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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4802, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376665

RESUMO

During meiosis, gene expression is silenced in aberrantly unsynapsed chromatin and in heterogametic sex chromosomes. Initiation of sex chromosome silencing is disrupted in meiocytes with sex chromosome-autosome translocations. To determine whether this is due to aberrant synapsis or loss of continuity of sex chromosomes, we engineered Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes with non-translocated, bisected X chromosomes. In early meiocytes of mutant males and hermaphrodites, X segments are enriched with euchromatin assembly markers and active RNA polymerase II staining, indicating active transcription. Analysis of RNA-seq data showed that genes from the X chromosome are upregulated in gonads of mutant worms. Contrary to previous models, which predicted that any unsynapsed chromatin is silenced during meiosis, our data indicate that unsynapsed X segments are transcribed. Therefore, our results suggest that sex chromosome chromatin has a unique character that facilitates its meiotic expression when its continuity is lost, regardless of whether or not it is synapsed.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Inativação Gênica , Meiose/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Feminino , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Transcrição Genética
2.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13386, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061407

RESUMO

Oogenesis is one of the first processes to fail during aging. In women, most oocytes cannot successfully complete meiotic divisions already during the fourth decade of life. Studies of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have uncovered conserved genetic pathways that control lifespan, but our knowledge regarding reproductive aging in worms and humans is limited. Specifically, little is known about germline internal signals that dictate the oogonial biological clock. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the changes in the worm germline during aging. We found that shortly after ovulation halts, germline proliferation declines, while apoptosis continues, leading to a gradual reduction in germ cell numbers. In late aging stages, we observed that meiotic progression is disturbed and crossover designation and DNA double-strand break repair decrease. In addition, we detected a decline in the quality of mature oocytes during aging, as reflected by decreasing size and elongation of interhomolog distance, a phenotype also observed in human oocytes. Many of these altered processes were previously attributed to MAPK signaling variations in young worms. In support of this, we observed changes in activation dynamics of MPK-1 during aging. We therefore tested the hypothesis that MAPK controls oocyte quality in aged worms using both genetic and pharmacological tools. We found that in mutants with high levels of activated MPK-1, oocyte quality deteriorates more rapidly than in wild-type worms, whereas reduction of MPK-1 levels enhances quality. Thus, our data suggest that MAPK signaling controls germline aging and could be used to attenuate the rate of oogenesis quality decline.

3.
RNA Biol ; 18(3): 435-445, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892705

RESUMO

Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are transcribed from non-coding loci yet undergo biosynthesis similar to coding mRNAs. The disproportional number of lincRNAs expressed in testes suggests that lincRNAs are important during gametogenesis, but experimental evidence has implicated very few lincRNAs in this process. We took advantage of the relatively limited number of lincRNAs in the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to systematically analyse the functions of lincRNAs during meiosis. We deleted six lincRNA genes that are highly and dynamically expressed in the C. elegans gonad and tested the effects on central meiotic processes. Surprisingly, whereas the lincRNA deletions did not strongly impact fertility, germline apoptosis, crossovers, or synapsis, linc-4 was required for somatic growth. Slower growth was observed in linc-4-deletion mutants and in worms depleted of linc-4 using RNAi, indicating that linc-4 transcripts are required for this post-embryonic process. Unexpectedly, analysis of worms depleted of linc-4 in soma versus germline showed that the somatic role stems from linc-4 expression in germline cells. This unique feature suggests that some lincRNAs, like some small non-coding RNAs, are required for germ-soma interactions.

4.
J Biol Eng ; 14: 18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617119

RESUMO

Background: Implantation failure remains an unsolved obstacle in reproductive medicine. Previous studies have indicated that estrogen responsiveness, specifically by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), is crucial for proper implantation. There is an utmost need for a reliable in vitro model that mimics the events in the uterine wall during the implantation process for studying the regulatory mechanisms governing the process. The current two-dimensional and hydrogel-based in vitro models provide only short-term endometrial cell culture with partial functionality. Results: Endometrial biopsies showed an increase in E-cadherin expression on the typical window of implantation of fertile women, compared to negligible expression in recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients. These clinical results indicated E-cadherin as a marker for receptivity. Three-dimensional (3D) macroporous alginate scaffolds were the base for epithelial endometrial cell-seeding and long-term culture under hormone treatment that mimicked a typical menstrual cycle. The RL95-2 epithelial cell culture in macroporous scaffolds was viable for 3 weeks and showed increased E-cadherin levels in response to estrogen. Human choriocarcinoma (JAR) spheroids were used as embryo models, seeded onto cell constructs and successfully adhered to the RL95-2 cell culture. Moreover, a second model of HEC-1A with low ERα levels, showed lower E-cadherin expression and no JAR attachment. E-cadherin expression and JAR attachment were recovered in HEC-1A cells that were transfected with ERα plasmid. Conclusions: We present a novel model that enables culturing endometrial cells on a 3D matrix for 3 weeks under hormonal treatment. It confirmed the importance of ERα function and E-cadherin for proper implantation. This platform may serve to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms controlling the implantation process, and for screening and evaluating potential novel therapeutic strategies for RIF.

