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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resuscitation after cardiac surgery needs to address multiple pathophysiological processes that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Functional microcirculatory derangements despite normal systemic hemodynamics have been previously described but must be tied to clinical outcomes. The authors hypothesized that microcirculatory dysfunction after cardiac surgery would include impaired capillary blood flow and impaired diffusive capacity and that subjects with the lowest quartile of perfused vessel density would have an increased postoperative lactate level and acute organ injury scores. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: A single, tertiary university cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: 25 adults undergoing elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION: Sublingual microcirculation was imaged using incident dark field microscopy before and 2 to 4 hours after surgery in the intensive care unit. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with baseline measurements, postoperative vessel-by-vessel microvascular flow index (2.9 [2.8-2.9] v 2.5 [2.4-2.7], p < 0.0001) and perfused vessel density were significantly impaired (20.7 [19.3-22.9] v 16.3 [12.8-17.9], p < 0.0001). The lowest quartile of perfused vessel density (<12.8 mm/mm2) was associated with a significantly increased postoperative lactate level (6.0 ± 2.9 v 1.8 ± 1.2, p < 0.05), peak lactate level (7.6 ± 2.8 v 2.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.03), and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at 24 and 48 hours. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, there was a significant decrease in postoperative microcirculatory convective blood flow and diffusive capacity during early postoperative resuscitation. Severely impaired perfused vessel density, represented by the lowest quartile of distribution, is significantly related to hyperlactatemia and early organ injury.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two trials (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation Trial and Percutaneous Repair with the MitraClip Device for Severe Functional/Secondary Mitral Regurgitation Trial) were published in 2018 evaluating the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter repair for patients with heart failure with significant functional mitral regurgitation, which yielded different results. This article reviews the strength of the evidence, differences in trial designs, ethical and implementation implications, and delineates future research needs to help guide the appropriate dissemination of transcatheter repair for functional patients with mitral regurgitation. METHODS: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop of interdisciplinary experts to address these objectives. RESULTS: Transcatheter repair of functional mitral regurgitation can provide significant benefits in terms of heart failure hospitalizations, survival, and quality of life when appropriate heart failure candidates with moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation while on optimal guideline-directed medical therapy can be identified. Key ingredients for success are preoperative evaluation and management and postoperative care by an interdisciplinary heart team. CONCLUSIONS: Given the discordance observed between trials, ongoing innovation in patient management, and potential expansion of indications for use, the evidence base must be expanded to optimize appropriate implementation of this complex therapy. This will require more complete capture of outcome data in real-world settings for all eligible candidates whether or not they receive this therapy. Inevitably, the indications for use of this therapy will expand, as will the devices and therapeutic approaches for this population, necessitating the study of comparative effectiveness through randomized trials or observational studies. Moreover, given the substantial variations in care delivery, conducting implementation research to delineate characteristics of the optimal care model would be of benefit.

3.
Clin Transplant ; : e13901, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400887

RESUMO

We assessed the impact of donor multiorgan procurement on survival following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). From the UNOS STAR database, we included all adult (≥18 Y) heart transplants (OHT) performed since 2000 and used donor IDs to determine how many other organs were procured from the same donor as the recipient's heart allograft (regardless of recipient). The Kaplan-Meier survival functions and risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were computed to assess the association of multiorgan procurement with post-heart transplantation mortality. We included 40 336 OHT patients. Including the heart, the median number of donor organs procured was 3 (IQR, 3-4). Heart donors underwent liver procurement in 89.7%; kidney(s) in 98.1% (single 95%, bilateral 5%); lung(s) in 38.0% (single 28%, bilateral 72%); pancreas in 10.4%; and intestine in 1.6%. Following risk adjustment across 16 recipient- and donor-specific variables, an increasing number of organs procured were independently associated with reduced post-OHT mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, P = .025). Though no significant associations were found examining specific organ types, double lung procurement trended toward a protective effect (HR 0.96, 0.92-1.01, P = .086), with counts of non-lung organs procured still bordering on significance (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, P = .067). These results likely reflect improved multiorgan donor quality.

