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1.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423114

RESUMO

Large meta-analyses of RA susceptibility in European and East Asian populations have identified >100 RA risk loci, but genome-wide studies of RA in African-Americans are absent. To address this disparity, we performed an analysis of 916 African-American RA patients and 1392 controls, and aggregated our data with genotyping data from >100,000 European and Asian RA patients and controls. We identified two novel risk loci that appear to be specific to African-Americans: GPC5 and RBFOX1 (pAA < 5 x 10-9). Most RA risk loci are shared across different ethnicities, but among discordant loci, we observed strong enrichment of variants having large effect sizes. We found strong evidence of effect concordance for only 3 of the 21 largest effect index variants in Europeans. We used the trans-ethnic fine-mapping algorithm PAINTOR3 to prioritize risk variants in >90 RA risk loci. Addition of African-American data to those of European and East Asian descent enabled identification of 7 novel high confidence candidate pathogenic variants (defined by posterior probability > 0.8). In summary, our trans-ethnic analyses are the first to include African-Americans, identified several new RA risk loci, and point to candidate pathogenic variants that may underlie this common autoimmune disease. These findings may lead to better ways to diagnose or stratify treatment approaches in RA.

4.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275886

RESUMO

GAW20 provided participants with an opportunity to comprehensively examine genetic and epigenetic variation among related individuals in the context of drug treatment response. GAW20 used data from 188 families (N = 1105) participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00083369), which included CD4+ T-cell DNA methylation at 463,995 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites measured before and after a 3-week treatment with fenofibrate, single-nucleotide variation at 906,600 loci, metabolic syndrome components ascertained before and after the drug intervention, and relevant covariates. All GOLDN participants were of European descent, with an average age of 48 years. In addition, approximately half were women and approximately 40% met the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. Unique advantages of the GAW20data set included longitudinal (3 weeks apart) measurements of DNA methylation, the opportunity to explore the contributions of both genotype and DNA methylation to the interindividual variability in drug treatment response, and the familial relationships between study participants. The principal disadvantage of GAW20/GOLDN data was the spurious correlation between batch effects and fenofibrate effects on methylation, which arose because the pre- and posttreatment methylation data were generated and normalized separately, and any attempts to remove time-dependent technical artifacts would also remove biologically meaningful changes brought on by fenofibrate. Despite this limitation, the GAW20 data set offered informative, multilayered omics data collected in a large population-based study of common disease traits, which resulted in creative approaches to integration and analysis of inherited human variation.

5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 56, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713391

RESUMO

Background: Recently, epigenetic age acceleration-or older epigenetic age in comparison to chronological age-has been robustly associated with mortality and various morbidities. However, accelerated epigenetic aging has not been widely investigated in relation to inflammatory or metabolic markers, including postprandial lipids. Methods: We estimated measures of epigenetic age acceleration in 830 Caucasian participants from the Genetics Of Lipid Lowering Drugs and diet Network (GOLDN) considering two epigenetic age calculations based on differing sets of 5'-Cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' genomic site, derived from the Horvath and Hannum DNA methylation age calculators, respectively. GOLDN participants underwent a standardized high-fat meal challenge after fasting for at least 8 h followed by timed blood draws, the last being 6 h postmeal. We used adjusted linear mixed models to examine the association of the epigenetic age acceleration estimate with fasting and postprandial (0- and 6-h time points) low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels as well as five fasting inflammatory markers plus adiponectin. Results: Both DNA methylation age estimates were highly correlated with chronological age (r > 0.90). We found that the Horvath and Hannum measures of epigenetic age acceleration were moderately correlated (r = 0.50). The regression models revealed that the Horvath age acceleration measure exhibited marginal associations with increased postprandial HDL (p = 0.05), increased postprandial total cholesterol (p = 0.06), and decreased soluble interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha (IL2sRα, p = 0.02). The Hannum measure of epigenetic age acceleration was inversely associated with fasting HDL (p = 0.02) and positively associated with postprandial TG (p = 0.02), interleukin-6 (IL6, p = 0.007), C-reactive protein (C-reactive protein, p = 0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, p = 0.0001). Overall, the observed effect sizes were small and the association of the Hannum residual with inflammatory markers was attenuated by adjustment for estimated T cell type percentages. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic age acceleration in blood relates to inflammatory biomarkers and certain lipid classes in Caucasian individuals of the GOLDN study. Future studies should consider epigenetic age acceleration in other tissues and extend the analysis to other ethnic groups.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(6): 463-472, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617535

