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2.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(11): 4589-4603, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743860

RESUMO

Massive metagenomic sequencing combined with gene prediction methods were previously used to compile the gene catalogue of the ocean and host-associated microbes. Global expeditions conducted over the past 15 years have sampled the ocean to build a catalogue of genes from pelagic microbes. Here we undertook a large sequencing effort of a perturbed Red Sea plankton community to uncover that the rate of gene discovery increases continuously with sequencing effort, with no indication that the retrieved 2.83 million non-redundant (complete) genes predicted from the experiment represented a nearly complete inventory of the genes present in the sampled community (i.e., no evidence of saturation). The underlying reason is the Pareto-like distribution of the abundance of genes in the plankton community, resulting in a very long tail of millions of genes present at remarkably low abundances, which can only be retrieved through massive sequencing. Microbial metagenomic projects retrieve a variable number of unique genes per Tera base-pair (Tbp), with a median value of 14.7 million unique genes per Tbp sequenced across projects. The increase in the rate of gene discovery in microbial metagenomes with sequencing effort implies that there is ample room for new gene discovery in further ocean and holobiont sequencing studies.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 207, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolation of marine microorganisms is fundamental to gather information about their physiology, ecology and genomic content. To date, most of the bacterial isolation efforts have focused on the photic ocean leaving the deep ocean less explored. We have created a marine culture collection of heterotrophic bacteria (MARINHET) using a standard marine medium comprising a total of 1561 bacterial strains, and covering a variety of oceanographic regions from different seasons and years, from 2009 to 2015. Specifically, our marine collection contains isolates from both photic (817) and aphotic layers (744), including the mesopelagic (362) and the bathypelagic (382), from the North Western Mediterranean Sea, the North and South Atlantic Ocean, the Indian, the Pacific, and the Arctic Oceans. We described the taxonomy, the phylogenetic diversity and the biogeography of a fraction of the marine culturable microorganisms to enhance our knowledge about which heterotrophic marine isolates are recurrently retrieved across oceans and along different depths. RESULTS: The partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of all isolates revealed that they mainly affiliate with the classes Alphaproteobacteria (35.9%), Gammaproteobacteria (38.6%), and phylum Bacteroidetes (16.5%). In addition, Alteromonas and Erythrobacter genera were found the most common heterotrophic bacteria in the ocean growing in solid agar medium. When comparing all photic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic isolates sequences retrieved from different stations, 37% of them were 100% identical. This percentage increased up to 59% when mesopelagic and bathypelagic strains were grouped as the aphotic dataset and compared to the photic dataset of isolates, indicating the ubiquity of some bacterial isolates along different ocean depths. Finally, we isolated three strains that represent a new species, and the genome comparison and phenotypic characterization of two of these strains (ISS653 and ISS1889) concluded that they belong to a new species within the genus Mesonia. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study highlights the relevance of culture-dependent studies, with focus on marine isolated bacteria from different oceanographic regions and depths, to provide a more comprehensive view of the culturable marine bacteria as part of the total marine microbial diversity.

4.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(8): 987-994, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514073

RESUMO

The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recognizes cultures as 'type material', thereby preventing the naming of uncultivated organisms. In this Consensus Statement, we propose two potential paths to solve this nomenclatural conundrum. One option is the adoption of previously proposed modifications to the ICNP to recognize DNA sequences as acceptable type material; the other option creates a nomenclatural code for uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria that could eventually be merged with the ICNP in the future. Regardless of the path taken, we believe that action is needed now within the scientific community to develop consistent rules for nomenclature of uncultivated taxa in order to provide clarity and stability, and to effectively communicate microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Metagenoma , Filogenia , Células Procarióticas/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Terminologia como Assunto
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4329-4338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589567