5.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative bradycardia can complicate orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Previous studies suggested donor age and surgical technique as possible risk factors. However, risk factors in the era of bicaval anastomosis have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between donor/recipient characteristics with need for chronotropic support and permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation in patients with OHT. METHODS: All patients treated with OHT between January 2003 and January 2018 at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania were retrospectively evaluated until June 2018. Chronotropic support was given upon postoperative inability to increase the heart rate to patient's demands and included disproportionate bradycardia and junctional rhythm. RESULTS: A total of 820 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.6 years; 74% men) underwent 826 OHT procedures (95.3% bicaval anastomosis). Patients who were exposed to amiodarone (odds ratio [OR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-3.34; P < .001) and have older donor (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.04; P = .001) were more likely to develop need for chronotropic support. In multivariable analysis, recipient age (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.06; P = .04) and biatrial anastomosis (OR 6.12; 95% CI 2.48-15.09) were significantly associated with PPM implantation within 6 months of OHT. No association was found between pre-OHT amiodarone use and PPM implantation. No risk factors assessed were associated with PPM implantation 6 months after OHT. CONCLUSION: Surgical technique and donor age were the main risk factors for the need for chronotropic support post-OHT, whereas surgical technique and recipient age were risk factors for early PPM implantation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to assess the safety of overlap in cardiac surgery. METHODS: Coarsened exact matching was used to assess the impact of overlap on outcomes among cardiac surgical interventions (n = 4463) over 2 years (2014-2016). Overlap was categorized as any, beginning, or end overlap. Study subjects were matched 1:1 on 11 variables, including Charlson comorbidity score, surgical costs, body mass index, length of postoperative hospitalization, and race, among others. Serious unanticipated events were studied, including readmission, unplanned return to the operating room, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 984 patients had any overlap and were matched to similar patients without overlap (n = 1501). For beginning/end overlap, separate matched groups were created (n = 462, n = 329 patients, respectively). Among matched patients, any overlap did not predict unanticipated return to surgery at 30 or 90 days. Any overlap did not predict increased readmission, reoperation, or emergency department visits at 30 or 90 days. Overlap did not predict higher rates of death over follow-up. Beginning/end overlap had results similar to any overlap. CONCLUSIONS: Nonconcurrent, overlapping surgery is not associated with an increase in adverse outcomes in a large, matched cardiac surgery population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The dissemination of mitral valve repair as the first-line treatment and the introduction of MitraClip for patients who have a prohibitive risk for surgery have changed the landscape of mitral valve intervention. The aim of this study is to provide current and generalizable data regarding the trend of mitral valve interventions and outcomes from 2000 to 2016. METHODS: Patients ≥18 years of age who underwent mitral-valve interventions were identified using the National Inpatient Sample database. National estimates were generated by means of discharge weights; comorbid conditions were identified using Elixhauser methods. All trends were analyzed with JoinPoint software. RESULTS: A total of 656,030 mitral valve interventions (298,102 mitral valve replacement, 349,053 mitral valve repair, and 8875 MitraClip) were assessed. No changes in rate of procedures (per 100,000 people in the United States) were observed over this period (annual percent change, -0.4; 95% confidence limit, -1.1 to 0.3; P = .3). From 2000 to 2010, the number of replacements decreased by 5.6% per year (P < .001), whereas repair increased by 8.4% per year from 2000 to 2006 (P < .001). MitraClip procedures increased by 84.4% annually from 2013 to 2016 (P < .001). The burden of comorbidities increased throughout the study for all groups, with the greatest score for MitraClip recipients. Overall, length of stay has decreased for all interventions, most significantly for MitraClip. In-hospital mortality decreased from 8.5% to 3.7% for all interventions, with MitraClip having the most substantial decrease from 3.6% to 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 17-year period, mitral-valve interventions were associated with improved outcomes despite being applied to an increasingly sicker population.