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with manifold consequences for mammalian pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of TNF-α biology may enhance treatment precision. Objective: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of blood-derived DNA methylation and TNF-α levels and to assess the clinical relevance of findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed epigenome-wide associations in circulating TNF-α concentrations from 5 cohort studies and 1 interventional trial, with replication in 3 additional cohort studies. Follow-up analyses investigated associations of identified methylation loci with gene expression and incident coronary heart disease; this meta-analysis included 11 461 participants who experienced 1895 coronary events. Exposures: Circulating TNF-α concentration. Main Outcomes and Measures: DNA methylation at approximately 450 000 loci, neighboring DNA sequence variation, gene expression, and incident coronary heart disease. Results: The discovery cohort included 4794 participants, and the replication study included 816 participants (overall mean [SD] age, 60.7 [8.5] years). In the discovery stage, circulating TNF-α levels were associated with methylation of 7 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, 3 of which were located in or near DTX3L-PARP9 at cg00959259 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.003]; P = 7.36 × 10-8), cg08122652 (ß [SE] = -0.008 [0.002]; P = 2.24 × 10-7), and cg22930808(ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 6.92 × 10-8); NLRC5 at cg16411857 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 2.14 × 10-13) and cg07839457 (ß [SE] = -0.02 [0.003]; P = 6.31 × 10-10); or ABO, at cg13683939 (ß [SE] = 0.04 [0.008]; P = 1.42 × 10-7) and cg24267699 (ß [SE] = -0.009 [0.002]; P = 1.67 × 10-7), after accounting for multiple testing. Of these, negative associations between TNF-α concentration and methylation of 2 loci in NLRC5 and 1 in DTX3L-14 PARP9 were replicated. Replicated TNF-α-linked CpG sites were associated with 9% to 19% decreased risk of incident coronary heart disease per 10% higher methylation per CpG site (cg16411857: hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-1.95; P = .003; cg07839457: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94; P = 3.1 × 10-5; cg00959259: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .002; cg08122652: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P = 2.0 × 10-5). Conclusions and Relevance: We identified and replicated novel epigenetic correlates of circulating TNF-α concentration in blood samples and linked these loci to coronary heart disease risk, opening opportunities for validation and therapeutic applications.

7.
Mult Scler ; 24(10): 1288-1300, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that controls genome activity, may provide a link between genetic and environmental risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation changes in CD4+ T cells in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR-MS) and secondary-progressive (SP-MS) disease and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We performed DNA methylation analysis in CD4+ T cells from RR-MS, SP-MS, and HC and associated identified changes with the nearby risk allele, smoking, age, and gene expression. RESULTS: We observed significant methylation differences in the VMP1/MIR21 locus, with RR-MS displaying higher methylation compared to SP-MS and HC. VMP1/MIR21 methylation did not correlate with a known MS risk variant in VMP1 or smoking but displayed a significant negative correlation with age and the levels of mature miR-21 in CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, RR-MS displayed lower levels of miR-21 compared to SP-MS, which might reflect differences in age between the groups, and healthy individuals and a significant enrichment of up-regulated miR-21 target genes. CONCLUSION: Disease-related changes in epigenetic marking of MIR21 in RR-MS lead to differences in miR-21 expression with a consequence on miR-21 target genes.