RESUMO

Strain ISS653T, isolated from Atlantic seawater, is a yellow pigmented, non-motile, Gram-reaction-negative rod-shaped bacterium, strictly aerobic and chemoorganotrophic, slightly halophilic (1-15 % NaCl) and mesophilic (4-37 °C), oxidase- and catalase-positive and proteolytic. Its major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH; the major identified phospholipid is phosphatidylethanolamine and the major respiratory quinone is MK6. Genome size is 4.28 Mbp and DNA G+C content is 34.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity places the strain among members of the family Flavobacteriaceae, with the type strains of Mesonia phycicola (93.2 %), Salegentibacter mishustinae (93.1 %) and Mesonia mobilis (92.9 %) as closest relatives. Average amino acid identity (AAI) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) indices show highest values with M. mobilis (81 % AAI; 78.9 % ANI), M. phycicola (76 % AAI; 76.3 % ANI), Mesonia maritima (72 % AAI, 74.9 % ANI), Mesonia hippocampi (64 % AAI, 70.8 % ANI) and Mesonia algae (68 % AAI; 72.2 % ANI). Phylogenomic analysis using the Up-to-date-Bacterial Core Gene set (UBCG) merges strain ISS653T in a clade with species of the genus Mesonia. We conclude that strain ISS653T represents a novel species of the genus Mesonia for which we propose the name Mesonia oceanica sp. nov., and strain ISS653T (=CECT 9532T=LMG 31236T) as the type strain. A second strain of the species, ISS1889 (=CECT 30008) was isolated from Pacific Ocean seawater. Data obtained throughout the Tara oceans expedition indicate that the species is more abundant in the mesopelagic dark ocean than in the photic layer and it is more frequent in the South Pacific, Indian and North Atlantic oceans.


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Oceano Atlântico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Oceano Pacífico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
6.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 18(8): 428-445, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398798

RESUMO

A planetary-scale understanding of the ocean ecosystem, particularly in light of climate change, is crucial. Here, we review the work of Tara Oceans, an international, multidisciplinary project to assess the complexity of ocean life across comprehensive taxonomic and spatial scales. Using a modified sailing boat, the team sampled plankton at 210 globally distributed sites at depths down to 1,000 m. We describe publicly available resources of molecular, morphological and environmental data, and discuss how an ecosystems biology approach has expanded our understanding of plankton diversity and ecology in the ocean as a planetary, interconnected ecosystem. These efforts illustrate how global-scale concepts and data can help to integrate biological complexity into models and serve as a baseline for assessing ecosystem changes and the future habitability of our planet in the Anthropocene epoch.

7.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 55, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ocean microbiota modulates global biogeochemical cycles and changes in its configuration may have large-scale consequences. Yet, the underlying ecological mechanisms structuring it are unclear. Here, we investigate how fundamental ecological mechanisms (selection, dispersal and ecological drift) shape the smallest members of the tropical and subtropical surface-ocean microbiota: prokaryotes and minute eukaryotes (picoeukaryotes). Furthermore, we investigate the agents exerting abiotic selection on this assemblage as well as the spatial patterns emerging from the action of ecological mechanisms. To explore this, we analysed the composition of surface-ocean prokaryotic and picoeukaryotic communities using DNA-sequence data (16S- and 18S-rRNA genes) collected during the circumglobal expeditions Malaspina-2010 and TARA-Oceans. RESULTS: We found that the two main components of the tropical and subtropical surface-ocean microbiota, prokaryotes and picoeukaryotes, appear to be structured by different ecological mechanisms. Picoeukaryotic communities were predominantly structured by dispersal-limitation, while prokaryotic counterparts appeared to be shaped by the combined action of dispersal-limitation, selection and drift. Temperature-driven selection appeared as a major factor, out of a few selected factors, influencing species co-occurrence networks in prokaryotes but not in picoeukaryotes, indicating that association patterns may contribute to understand ocean microbiota structure and response to selection. Other measured abiotic variables seemed to have limited selective effects on community structure in the tropical and subtropical ocean. Picoeukaryotes displayed a higher spatial differentiation between communities and a higher distance decay when compared to prokaryotes, consistent with a scenario of higher dispersal limitation in the former after considering environmental heterogeneity. Lastly, random dynamics or drift seemed to have a more important role in structuring prokaryotic communities than picoeukaryotic counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The differential action of ecological mechanisms seems to cause contrasting biogeography, in the tropical and subtropical ocean, among the smallest surface plankton, prokaryotes and picoeukaryotes. This suggests that the idiosyncrasy of the main constituents of the ocean microbiota should be considered in order to understand its current and future configuration, which is especially relevant in a context of global change, where the reaction of surface ocean plankton to temperature increase is still unclear. Video Abstract.