8.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(6): 2230-2240.e15, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network reported that left ventricular reverse remodeling at 2 years did not differ between patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair (n = 150) or coronary artery bypass grafting alone (n = 151). To address health resource use implications, we compared costs and quality-adjusted survival. METHODS: We used individual patient data from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial on survival, hospitalizations, quality of life, and US hospitalization costs to estimate cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years. A microsimulation model was developed to extrapolate to 10 years. Bootstrap and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty. RESULTS: In-hospital costs were $59,745 for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair versus $51,326 for coronary artery bypass grafting alone (difference $8419; 95% uncertainty interval, 2259-18,757). Two-year costs were $81,263 versus $67,341 (difference 13,922 [2370 to 28,888]), and quality-adjusted life years were 1.35 versus 1.30 (difference 0.05; -0.04 to 0.14), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $308,343/quality-adjusted life year for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair. At 10 years, its costs remained higher ($107,733 vs $88,583, difference 19,150 [-3866 to 56,826]) and quality-adjusted life years showed no difference (-0.92 to 0.87), with 5.08 versus 5.08. The likelihood that coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair would be considered cost-effective at 10 years based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100K/quality-adjusted life year did not exceed 37%. Only when this procedure reduces the death rate by a relative 5% will the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio fall below $100K/quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation is unlikely to be cost-effective. Only if late mortality benefits can be demonstrated will it meet commonly used cost-effectiveness criteria.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(6): 1729-1737, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postsurgical readmissions are an increasingly scrutinized marker of health care quality. We sought to estimate the risk factors and costs associated with readmissions after mitral valve (MV) surgery in a large, nationally representative cohort. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing MV repair or replacement were queried from the National Readmissions Database from 2010 to 2014. Data were collected on the prevalence and indications for readmission within 30 days as well as the hospital-, procedure, and patient-level risk factors as determined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 76,342 patients undergoing MV surgery, the rate of 30-day readmission was 17.0%. Those undergoing replacement procedures had significantly higher readmission rates (20.7% vs 13.1%; P < .001) compared with repair. Significant independent predictors of readmission after both MV repair and replacement included length of stay ≥8 days, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and low hospital procedural volume for MV surgery. Readmissions to nonindex hospitals accounted for 26.6% of all readmissions. The most common indications for readmission were heart failure (21.4%), arrhythmia (17.0%) and respiratory diagnoses (15.0%), and infections (10.2%). The mean cost per readmission was $15,397, and among readmitted patients, the cost of readmission accounted for 17.8% of the total cost of the episode of care. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 5 patients undergoing MV surgery are readmitted within 30 days. Treatment at a low-volume center was strongly associated with readmission, and much of the readmission burden falls on nonindex hospitals. Further characterization of readmissions may improve the quality of care associated with MV surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/economia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Innovations (Phila) ; 14(5): 412-418, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of concomitant tricuspid valve surgery (TVS) negatively impacted operative outcomes of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS). METHODS: Patients undergoing MIMVS via a port-access right minithoracotomy between 2002 and 2014 at a single institution were reviewed. Patients were primarily stratified by those undergoing isolated MIMVS versus MIMVS+TVS. Propensity-matched cohorts were generated. Operative outcomes were compared between the propensity-matched cohorts and included operative mortality, complications, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 1,158 patients underwent MIMVS via port-access right minithoracotomy. The majority of cases were elective (93%; n = 1,071) and 148 (13%) underwent concomitant MIMVS + TVS. Patients undergoing MIMVS + TVS were at higher risk at baseline. After propensity-matching, there were 119 isolated MIMVS and 119 MIMVS + TVS patients that were well matched with respect to all baseline variables. Cardiopulmonary bypass (148 ± 54 minutes versus 175 ± 54 minutes, P < 0.001) and aortic occlusion times (105 ± 36 minutes versus 128 ± 40 minutes, P < 0.001) were longer in the MIMVS + TVS group. Operative mortality was comparable (3% isolated MIMVS versus 4% for MIMVS + TVS; P = 0.73). Permanent pacemakers were required less frequently in the isolated MIMVS group (1% versus 6%; P = 0.03). All other complication rates were similar. Median length of hospital stay (7 versus 8 days; P = 0.13) and discharge-to-home rates (89% versus 94%; P = 0.15) were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Despite longer operative times, minimally invasive TVS performed concomitantly with MIMVS has similar operative outcomes with the exception of a higher pacemaker rate when compared with isolated MIMVS.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Idoso , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
12.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant volume varies significantly among centers. We hypothesized that centers where the transplant team routinely accepts organs previously declined by other centers and where operating room availability is unrestricted have higher transplant volumes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the potential transplant recipient sequence number in the United Network for Organ Sharing database as a surrogate for graft acceptance threshold and the number of transplantations occurring on weekends and 8 major holidays as a marker of center resource availability. Centers were classified as low-, medium-, or high-volume if the average annual number of transplants were, respectively, <10, 10-30, or >30 over a 10-year period. From July 12, 2006, to December 31, 2015, 19,054 transplants were performed by 142 centers. There were 59 low-volume centers, 69 medium-volume centers, and 14 high-volume centers with median potential transplant recipient sequence numbers for transplanted candidates of 7 (interquartile range 3-11), 7 (5-10), and 15 (7-40), respectively (P = .002). The median proportion of off-hours transplantations performed by medium-volume centers was 28% (25%-31%) compared with 32% (29%-33%) by high-volume centers (P = .009). Five-year survival was equivalent among all centers (P = .053). CONCLUSIONS: Transplants for candidates with high sequence numbers and unrestricted operating room availability are associated with increased center volume without sacrificing post-transplantation survival.