5.
Genetics ; 212(1): 213-229, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867196

RESUMO

During meiosis, a series of evolutionarily conserved events allow for reductional chromosome division, which is required for sexual reproduction. Although individual meiotic processes have been extensively studied, we currently know far less about how meiosis is regulated and coordinated. In the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling drives oogenesis while undergoing spatial activation and deactivation waves. However, it is currently unclear how MAPK activation is governed and how it facilitates the progression of oogenesis. Here, we show that the oocyte and germline-related 2 (ogr-2) gene affects proper progression of oogenesis. Complete deletion of ogr-2 results in delayed meiotic entry and late spatial onset of double-strand break repair. Elevated levels of apoptosis are observed in this mutant, independent of the meiotic canonical checkpoints; however, they are dependent on the MAPK terminal member MPK-1/ERK. MPK-1 activation is elevated in diplotene in ogr-2 mutants and its aberrant spatial activation correlates with stages where meiotic progression defects are evident. Deletion of ogr-2 significantly reduces the expression of lip-1, a phosphatase reported to repress MPK-1, which is consistent with OGR-2 localization at chromatin in germ cells. We suggest that OGR-2 modulates the expression of lip-1 to promote the timely progression of meiosis through MPK-1 spatial deactivation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Meiose , Oogênese , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas do Ovo/fisiologia , Feminino
6.
Hum Reprod ; 26(10): 2830-40, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21849299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a major problem encountered in IVF. We have previously reported that RIF-IVF patients have a different endometrial gene expression profile during the window of implantation. Considering microRNA (miRNA) function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, the aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of miRNA in defects of endometrial receptivity. METHODS: We used TaqMan miRNA array cards to identify the miRNAs differentially expressed in the secretory endometrium of RIF-IVF patients when compared with fertile women, and bioinformatics tools to identify their predicted targets and the molecular networks they may affect. RESULTS: Comparing miRNA expression profiles, we identified 13 miRNAs, differentially expressed in RIF endometrial samples, that putatively regulate the expression of 3800 genes. We found that 10 miRNAs were overexpressed (including miR 145, 23b and 99a) and 3 were underexpressed. Using our previous gene expression analysis, we paralleled miRNA-mRNA expression profiling. By this means, we identified novel and previously characterized miRNA-regulated molecular pathways such as adherens junctions, cell adhesion molecules, Wnt-signaling, p53 signaling and cell cycle pathways. Consistent with the miRNA-predicted targets, mRNA levels of N-cadherin, H2AFX, netrin-4 and secreted frizzled-related protein-4, belonging to the cell adhesion molecules, Wnt signaling and cell cycle pathways were lower in RIF-IVF patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differential expression of miRNAs in the secretory endometrium of RIF-IVF patients. We suggest that the RIF-associated miRNAs could be exploited as new candidates for diagnosis and treatment of embryo implantation failures.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adulto , Caderinas/biossíntese , Adesão Celular , Ciclo Celular , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/biossíntese , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/biossíntese , Netrinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/biossíntese , RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
7.
Fertil Steril ; 94(4): 1271-1278, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19815191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the role of prostaglandins (PG) in the endometrium of patients with repeated failure of embryo implantation. Prostaglandins are produced after the sequential oxidation of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and terminal PG synthases. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: In vitro fertilization unit at a university hospital. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four women, comprising of 19 patients with repeated IVF failure and 15 controls with proven fertility. INTERVENTION(S): Endometrial expression levels of the enzymes responsible for the PG synthesis were compared between the two groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) expression and activity were assessed by Western blot. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2, secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA, V, and IB (sPLA2-IIA, sPLA2-V, sPLA2-IB), glypican-1, PG E synthase, PG E receptors, and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 (LPA3) was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Localization of COX-2, sPLA2-IIA, and LPA3 within the secretory endometrium was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULT(S): Patients displaying recurrent implantation failure expressed reduced levels of cPLA2alpha and COX-2 compared with controls. In response to this deficiency, sPLA2-IIA was found to be overexpressed. Interestingly, LPA3, which is known to converge on the cPLA2-arachidonic acid-COX-PG signaling pathway, was also decreased in these patients. CONCLUSION(S): Prostaglandin synthesis appears to be disrupted in patients with repeated IVF failure compared with fertile controls. We therefore suggest that reduced PG synthesis in the human endometrium may lead to poor endometrial receptivity.