8.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 20(3)2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065492

RESUMO

Surveying microbial diversity and function is accomplished by combining complementary molecular tools. Among them, metagenomics is a PCR free approach that contains all genetic information from microbial assemblages and is today performed at a relatively large scale and reasonable cost, mostly based on very short reads. Here, we investigated the potential of metagenomics to provide taxonomic reports of marine microbial eukaryotes. We prepared a curated database with reference sequences of the V4 region of 18S rDNA clustered at 97% similarity and used this database to extract and classify metagenomic reads. More than half of them were unambiguously affiliated to a unique reference whilst the rest could be assigned to a given taxonomic group. The overall diversity reported by metagenomics was similar to that obtained by amplicon sequencing of the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene, although either one or both of these amplicon surveys performed poorly for groups like Excavata, Amoebozoa, Fungi and Haptophyta. We then studied the diversity of picoeukaryotes and nanoeukaryotes using 91 metagenomes from surface down to bathypelagic layers in different oceans, unveiling a clear taxonomic separation between size fractions and depth layers. Finally, we retrieved long rDNA sequences from assembled metagenomes that improved phylogenetic reconstructions of particular groups. Overall, this study shows metagenomics as an excellent resource for taxonomic exploration of marine microbial eukaryotes.

9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1231-1239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793854

RESUMO

Strain ISS155T, isolated from surface Mediterranean seawater, has cells that are Gram-reaction-negative, motile, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic, oxidase-positive, unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite, and able to grow with cellulose as the sole carbon and energy source. It is mesophilic, neutrophilic, slightly halophilic and has a requirement for sodium and magnesium ions. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence places the strain among members of Cellvibrionaceae, in the Gammaproteobacteria, with Agarilytica rhodophyticola 017T as closest relative (94.3 % similarity). Its major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 1, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1; major phospholipids are phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and an unidentified lipid, and the major respiratory quinone is Q8. The genome size is 6.09 Mbp and G+C content is 45.2 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis using UBCG merges strain ISS155T in a clade with A. rhodophyticola, Teredinibacter turnerae, Saccharophagus degradans and Agaribacterium haliotis type strain genomes, all of them possessing a varied array of carbohydrate-active enzymes and the potential for polysaccharide degradation. Average amino acid identity indexes determined against available Cellvibrionaceae type strain genomes show that strain ISS155T is related to them by values lower than 60 %, with a maximum of 58 % to A. rhodophyticola 017T and 57 % to T. turnerae T7902T and S. degradans 2-40T. These results, together with the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and differences in phenotypic profiles, indicate that strain ISS155T represents a new genus and species in Cellvibrionaceae, for which we propose the name Thalassocella blandensis gen. nov., sp. nov., and strain ISS155T (=CECT 9533T=LMG 31237T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Phyllobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Phyllobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18710, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822687

RESUMO

Global ocean expeditions have provided minimum estimates of ocean's prokaryote diversity, supported by apparent asymptotes in the number of prokaryotes with sampling effort, of about 40,000 species, representing <1% of the species cataloged in the Earth Microbiome Project, despite being the largest habitat in the biosphere. Here we demonstrate that the abundance of prokaryote OTUs follows a scaling that can be represented by a power-law distribution, and as a consequence, we demonstrate, mathematically and through simulations, that the asymptote of rarefaction curves is an apparent one, which is only reached with sample sizes approaching the entire ecosystem. We experimentally confirm these findings using exhaustive repeated sampling of a prokaryote community in the Red Sea and the exploration of global assessments of prokaryote diversity in the ocean. Our findings indicate that, far from having achieved a thorough sampling of prokaryote species abundance in the ocean, global expeditions provide just a start for this quest as the richness in the global ocean is much larger than estimated.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Biodiversidade , Células Procarióticas/classificação , Demografia , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Microbiota , Modelos Teóricos , Densidade Demográfica , Água do Mar
11.
Cell ; 179(5): 1068-1083.e21, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730850