13.
JAMA ; 321(12): 1176-1186, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912838

RESUMO

Importance: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy improves myocardial function, but few patients recover sufficiently for explant, which has focused attention on stem cells to augment cardiac recovery. Objective: To assess efficacy and adverse effects of intramyocardial injections of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) during LVAD implant. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial involving patients with advanced heart failure, undergoing LVAD implant, at 19 North American centers (July 2015-August 2017). The 1-year follow-up ended August 2018. Interventions: Intramyocardial injections of 150 million allogeneic MPCs or cryoprotective medium as a sham treatment in a 2:1 ratio (n = 106 vs n = 53). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of successful temporary weans (of 3 planned assessments) from LVAD support within 6 months of randomization. This end point was assessed using a Bayesian analysis with a predefined threshold of a posterior probability of 80% to indicate success. The 1-year primary safety end point was the incidence of intervention-related adverse events (myocarditis, myocardial rupture, neoplasm, hypersensitivity reactions, and immune sensitization). Secondary end points included readmissions and adverse events at 6 months and 1-year survival. Results: Of 159 patients (mean age, 56 years; 11.3% women), 155 (97.5%) completed 1-year of follow-up. The posterior probability that MPCs increased the likelihood of successful weaning was 69%; below the predefined threshold for success. The mean proportion of successful temporary weaning from LVAD support over 6 months was 61% in the MPC group and 58% in the control group (rate ratio [RR], 1.08; 95% CI, 0.83-1.41; P = .55). No patient experienced a primary safety end point. Of 10 prespecified secondary end points reported, 9 did not reach statistical significance. One-year mortality was not significantly different between the MPC group and the control group (14.2% vs 15.1%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95%, CI, 0.38-2.11; P = .80). The rate of serious adverse events was not significantly different between groups (70.9 vs 78.7 per 100 patient-months; difference, -7.89; 95% CI, -39.95 to 24.17; P = .63) nor was the rate of readmissions (0.68 vs 0.75 per 100 patient-months; difference, -0.07; 95% CI, -0.41 to 0.27; P = .68). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with advanced heart failure, intramyocardial injections of mesenchymal precursor cells, compared with injections of a cryoprotective medium as sham treatment, did not improve successful temporary weaning from left ventricular assist device support at 6 months. The findings do not support the use of intramyocardial mesenchymal stem cells to promote cardiac recovery as measured by temporary weaning from device support. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02362646.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Teorema de Bayes , Remoção de Dispositivo , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio , Falha de Prótese , Volume Sistólico , Falha de Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda
14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(1): 234-243.e9, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use novel statistical methods for analyzing the effect of lesion set on (long-standing) persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial of surgical ablation during mitral valve surgery (MVS). METHODS: Two hundred sixty such patients were randomized to MVS + surgical ablation or MVS alone. Ablation was randomized between pulmonary vein isolation and biatrial maze. During 12 months postsurgery, 228 patients (88%) submitted 7949 transtelephonic monitoring (TTM) recordings, analyzed for AF, atrial flutter (AFL), or atrial tachycardia (AT). As previously reported, more ablation than MVS-alone patients were free of AF or AF/AFL at 6 and 12 months (63% vs 29%; P < .001) by 72-hour Holter monitoring, without evident difference between lesion sets (for which the trial was underpowered). RESULTS: Estimated freedom from AF/AFL/AT on any transmission trended higher after biatrial maze than pulmonary vein isolation (odds ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-5.65; P = .07) 3 to 12 months postsurgery; estimated AF/AFL/AT load (ie, proportion of TTM strips recording AF/AFL/AT) was similar (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.43; P = .6). Within 12 months, estimated prevalence of AF/AFL/AT by TTM was 58% after MVS alone, and 36% versus 23% after pulmonary vein isolation versus biatrial maze (P < .02). CONCLUSIONS: Statistical modeling using TTM recordings after MVS in patients with (long-standing) persistent AF suggests that a biatrial maze is associated with lower AF/AFL/AT prevalence, but not a lower load, compared with pulmonary vein isolation. The discrepancy between AF/AFL/AT prevalence assessed at 2 time points by Holter monitoring versus weekly TTM suggests the need for a confirmatory trial, reassessment of definitions for failure after ablation, and validation of statistical methods for assessing atrial rhythms longitudinally.