics and data, and assessed the methodological quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. We present a summary of the study characteristics and QUADAS-2 results, and rate studies as good quality when they have low risk of bias in the domains of reference standard of tissue diagnosis and flow and timing between MR perfusion and tissue diagnosis.In the quantitative analysis, LGGs were considered disease positive, while HGGs were disease negative. The sensitivity refers to the proportion of LGGs detected by MR perfusion, and specificity as the proportion of detected HGGs. We constructed two-by-two tables with true positives and false negatives as the number of correctly and incorrectly diagnosed LGG, respectively, while true negatives and false positives are the number of correctly and incorrectly diagnosed HGG, respectively.Meta-analysis was performed on studies with two-by-two tables, with further sensitivity analysis using good quality studies. Limited data precluded regression analysis to explore heterogeneity but subgroup analysis was performed on tumour histology groups. MAIN RESULTS: Seven studies with small sample sizes (4 to 48) met our inclusion criteria. These were mostly conducted in university hospitals and mostly recruited adult patients. All studies performed DSC MR perfusion and described heterogeneous acquisition and post-processing methods. Only one study performed DCE MR perfusion, precluding quantitative analysis.Using patient-level data allowed selection of individual participants relevant to the review, with generally low risks of bias for the participant selection, reference standard and flow and timing domains. Most studies did not use a pre-specified threshold, which was considered a significant source of bias, however this did not affect quantitative analysis as we adopted a common rCBV threshold of 1.75 for the review. Concerns regarding applicability were low.From published and unpublished data, 115 participants were selected and included in the meta-analysis. Average rCBV (range) of 83 LGGs and 32 HGGs were 1.29 (0.01 to 5.10) and 1.89 (0.30 to 6.51), respectively. Using the widely accepted rCBV threshold of <1.75 to differentiate LGG from HGG, the summary sensitivity/specificity estimates were 0.83 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.93)/0.48 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.90). Sensitivity analysis using five good quality studies yielded sensitivity/specificity of 0.80 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.91)/0.67 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Subgroup analysis for tumour histology showed sensitivity/specificity of 0.92 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.99)/0.42 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.95) in astrocytomas (6 studies, 55 participants) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.93)/0.53 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88) in oligodendrogliomas+oligoastrocytomas (6 studies, 56 participants). Data were too sparse to investigate any differences across subgroups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence precludes reliable estimation of the performance of DSC MR perfusion-derived rCBV for the identification of grade in untreated solid and non-enhancing LGG from that of HGG. Pooled data yielded a wide range of estimates for both sensitivity (range 66% to 93% for detection of LGGs) and specificity (range 9% to 90% for detection of HGGs). Other clinical and methodological features affecting accuracy of the technique could not be determined from the limited data. A larger sample size of both LGG and HGG, preferably using a standardised scanning approach and with an updated reference standard incorporating molecular profiles, is required for a definite conclusion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Astrocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 38(8): 1299-1311, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895445

RESUMO

Lesion location is an important determinant for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Although several 'strategic' brain regions have previously been identified, a comprehensive map of strategic brain regions for post-stroke cognitive impairment is lacking due to limitations in sample size and methodology. We aimed to determine strategic brain regions for post-stroke cognitive impairment by applying multivariate lesion-symptom mapping in a large cohort of 410 acute ischemic stroke patients. Montreal Cognitive Assessment at three to six months after stroke was used to assess global cognitive functioning and cognitive domains (memory, language, attention, executive and visuospatial function). The relation between infarct location and cognition was assessed in multivariate analyses at the voxel-level and the level of regions of interest using support vector regression. These two assumption-free analyses consistently identified the left angular gyrus, left basal ganglia structures and the white matter around the left basal ganglia as strategic structures for global cognitive impairment after stroke. A strategic network involving several overlapping and domain-specific cortical and subcortical structures was identified for each of the cognitive domains. Future studies should aim to develop even more comprehensive infarct location-based models for post-stroke cognitive impairment through multicenter studies including thousands of patients.

18.
Front Neurol ; 8: 593, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170651

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been reported to be correlated with functional brain changes, but the association of the specific WMHs distribution pattern with regional functional changes remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to explore the possible spatial correlation of WMH with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and spontaneous brain activities in elderly using a novel approach. The WMHs, CBF, and spontaneous brain activities measured by intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC), were quantified using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging for 69 elderly subjects. Such approach enables us to expand our search for newly identified correlated areas by drawing strengths of different modes and provides a means for triangulation as well as complementary insights. The results showed significant positive correlations between WMH volumes in the right superior corona radiata and CBF in the left supplementary motor area, as well as between WMH volumes in left anterior limb internal capsule and CBF in the right putamen. Significant correlations of regional WMH volumes and ICC were also detected between the right anterior corona radiata and the left cuneus, and the right superior occipital cortex, as well as between the right superior corona radiata and the left superior occipital cortex. These findings may suggest a regional compensatory functional enhancement accounting for the maintenance of cognitively normal status, which can be supported by the widely observed phenomenon that mild to moderate WMH load could have little effect on global cognitive performance.

19.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 3(4): 2055217317733485, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no data on neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta and its clinical implications in Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neutralising antibodies among Chinese patients with relapsing MS receiving interferon-beta (1a or 1b) and to study the association between neutralising antibodies and the clinical-radiological response. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on MS patients who received interferon-beta for 9 months or more, and evaluated the clinical response by relapses and magnetic resonance imaging lesions. Blood samples were evaluated for myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) gene expression by polymerase chain reaction, anti-interferon-beta binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and neutralising antibodies by cell-based MxA protein induction and luciferase reporter gene assays. Assay performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 78 subjects recruited, 61/77 (79%) had anti-interferon-beta binding antibodies, and 22/78 (28%) had neutralising antibodies by MxA protein induction assay. The presence of high-titre neutralising antibodies was associated with poor clinical outcome (odds ratio 6.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-25.6, P = 0.013). The sensitivity and specificity for neutralising antibodies using MxA gene expression assay (cut-off 0.20) was 80% and 68%, respectively (area under the curve 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Neutralising antibodies are associated with poor clinical outcome in Chinese patients with relapsing MS. MxA gene expression and protein induction assays are complimentary assays for neutralising antibody detection.

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