8.
Genetics ; 207(4): 1547-1560, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855307

RESUMO

The evolutionary theories of mutation accumulation (MA) and disposable soma (DS) provide possible explanations for the existence of human aging. To better understand the relative importance of these theories, we devised a test to identify MA- and DS-consistent sites across the genome using familial DNA methylation data. Two key characteristics of DNA methylation allowed us to do so. First, DNA methylation exhibits distinct and widespread changes with age, with numerous age-differentially-methylated sites observed across the genome. Second, many sites show heritable DNA methylation patterns within families. We extended heritability predictions of MA and DS to DNA methylation, predicting that MA-consistent age-differentially-methylated sites will show increasing heritability with age, while DS-consistent sites will show the opposite. Variance components models were used to test for changing heritability of methylation with age at 48,601 age-differentially-methylated sites across the genome in 610 individuals from 176 families. Of these, 102 sites showed significant MA-consistent increases in heritability with age, while 2266 showed significant DS-consistent decreases in heritability. These results suggest that both MA and DS play a role in explaining aging and aging-related changes, and that while the majority of DNA methylation changes observed in aging are consistent with epigenetic drift, targeted changes exist and may mediate effects of aging-related genes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Mutação
9.
J Nutr Intermed Metab ; 8: 1-7, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), an atherogenic metabolite species, has emerged as a possible new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Animal studies have shown that circulating TMAO levels are regulated by genetic and environmental factors. However, large-scale human studies have failed to replicate the observed genetic associations, and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation have never been examined in relation to TMAO levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from the family-based Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) to investigate the heritable determinants of plasma TMAO in humans. TMAO was not associated with other plasma markers of cardiovascular disease, e.g. lipids or inflammatory cytokines. We first estimated TMAO heritability at 27%, indicating a moderate genetic influence. We used 1000 Genomes imputed data (n=626) to estimate genome-wide associations with TMAO levels, adjusting for age, sex, family relationships, and study site. The genome-wide study yielded one significant hit at the genome-wide level, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 4. We subsequently quantified epigenome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium array on CD4+ T-cells. We tested for association of methylation loci with circulating TMAO (n=847), adjusting for age, sex, family relationships, and study site as the genome-wide study plus principal components capturing CD4+ T-cell purity. Upon adjusting for multiple testing, none of the epigenetic findings were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that neither genetic nor epigenetic factors play a critical role in establishing circulating TMAO levels in humans.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 273, 2017 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic tools for prostate cancer lack specificity and sensitivity for detecting very early lesions. DNA methylation is a stable genomic modification that is detectable in peripheral patient fluids such as urine and blood plasma that could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. METHODS: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 73 clinically annotated fresh-frozen prostate cancers and 63 benign-adjacent prostate tissues using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We overlaid the most significantly differentially methylated sites in the genome with transcription factor binding sites measured by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements consortium. We used logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves to assess the performance of candidate diagnostic models. RESULTS: We identified methylation patterns that have a high predictive power for distinguishing malignant prostate tissue from benign-adjacent prostate tissue, and these methylation signatures were validated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project. Furthermore, by overlaying ENCODE transcription factor binding data, we observed an enrichment of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 binding in gene regulatory regions with higher DNA methylation in malignant prostate tissues. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation patterns are greatly altered in prostate cancer tissue in comparison to benign-adjacent tissue. We have discovered patterns of DNA methylation marks that can distinguish prostate cancers with high specificity and sensitivity in multiple patient tissue cohorts, and we have identified transcription factors binding in these differentially methylated regions that may play important roles in prostate cancer development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Citosina/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Epigenetics ; 12(6): 492-503, 2017 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387568

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an important epigenetic process involved in the regulation of gene expression. While many studies have identified thousands of loci associated with age, few have differentiated between linear and non-linear DNAm trends with age. Non-linear trends could indicate early- or late-life gene regulatory processes. Using data from the Illumina 450K array on 336 human peripheral blood samples, we identified 21 CpG sites that associated with age (P<1.03E-7) and exhibited changing rates of DNAm change with age (P<1.94E-6). For 2 of these CpG sites (cg07955995 and cg22285878), DNAm increased with age at an increasing rate, indicating that differential DNAm was greatest among elderly individuals. We observed significant replication for both CpG sites (P<5.0E-8) in a second set of peripheral blood samples. In 8 of 9 additional data sets comprising samples of monocytes, T cell subtypes, and brain tissue, we observed a pattern directionally consistent with DNAm increasing with age at an increasing rate, which was nominally significant in the 3 largest data sets (4.3E-15

Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
PLoS Med ; 14(1): e1002215, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI) and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1]), demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83) of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination. CONCLUSIONS: We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
13.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2200-2207, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777315

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma TG concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Eight methylation sites encompassing five genes, LPP, CPT1A, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, were significantly associated with PPL response at an epigenome-wide level (P < 1.1 × 10-7), but no methylation site reached epigenome-wide significance after adjusting for baseline TG levels. Higher methylation at LPP, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, and lower methylation at CPT1A methylation were correlated with an increased TG-PPL response. These PPL-associated methylation sites, also correlated with fasting TG, account for a substantially greater amount of phenotypic variance (14.9%) in PPL and fasting TG (16.3%) when compared with the genetic contribution of loci identified by our previous genome-wide association study (4.5%). In summary, the epigenome is a large contributor to the variation in PPL, and this has the potential to be used to modulate PPL and reduce CVD.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Período Pós-Prandial
14.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0165488, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27792787

RESUMO

DNA methylation at CpG sites is both heritable and influenced by environment, but the relative contributions of each to DNA methylation levels are unclear. We conducted a heritability analysis of CpG methylation in human CD4+ cells across 975 individuals from 163 families in the Genetics of Lipid-lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Based on a broad-sense heritability (H2) value threshold of 0.4, we identified 20,575 highly heritable CpGs among the 174,445 most variable autosomal CpGs (SD > 0.02). Tests for associations of heritable CpGs with genotype at 2,145,360 SNPs using 717 of 975 individuals showed that ~74% were cis-meQTLs (< 1 Mb away from the CpG), 6% of CpGs exhibited trans-meQTL associations (>1 Mb away from the CpG or located on a different chromosome), and 20% of CpGs showed no strong significant associations with genotype (based on a p-value threshold of 1e-7). Genes proximal to the genotype independent heritable CpGs were enriched for functional terms related to regulation of T cell activation. These CpGs were also among those that distinguished T cells from other blood cell lineages. Compared to genes proximal to meQTL-associated heritable CpGs, genotype independent heritable CpGs were moderately enriched in the same genomic regions that escape erasure during primordial germ cell development and could carry potential for generational transmission.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Linhagem , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 9(5): 436-447, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples from participants in 16 cohorts (including 2433 current, 6518 former, and 6956 never smokers). Comparing current versus never smokers, 2623 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs), annotated to 1405 genes, were statistically significantly differentially methylated at Bonferroni threshold of P<1×10-7 (18 760 CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05). Genes annotated to these CpGs were enriched for associations with several smoking-related traits in genome-wide studies including pulmonary function, cancers, inflammatory diseases, and heart disease. Comparing former versus never smokers, 185 of the CpGs that differed between current and never smokers were significant P<1×10-7 (2623 CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05), indicating a pattern of persistent altered methylation, with attenuation, after smoking cessation. Transcriptomic integration identified effects on gene expression at many differentially methylated CpGs. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking has a broad impact on genome-wide methylation that, at many loci, persists many years after smoking cessation. Many of the differentially methylated genes were novel genes with respect to biological effects of smoking and might represent therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of tobacco-related diseases. Methylation at these sites could also serve as sensitive and stable biomarkers of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Front Genet ; 7: 23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26925097

RESUMO

DNA methylation levels vary markedly by cell-type makeup of a sample. Understanding these differences and estimating the cell-type makeup of a sample is an important aspect of studying DNA methylation. DNA from leukocytes in whole blood is simple to obtain and pervasive in research. However, leukocytes contain many distinct cell types and subtypes. We propose a two-stage model that estimates the proportions of six main cell types in whole blood (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, monocytes, B cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells) as well as subtypes of T and B cells. Unlike previous methods that only estimate overall proportions of CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cells, and B cells, our model is able to estimate proportions of naïve, memory, and regulatory CD4+ T cells as well as naïve and memory CD8+ T cells and naïve and memory B cells. Using real and simulated data, we are able to demonstrate that our model is able to reliably estimate proportions of these cell types and subtypes. In studies with DNA methylation data from Illumina's HumanMethylation450k arrays, our estimates will be useful both for testing for associations of cell type and subtype composition with phenotypes of interest as well as for adjustment purposes to prevent confounding in epigenetic association studies. Additionally, our method can be easily adapted for use with whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data or any other genome-wide methylation data platform.