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Telemetria , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(3): 787-794, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for calcific aortic stenosis is associated with high rates of perioperative stroke and silent cerebral infarcts on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but cognitive outcomes in elderly AVR patients compared with individuals with cardiac disease who do not undergo surgery are uncertain. METHODS: One hundred ninety AVR patients (mean age 76 ± 6 years) and 198 non-surgical participants with cardiovascular disease (mean age 74 ± 6 years) completed comprehensive cognitive testing at baseline (preoperatively) and 4 to 6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Surgical participants also completed perioperative stroke evaluations, including postoperative brain MRI. Mixed model analyses and reliable change scores examined cognitive outcomes. Stroke outcomes were evaluated in participants with and without postoperative cognitive dysfunction. RESULTS: From reliable change scores, only 12.4% of the surgical group demonstrated postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 4 to 6 weeks and 7.5% at 1 year. Although the surgical group had statistically significantly lower scores in working memory/inhibition 4 to 6 weeks after surgery, the groups did not differ at 1 year. In surgical participants, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was associated with a greater number (p < 0.01) and larger total volume (p < 0.01) of acute cerebral infarcts on MRI. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk, aged participants undergoing surgical AVR for aortic stenosis, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was surprisingly limited and was resolved by 1 year in most. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 4 to 6 weeks was associated with more and larger acute cerebral infarcts.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(1): 62-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients (aged 60 years or more) awaiting heart transplant often have comorbidities that may limit overall survival independent of cardiac status. We hypothesized that these comorbidities have a more-limiting impact on survival than age of donor heart and that older allografts might be utilized in these patients without compromising outcomes. METHODS: We identified all transplant recipients aged more than 60 years in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Local regression analysis detected the point above which increasing donor age incurred increasing risk of mortality, above and below which two cohorts were defined. Kaplan-Meier analysis compared cumulative 5-year survival between groups. Cox proportional hazard modeling was then used to determine the hazards of death in the two groups. RESULTS: An inflection point in posttransplant survival was detected near donor age 50 years. Of 14,113 older recipients studied, 86% received younger donor hearts (less than 50 years of age), and 14% received advanced age allografts (50 years of age or more). Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups except more recipients had left ventricular assist devices at time of transplant in the younger donor group (15% versus 9%, p < 0.001). Five-year survival was significantly lower among recipients receiving advanced age hearts compared with those receiving younger hearts (67% versus 73%, log rank p < 0.001). Adjusting for relevant recipient baseline characteristics, patients receiving advanced age hearts were 30% more likely to die by 5 years compared with patients receiving younger hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant recipients aged 60 years and more who receive advanced age donor hearts (50 years or more) have a significantly increased risk of mortality. With careful allograft selection, use of donor hearts to age 50 may be acceptable among older transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Doadores de Tecidos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Transplantados , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(3): 754-759, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated outcomes of reoperative mitral valve surgery (MVS) in the United States. METHODS: Adults undergoing isolated MVS with prior open-heart operation in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database between July 2011 and September 2016 were included. Urgent or emergent operations as well as all indications and causes for MVS were included. Primary outcomes were operative mortality and morbidity. Multivariable models were used for risk-adjustment, incorporating variables from the STS Valve Risk Model as well as type of prior operation and reoperative approach. RESULTS: A total of 17,195 patients underwent isolated reoperative MVS at 962 centers. The STS predicted risk of mortality was 8.0%, with 20% having an STS predicted risk of mortality greater than 10%. Prior cardiac operations included previous MVS (61%), coronary artery bypass (39%), aortic valve surgery (18%), and tricuspid valve surgery (6%). Operative mortality for the overall study cohort was 6.6%, and postoperative stroke occurred in 2.4%. Observed-to-expected mortality for the overall cohort was 0.82. The strongest independent predictors of operative mortality included salvage operation, preoperative dialysis dependence, congestive heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, and active endocarditis. Prior aortic valve replacement was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas prior MVS reduced mortality risk. Surgical approach did not affect mortality. For patients with prior MVS undergoing elective, non-endocarditis operations, the operative mortality was 3.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high-risk patient profile, surgical outcomes of reoperative MVS were acceptable, particularly in patients with prior MVS and without endocarditis undergoing elective operations.