Assuntos
Perda do Embrião/etiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/complicações , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/diagnóstico , Prostaglandinas/biossíntese , Aborto Habitual/diagnóstico , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/genética , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Perda do Embrião/diagnóstico , Perda do Embrião/genética , Perda do Embrião/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo IV/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo IV/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/genética , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/genética , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hum Reprod ; 24(10): 2541-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19542175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a severe obstacle in human assisted reproduction treatment. METHODS: Aiming to identify global gene profile in RIF patients, gene-array analyses were performed on endometrial samples collected on day 21 of the cycle from fertile women (n = 12) and from RIF patients (n = 20). Validation of cyclin E2, Slug, dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1), lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) and secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) was carried out by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Gene-array analysis revealed 313 genes exhibiting modified expression levels in RIF patients. Of these, 288 genes (92%) were down-regulated and only 25 genes (8%) were up-regulated. Classification of the down-regulated genes to biological pathways revealed cell cycle, Wnt signaling and cellular adhesion pathways. Real-time PCR validation of cyclin E2, SFRP1 and LEF1 showed significantly lower expression levels in RIF-IVF patients as compared with fertile women. In addition, two up-regulated genes, Slug and DKK1, were also validated. Interestingly, about 8% of the down-regulated genes were estrogen-dependent. Western blot of estrogen receptor alpha revealed low expression of this protein in the RIF group. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the endometrium of RIF patients by gene array analysis demonstrates that the expression of various genes is altered, including those belonging to the cell cycle, Wnt signaling and cellular adhesion pathways.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Fertil Steril ; 92(2): 458-63, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18952208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation (IVM) is effective in girls undergoing fertility preservation before cancer treatment. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary university medical center. PATIENT(S): Patients

Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Reprod ; 23(6): 1372-6, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18385125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tubal pregnancy (TP) is twice as common following IVF when compared with natural conception. This is surprising, since embryo transfer is aimed for an accurate area in the uterine cavity. We thus hypothesized that either the embryo or the Fallopian tube actively participates in a pathological process leading to implantation outside the uterine cavity. Since we recently found that E-cadherin expression is a useful marker of endometrial receptivity, we considered that it may have a role in TP following IVF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare E-cadherin expression and localization in tubal implantation sites from spontaneous TP and TP post-IVF. METHODS: We compared E-cadherin immunohistochemistry levels on cross-sections of Fallopian tubes in 11 spontaneous (antegrade) versus 13 post-IVF (retrograde) TP. The intensity of immunoreactivity was scored in a semi-qualitative blinded manner. RESULTS: The semi-quantitative intensity score in IVF tubal samples was more than double that observed in spontaneous TP (16.9 versus 7.3, respectively, P < 0.0005). E-cadherin showed the most intense immunostaining in cytotrophoblast cells of chorionic villi in ectopic TP post-IVF compared with negative or weak staining in spontaneous ectopic TP. CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin can serve as a marker of implantation. Differential expression of this adhesion molecule in TP post-IVF, when compared with natural conception, may reflect a different mechanism of embryo implantation. Moreover, the observation that E-cadherin is mostly expressed in trophoblasts, and not in the tubal wall, suggests that the preimplantation embryo may actively participate in locating a suitable implantation site.


Assuntos
Caderinas/biossíntese , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Tubária/etiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Gravidez , Regulação para Cima
11.
Hum Reprod Update ; 12(6): 731-46, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16982667

RESUMO

Human embryo implantation is a three-stage process (apposition, adhesion and invasion) involving synchronized crosstalk between a receptive endometrium and a functional blastocyst. This ovarian steroid-dependent phenomenon can only take place during the window of implantation, a self-limited period of endometrial receptivity spanning between days 20 and 24 of the menstrual cycle. Implantation involves a complex sequence of signalling events, consisting in the acquisition of adhesion ligands together with the loss of inhibitory components, which are crucial to the establishment of pregnancy. Histological evaluation, now considered to add little clinically significant information, should be replaced by functional assessment of endometrial receptivity. A large number of molecular mediators have been identified to date, including adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors, lipids and others. Thus, endometrial biopsy samples can be used to identify molecules associated with uterine receptivity to obtain a better insight into human implantation. In addition, development of functional in vitro systems to study embryo-uterine interactions will lead to better definition of the interactions existing between the molecules involved in this process. The purpose of this review was not only to describe the different players of the implantation process but also to try to portray the relationship between these factors and their timing in the process of uterine receptivity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Endométrio/fisiologia , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Gravidez
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