RESUMO

Ocean microbial communities strongly influence the biogeochemistry, food webs, and climate of our planet. Despite recent advances in understanding their taxonomic and genomic compositions, little is known about how their transcriptomes vary globally. Here, we present a dataset of 187 metatranscriptomes and 370 metagenomes from 126 globally distributed sampling stations and establish a resource of 47 million genes to study community-level transcriptomes across depth layers from pole-to-pole. We examine gene expression changes and community turnover as the underlying mechanisms shaping community transcriptomes along these axes of environmental variation and show how their individual contributions differ for multiple biogeochemically relevant processes. Furthermore, we find the relative contribution of gene expression changes to be significantly lower in polar than in non-polar waters and hypothesize that in polar regions, alterations in community activity in response to ocean warming will be driven more strongly by changes in organismal composition than by gene regulatory mechanisms. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metagenoma , Oceanos e Mares , Transcriptoma/genética , Geografia , Microbiota/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Temperatura
12.
Cell ; 179(5): 1084-1097.e21, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730851

RESUMO

The ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most planktonic groups toward the poles, mainly driven by decreasing ocean temperatures. Projections into the future suggest that severe warming of the surface ocean by the end of the 21st century could lead to tropicalization of the diversity of most planktonic groups in temperate and polar regions. These changes may have multiple consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and services and are expected to be particularly significant in key areas for carbon sequestration, fisheries, and marine conservation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Plâncton/fisiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
13.
Mol Ecol ; 28(11): 2846-2859, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830717

RESUMO

Bacteroidetes is one of the dominant phyla of ocean bacterioplankton, yet its diversity and population structure is poorly understood. To advance in the delineation of ecologically meaningful units within this group, we constructed near full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from contrasting marine environments in the NW Mediterranean. Based on phylogeny and the associated ecological variables (depth and season), 24 different Bacteroidetes clades were delineated. By considering their relative abundance (from iTag amplicon sequencing studies), we described the distribution patterns of each of these clades, delimiting them as Ecologically Significant Taxonomic Units (ESTUs). Spatially, there was almost no overlap among ESTUs at different depths. In deep waters there was predominance of Owenweeksia, Leeuwenhoekiella, Muricauda-related genera, and some depth-associated ESTUs within the NS5 and NS2b marine clades. Seasonally, multi-annual dynamics of recurring ESTUs were present with dominance of some ESTUs within the NS4, NS5 and NS2b marine clades along most of the year, but with variable relative frequencies between months. A drastic change towards the predominance of Formosa-related ESTUs and one ESTU from the NS5 marine clade was typically present after the spring bloom. Even though there are no isolates available for these ESTUs to determine their physiology, correlation analyses identified the environmental preference of some of them. Overall, our results suggest that there is a high degree of niche specialisation within these closely related clades. This work constitutes a step forward in disentangling the ecology of marine Bacteroidetes, which are essential players in organic matter processing in the oceans.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Bacteroidetes/genética , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia Ambiental , Variação Genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(7)2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709827

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA gene has been used successfully to describe the structure and dynamics of microbial communities. Picocyanobacteria are important members of bacterioplankton communities, and, so far, they have predominantly been targeted using universal bacterial primers, providing a limited resolution of the picocyanobacterial community structure and dynamics. To increase such resolution, the study of a particular target group is best approached with the use of specific primers. Here, we aimed to design and evaluate specific primers for aquatic picocyanobacterial genera to be used with high-throughput sequencing. Since the various regions of the 16S rRNA gene have different degrees of conservation in different bacterial groups, we therefore first determined which hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene provides the highest taxonomic and phylogenetic resolution for the genera Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and Cyanobium An in silico analysis showed that the V5, V6, and V7 hypervariable regions appear to be the most informative for this group. We then designed primers flanking these hypervariable regions and tested them in natural marine and freshwater communities. We successfully detected that most (97%) of the obtained reads could be assigned to picocyanobacterial genera. We defined operational taxonomic units as exact sequence variants (zero-radius operational taxonomic units [zOTUs]), which allowed us to detect higher genetic diversity and infer ecologically relevant information about picocyanobacterial community composition and dynamics in different aquatic systems. Our results open the door to future studies investigating picocyanobacterial diversity in aquatic systems.IMPORTANCE The molecular diversity of the aquatic picocyanobacterial community cannot be accurately described using only the available universal 16S rRNA gene primers that target the whole bacterial and archaeal community. We show that the hypervariable regions V5, V6, and V7 of the 16S rRNA gene are better suited to study the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of picocyanobacterial communities at a fine scale using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Due to its variability, it allows reconstructing phylogenies featuring topologies comparable to those generated when using the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence. Further, we successfully designed a new set of primers flanking the V5 to V7 region whose specificity for picocyanobacterial genera was tested in silico and validated in several freshwater and marine aquatic communities. This work represents a step forward for understanding the diversity and ecology of aquatic picocyanobacteria and sets the path for future studies on picocyanobacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota , Filogenia , Argentina , Simulação por Computador , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA/genética , Primers do DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ecologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Prochlorococcus/classificação , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Synechococcus/classificação , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação
15.
Mol Ecol ; 28(8): 1930-1945, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663830