17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 60(2): 410-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518637

RESUMO

SCOPE: Omega-3 PUFAs (n-3 PUFAs) reduce IL-6 gene expression, but their effects on transcription regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to conduct an integrated analysis with both population and in vitro studies to systematically explore the relationships among n-3 PUFA, DNA methylation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene expression, and protein concentration of IL6. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, we found that higher methylation of IL6 promoter cg01770232 was associated with higher IL-6 plasma concentration (p = 0.03) and greater IL6 gene expression (p = 0.0005). Higher circulating total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation (p = 0.007) and lower IL-6 concentration (p = 0.02). Moreover, an allele of IL6 rs2961298 was associated with higher cg01770232 methylation (p = 2.55 × 10(-7) ). The association between n-3 PUFA and cg01770232 methylation was dependent on rs2961298 genotype (p = 0.02), but higher total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation in the heterozygotes (p = 0.04) not in the homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Higher n-3 PUFA is associated with lower methylation at IL6 promoter, which may be modified by IL6 SNPs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 23(7): 1493-501, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and obesity traits. METHODS: DNA methylation was quantified in CD4+ T-cells using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array in 991 participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. Methylation at individual cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites as a function of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), adjusting for age, gender, study site, T-cell purity, smoking, and family structure, was modeled. RESULTS: Epigenome-wide significant associations between eight CpG sites and BMI and five CpG sites and WC, successfully replicating the top hits in whole blood samples from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2,377) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 2,097), were found. Top findings were in CPT1A (meta-analysis P = 2.7 × 10(-43) for BMI and 9.9 × 10(-23) for WC), PHGDH (meta-analysis P = 2.0 × 10(-15) for BMI and 4.0 × 10(-9) for WC), CD38 (meta-analysis P = 6.3 × 10(-11) for BMI and 1.6 × 10(-12) for WC), and long intergenic non-coding RNA 00263 (meta-analysis P = 2.2 × 10(-16) for BMI and 8.9 × 10(-14) for WC), regions with biologically plausible relationships to adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale epigenome-wide study discovered and replicated robust associations between DNA methylation at CpG loci and obesity indices, laying the groundwork for future diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(15): 4464-79, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935004

RESUMO

Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Obesidade/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Aterosclerose/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Circunferência da Cintura/genética
20.
Aging Cell ; 14(1): 49-59, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25476875

RESUMO

Although apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants are associated with age-related diseases, the underlying mechanism is unknown and DNA methylation may be a potential one. With methylation data, measured by the Infinium Human Methylation 450 array, from 993 participants (age ranging from 18 to 87 years) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study, and from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, combined with published methylation datasets, we described the methylation pattern of 13 CpG sites within APOE locus, their correlations with gene expression across cell types, and their relationships with age, plasma lipids, and sequence variants. Based on methylation levels and the genetic regions, we categorized the 13 APOE CpG sites into three groups: Group 1 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the promoter region, Group 2 exhibited hypomethylation (< 50%) and were located in the first two exons and introns, and Group 3 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the exon 4. APOE methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression (minimum r = -0.66, P = 0.004). APOE methylation was significantly associated with age (minimum P = 2.06E-08) and plasma total cholesterol (minimum P = 3.53E-03). Finally, APOE methylation patterns differed across APOE ε variants (minimum P = 3.51E-05) and the promoter variant rs405509 (minimum P = 0.01), which further showed a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that methylation may be a potential mechanistic explanation for APOE functions related to aging and call for further molecular mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dieta , Variação Genética , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
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