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1.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

2.
Trop Med Health ; 48(1): 89, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common endocrine abnormality in children, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The burden and risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in Lira District, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to promote health facility births and newborn care practices in Lira District, Northern Uganda. This study recruited neonates born to mothers in the parent study. Random blood glucose was measured using an On Call® Plus glucometer (ACON Laboratories, Inc., 10125 Mesa Road, San Diego, CA, USA). We defined hypoglycemia as a blood glucose of < 47 mg/dl. To determine the factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia, a multivariable linear regression mixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: We examined 1416 participants of mean age 3.1 days (standard deviation (SD) 2.1) and mean weight of 3.2 kg (SD 0.5). The mean neonatal blood glucose level was 81.6 mg/dl (SD 16.8). The prevalence of a blood glucose concentration of < 47 mg/dl was 2.2% (31/1416): 95% CI 1.2%, 3.9%. The risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia were delayed breastfeeding initiation [adjusted mean difference, - 2.6; 95% CI, - 4.4, - 0.79] and child age of 3 days or less [adjusted mean, - 12.2; 95% CI, - 14.0, - 10.4]. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was low in this community and was predicted by delay in initiating breastfeeding and a child age of 3 days or less. We therefore suggest targeted screening and management of neonatal hypoglycemia among neonates before 3 days of age and those who are delayed in the onset of breastfeeding.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1743496, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skilled birth attendants must be competent to provide prompt resuscitation to save newborn lives at birth. Both knowledge and skills (competence) decline with time after training but the optimal duration for refresher training among frontline-skilled birth attendants in low-resource settings is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of an innovative Helping-Babies-Breathe simulation-based teaching method using video-debriefing compared to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training on 1) neonatal resuscitation knowledge and skills attainment and 2) competence retention among skilled birth attendants in Northern Uganda. METHODS: A total of 26 health facilities with 86 birth attendants were equally randomised to intervention and control arms. The 2nd edition of the American Association of Pediatrics Helping-Babies-Breathe curriculum was used for training and assessment. Knowledge and skills were assessed pre- and post-training, and during follow-up at 6 months. A mixed effects linear regression model for repeated measures was used to assess the short and long-term effects of the intervention on neonatal resuscitation practices while accounting for clustering. RESULTS: Eighty-two (95.3%) skilled birth attendants completed follow-up at 6 months. Approximately 80% of these had no prior Helping-Babies-Breathe training and 75% reported practicing neonatal resuscitation routinely. Standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training with video-debriefing improved knowledge and skills attainment post-training [adjusted mean difference: 5.34; 95% CI: 0.82-10.78] and retention [adjusted mean difference: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.52-4.41] over 6 months post-training compared to standard training after adjusting for confounding and clustering. Factors that reduced knowledge and skills retention among birth attendants were monthly resuscitation of one neonate or more and being in service for more than 5 years. CONCLUSION: Adding video-debriefing to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training had an effect on birth attendants' competence attainment and retention over 6 months in Uganda. However, more research is needed to justify the proposed intervention in this context.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100814

RESUMO

Knowledge of key decision makers and actors in newborn care is necessary to ensure that health interventions are targeted at the right people. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with mothers being the key decision maker regarding where to give birth from and when to initiate breastfeeding. Fathers were the key decision makers on the place of birth (54.3%, n = 505) and on whether to seek care for a sick newborn child (47.7%, n = 92). Grandmothers most commonly bathed the baby immediately after birth (55.5%, n = 516), whereas mothers and health workers were common decision makers regarding breastfeeding initiation. Predictors for a mother being the key decision maker on the place of birth included: Mother having a secondary education (AOR 1.9: 95% C.I (1.0-3.6)) and mother being formally employed (AOR 2.0: 95% (1.5-2.9)). Mothers, fathers, grandmothers, health-workers, and traditional birth attendants were the most influential in the selected newborn care practices. Programs that aim to promote newborn care need to involve husbands, grandmothers, and health workers in addition to mothers.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Cuidado do Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tocologia , Mães , Parto , Gravidez , Uganda
6.
Glob Health Action ; 10(1): 1410975, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiation of breastfeeding later than 1 hour after birth is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 2016 of 930 children under the age of 2 years in Lira district, northern Uganda. Mothers of the children were interviewed and data was collected on mobile phones using Open Data Kit software ( https://opendatakit.org ). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. RESULTS: Almost half [48.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (44.3-52.1)] of the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Factors significantly associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding in multivariable analysis included caesarean delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 11.10 95% CI (3.73-33.04)], discarding initial breast milk [AOR 2.02 95% CI (1.41-2.88)], home delivery [AOR 1.43 95% CI (1.04-1.97)] and mother being responsible for initiating breastfeeding as compared to a health worker or relative [AOR 1.73 95% CI (1.33-2.26)]. Mothers having a secondary education were less likely [AOR 0.54 95% CI (0.30-0.96)] to delay initiation of breastfeeding as compared to those with no education. CONCLUSION: About half the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding until after 1 hour after birth. Programs to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in this post conflict region are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
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