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(6): 1761-1767, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) cause blood trauma that includes von Willebrand factor degradation, platelet activation, and subclinical hemolysis. Blood trauma contributes to bleeding, thrombosis, and stroke, which cause significant morbidity and mortality. The TORVAD (Windmill Cardiovascular Systems, Inc, Austin, TX) is a first-of-its kind, toroidal-flow LVAD designed to minimize blood trauma. We tested the hypothesis that the TORVAD causes less blood trauma than the HeartMate II (Abbott Laboratories, Pleasanton, CA) LVAD. METHODS: Whole human blood was circulated for 6 hours in ex vivo circulatory loops with a HeartMate II (n = 8; 10,000 rpm, 70 ± 6 mm Hg, 4.0 ± 0.1 L/min) or TORVAD (n = 6; 144 rpm, 72 ± 0.0 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 0.0 L/min). von Willebrand factor degradation was quantified with electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Platelet activation was quantified by cluster of differentiation (CD) 41/61 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hemolysis was quantified by plasma free hemoglobin ELISA. RESULTS: The TORVAD caused significantly less degradation of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers (-10% ± 1% vs -21% ± 1%, p < 0.0001), accumulation of low-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers (22% ± 2% vs 45% ± 2%, p < 0.0001), and accumulation of von Willebrand factor degradation fragments (7% ± 1% vs 25% ± 6%, p < 0.05) than the HeartMate II. The TORVAD did not activate platelets, whereas the HeartMate II caused significant platelet activation (CD 41/61: 645 ± 20 ng/mL vs 1,581 ± 150 ng/mL, p < 0.001; normal human CD 41/61, 593 ng/mL; range, 400 to 800 ng/mL). Similarly, the TORVAD caused minimal hemolysis, whereas the HeartMate II caused significant hemolysis (plasma free hemoglobin: 11 ± 2 vs 109 ± 10 mg/dL, p < 0.0001; normal human plasma free hemoglobin <4 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: The TORVAD design, with markedly lower shear stress and pulsatile flow, caused significantly less blood trauma than the HeartMate II. LVADs with reduced blood trauma are likely to improve clinical outcomes and expand LVAD therapy into patients with less advanced heart failure.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Ativação Plaquetária , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
19.
Circulation ; 138(24): 2841-2851, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565993

RESUMO

Ventricular assist device has rapidly emerged as a durable and safe therapy for end-stage heart failure patients with >22 000 implantations to date. Though originally conceived for bridge-to-transplant indication, significant advancements in medical management as well as technology with arrivals of newer generation devices have improved patient outcomes, leading to increasing use as destination therapy. Despite such improvement, however, the burden of adverse events remains significant and defines the most pressing issue in the current state of ventricular assist device therapy. Eventual use of ventricular assist device technology as a comparable alternative to heart transplantation will ultimately rely on our ability to mitigate these risks. Therefore, this review article provides the narrative surrounding the rapid integration of this technology into the heart failure paradigm, specifically in the context of the most recent data on its outcomes and adverse event profiles. It describes ongoing investigations and general trends that may have significant implications for future improvements in device-related outcomes, as the field continues to grow as the epitome of synergy between advancements in engineering and clinical medicine.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia
20.
J Card Surg ; 33(12): 772-777, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy following a failed mitral valve repair remains unclear. This study evaluated early and long-term outcomes of redo mitral valve repair (MVr) and replacement (MVR) after prior mitral valve repair. METHODS: Patients undergoing redo mitral valve surgery after prior mitral valve repair at a single institution between 2002 and 2014 were reviewed. Primary outcomes included operative mortality (30-day or in-hospital mortality) and long-term freedom from mitral valve reoperation and death. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications. RESULTS: 305 patients underwent redo MVr (n = 48) or MVR (n = 257) after prior mitral valve repair. Concomitant procedures included tricuspid valve repair or replacement (23%), aortic valve replacement (6%), and coronary artery bypass grafting (4%), with no differences between cohorts. 18% were performed via right mini-thoracotomy (24% MVr vs 18% MVR, P = 0.31). Unadjusted and risk-adjusted operative mortality were lower with MVr (0% vs 8%, P = 0.04). Rates of postoperative complications were similar except for blood product transfusion (35% MVr vs 59% MVR, P = 0.003) and prolonged mechanical ventilation (8% MVr vs 29% MVR, P = 0.003). Long-term freedom from mortality was comparable: 96% MVr versus 86% MVR at 1 year and 78% MVr versus 68% MVR at 5 years (P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: When technically feasible, mitral valve re-repair can be safely performed with outcomes comparable to MVR.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
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