RESUMO

Microbial taxa range from being ubiquitous and abundant across space to extremely rare and endemic, depending on their ecophysiology and on different processes acting locally or regionally. However, little is known about how cosmopolitan or rare taxa combine to constitute communities and whether environmental variations promote changes in their relative abundances. Here we identified the Spatial Abundance Distribution (SpAD) of individual prokaryotic taxa (16S rDNA-defined Operational Taxonomic Units, OTUs) across 108 globally-distributed surface ocean stations. We grouped taxa based on their SpAD shape ("normal-like"- abundant and ubiquitous; "logistic"- globally rare, present in few sites; and "bimodal"- abundant only in certain oceanic regions), and investigated how the abundance of these three categories relates to environmental gradients. Most surface assemblages were numerically dominated by a few cosmopolitan "normal-like" OTUs, yet there was a gradual shift towards assemblages dominated by "logistic" taxa in specific areas with productivity and temperature differing the most from the average conditions in the sampled stations. When we performed the SpAD categorization including additional habitats (deeper layers and particles of varying sizes), the SpAD of many OTUs changed towards fewer "normal-like" shapes, and OTUs categorized as globally rare in the surface ocean became abundant. This suggests that understanding the mechanisms behind microbial rarity and dominance requires expanding the context of study beyond local communities and single habitats. We show that marine bacterial communities comprise taxa displaying a continuum of SpADs, and that variations in their abundances can be linked to habitat transitions or barriers that delimit the distribution of community members.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Temperatura
16.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(1): 111-124, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255541

RESUMO

The symbiotic unicellular cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is one of the most abundant and widespread nitrogen (N2 )-fixing cyanobacteria in the ocean. Although it remains uncultivated, multiple sublineages have been detected based on partial nitrogenase (nifH) gene sequences, including the four most commonly detected sublineages UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2, UCYN-A3 and UCYN-A4. However, very little is known about UCYN-A3 beyond the nifH sequences from nifH gene diversity surveys. In this study, single cell sorting, DNA sequencing, qPCR and CARD-FISH assays revealed discrepancies involving the identification of sublineages, which led to new information on the diversity of the UCYN-A symbiosis. 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing on single sorted cells allowed us to identify the 16S rRNA gene of the uncharacterized UCYN-A3 sublineage. We designed new CARD-FISH probes that allowed us to distinguish and observe UCYN-A2 in a coastal location (SIO Pier; San Diego) and UCYN-A3 in an open ocean location (Station ALOHA; Hawaii). Moreover, we reconstructed about 13% of the UCYN-A3 genome from Tara Oceans metagenomic data. Finally, our findings unveil the UCYN-A3 symbiosis in open ocean waters suggesting that the different UCYN-A sublineages are distributed along different size fractions of the plankton defined by the cell-size ranges of their prymnesiophyte hosts.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Haptófitas/microbiologia , Haptófitas/fisiologia , Hawaii , Nitrogenase/genética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Simbiose
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(9): E2010-E2019, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440402

RESUMO

Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria are major contributors to global oceanic primary production and exhibit a unique diversity of photosynthetic pigments, allowing them to exploit a wide range of light niches. However, the relationship between pigment content and niche partitioning has remained largely undetermined due to the lack of a single-genetic marker resolving all pigment types (PTs). Here, we developed and employed a robust method based on three distinct marker genes (cpcBA, mpeBA, and mpeW) to estimate the relative abundance of all known Synechococcus PTs from metagenomes. Analysis of the Tara Oceans dataset allowed us to reveal the global distribution of Synechococcus PTs and to define their environmental niches. Green-light specialists (PT 3a) dominated in warm, green equatorial waters, whereas blue-light specialists (PT 3c) were particularly abundant in oligotrophic areas. Type IV chromatic acclimaters (CA4-A/B), which are able to dynamically modify their light absorption properties to maximally absorb green or blue light, were unexpectedly the most abundant PT in our dataset and predominated at depth and high latitudes. We also identified populations in which CA4 might be nonfunctional due to the lack of specific CA4 genes, notably in warm high-nutrient low-chlorophyll areas. Major ecotypes within clades I-IV and CRD1 were preferentially associated with a particular PT, while others exhibited a wide range of PTs. Altogether, this study provides important insights into the ecology of Synechococcus and highlights the complex interactions between vertical phylogeny, pigmentation, and environmental parameters that shape Synechococcus community structure and evolution.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Cianobactérias/genética , Oceanos e Mares , Ficobilissomas/fisiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Synechococcus/genética , Clorofila/química , Cor , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Luz , Funções Verossimilhança , Metagenoma , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Filogenia , Pigmentação
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 142, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321528

RESUMO

Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - ß-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. ß-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.


Assuntos
Peixes , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton , Animais , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal , Plâncton , População
19.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1317, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790980

RESUMO

Marine Bacteroidetes constitute a very abundant bacterioplankton group in the oceans that plays a key role in recycling particulate organic matter and includes several photoheterotrophic members containing proteorhodopsin. Relatively few marine Bacteroidetes species have been described and, moreover, they correspond to cultured isolates, which in most cases do not represent the actual abundant or ecologically relevant microorganisms in the natural environment. In this study, we explored the microdiversity of 98 Single Amplified Genomes (SAGs) retrieved from the surface waters of the underexplored North Indian Ocean, whose most closely related isolate is Kordia algicida OT-1. Using Multi Locus Sequencing Analysis (MLSA) we found no microdiversity in the tested conserved phylogenetic markers (16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes), the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer and the functional markers proteorhodopsin and the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase. Furthermore, we carried out a Fragment Recruitment Analysis (FRA) with marine metagenomes to learn about the distribution and dynamics of this microorganism in different locations, depths and size fractions. This analysis indicated that this taxon belongs to the rare biosphere, showing its highest abundance after upwelling-induced phytoplankton blooms and sinking to the deep ocean with large organic matter particles. This uncultured Kordia lineage likely represents a novel Kordia species (Kordia sp. CFSAG39SUR) that contains the proteorhodopsin gene and has a widespread spatial and vertical distribution. The combination of SAGs and MLSA makes a valuable approach to infer putative ecological roles of uncultured abundant microorganisms.

20.
Nat Microbiol ; 2(10): 1350-1357, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785078

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are important contributors to primary production in the open oceans. Over the past decade, various photosynthesis-related genes have been found in viruses that infect cyanobacteria (cyanophages). Although photosystem II (PSII) genes are common in both cultured cyanophages and environmental samples 1-4 , viral photosystem I (vPSI) genes have so far only been detected in environmental samples 5,6 . Here, we have used a targeted strategy to isolate a cyanophage from the tropical Pacific Ocean that carries a PSI gene cassette with seven distinct PSI genes (psaJF, C, A, B, K, E, D) as well as two PSII genes (psbA, D). This cyanophage, P-TIM68, belongs to the T4-like myoviruses, has a prolate capsid, a long contractile tail and infects Prochlorococcus sp. strain MIT9515. Phage photosynthesis genes from both photosystems are expressed during infection, and the resultant proteins are incorporated into membranes of the infected host. Moreover, photosynthetic capacity in the cell is maintained throughout the infection cycle with enhancement of cyclic electron flow around PSI. Analysis of metagenomic data from the Tara Oceans expedition 7 shows that phages carrying PSI gene cassettes are abundant in the tropical Pacific Ocean, composing up to 28% of T4-like cyanomyophages. They are also present in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans. P-TIM68 populations, specifically, compose on average 22% of the PSI-gene-cassette carrying phages. Our results suggest that cyanophages carrying PSI and PSII genes are likely to maintain and even manipulate photosynthesis during infection of their Prochlorococcus hosts in the tropical oceans.


Assuntos
Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Myoviridae/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/virologia , Oceano Atlântico , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Virais/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Myoviridae/classificação , Myoviridae/patogenicidade , Myoviridae/ultraestrutura , Oceano Pacífico , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética
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