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1.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(11): 588-590, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752432

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 16.5-year-old, distance runner, female gender-assigned at birth, who identifies as male, presented with menstrual dysfunction and impaired athletic performance. The cause of the menstrual dysfunction and decreased athletic performance was identified as inadequate energy availability, largely motivated by a desired avoidance of menstruation and further development of secondary sex characteristics. The patient achieved significant weight gain (4.75 kg) in the year after presentation and resumed normal menses. When evaluating and treating transgender athletes for menstrual dysfunction and inadequate energy availability, psychological motivators related to the complex interplay between gender identity, disordered eating, and athletic performance must be addressed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Menstruação
3.
Sports Med ; 51(Suppl 1): 43-57, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515972

RESUMO

Optimal nutrition is an important aspect of an athlete's preparation to achieve optimal health and performance. While general concepts about micro- and macronutrients and timing of food and fluids are addressed in sports science, rarely are the specific effects of women's physiology on energy and fluid needs highly considered in research or clinical practice. Women differ from men not only in size, but in body composition and hormonal milieu, and also differ from one another. Their monthly hormonal cycles, with fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone, have varying effects on metabolism and fluid retention. Such cycles can change from month to month, can be suppressed with exogenous hormones, and may even be manipulated to capitalize on ideal timing for performance. But before such physiology can be manipulated, its relationship with nutrition and performance must be understood. This review will address general concepts regarding substrate metabolism in women versus men, common menstrual patterns of female athletes, nutrient and hydration needs during different phases of the menstrual cycle, and health and performance issues related to menstrual cycle disruption. We will discuss up-to-date recommendations for fueling female athletes, describe areas that require further exploration, and address methodological considerations to inform future work in this important area.

4.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329432

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Female endurance athletes exhibit an increased risk of Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Triad and RED-S are conditions that explore the health and performance consequences of low energy availability (LEA). Few studies to date have assessed the knowledge that athletes, coaches, and athletic trainers (ATs) have regarding Triad/RED-S. Proper education has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of sports medicine concerns for athletes. Yet, there are no known continuing education programs for Triad/RED-S at collegiate institutions. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, confidence, and impact of identifying, screening, treating, and preventing Triad/RED-S. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: An evidence-based online survey was developed and administered via QualtricsTM. PARTICIPANTS: Female collegiate cross-country athletes (n = 275; 20 ± 1 yrs.), collegiate cross-country coaches (n = 55, 34 ± 9 yrs.), and ATs working with cross-country teams (n = 30, 36 ± 11 yrs.). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Knowledge, confidence, and impact scores were assessed between groups using ANOVA. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in impact scores between people who had or had not received education. RESULTS: Female cross-country athletes' total knowledge, confidence, and impact scores (mean scores of 25.00 ± 5.27, 95.42 ± 28.83, 18.81 ± 7.05 respectively) were significantly different from scores of coaches (mean scores of 26.92 ± 5.02, 111.35 ± 24.14 and 22.41 ± 6.33) and ATs (mean scores of 28.66 ± 4.02, 117.67 ± 22.53, and 23.93 ± 5.69) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, confidence, and impact scores of Triad/RED-S were lowest in female cross-country athletes and highest in ATs. These findings support the call for education, which should be regarded as the primary tool to increase knowledge to improve the prevention and treatment of Triad/RED-S.

5.
PM R ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone stress injury (BSI) in youth runners is clinically important during times of skeletal growth and is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence, anatomical distribution, and factors associated with running-related BSI in boy and girl middle school runners. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey distributed to middle school runners. METHODS: Survey evaluated BSI history, age, grade, height, weight, eating behaviors, menstrual function, exercise training, and other health characteristics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence and characteristics associated with history of BSI, stratified by cortical-rich (eg, tibia) and trabecular-rich (pelvis and femoral neck) locations. PARTICIPANTS: 2107 runners (n = 1250 boys, n = 857 girls), age 13.2 ± 0.9 years. RESULTS: One hundred five (4.7%) runners reported a history of 132 BSIs, with higher prevalence in girls than boys (6.7% vs 3.8%, p = .004). The most common location was the tibia (n = 51). Most trabecular-rich BSIs (n = 16, 94% total) were sustained by girls (pelvis: n = 6; femoral neck: n = 6; sacrum: n = 4). In girls, consuming <3 daily meals (odds ratio [OR] = 18.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.3, 47.4), eating disorder (9.8, 95% CI = 2.0, 47.0), family history of osteoporosis (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.6, 18.0), and age (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were associated with BSI. In boys, family history of osteoporosis (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.4), prior non-BSI fracture (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.6, 6.7), and running mileage (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.1) were associated with BSI. Participating in soccer or basketball ≥2 years was associated with lower odds of BSI for both sexes. CONCLUSION: Whereas family history of osteoporosis and prior fracture (non-BSI) were most strongly related to BSI in the youth runners, behaviors contributing to an energy deficit, such as eating disorder and consuming <3 meals daily, also emerged as independent factors associated with BSI. Although cross-sectional design limits determining causality, our findings suggest promoting optimal skeletal health through nutrition and participation in other sports including soccer and basketball may address factors associated with BSI in this population.

6.
PM R ; 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence and factors associated with running-related injuries in middle school runners may guide injury prevention. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of running-related injuries and describe factors related to a history of injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Survey distributed online to middle school runners. METHODS: Participants completed a web-based survey regarding prior running-related injuries, training, sleep, diet, and sport participation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence and characteristics differentiating girls and boys with and without running-related injury history adjusted for age. PARTICIPANTS: Youth runners (total: 2113, average age, 13.2 years; boys: n = 1255, girls: n = 858). RESULTS: Running-related injuries were more prevalent in girls (56% vs. 50%, p = .01). Ankle sprain was the most common injury (girls: 22.5%, boys: 21.6%), followed by patellofemoral pain (20.4% vs. 7.8%) and shin splints (13.6% vs. 5.9%); both were more prevalent in girls (p < .001). Boys more frequently reported plantar fasciitis (5.6% vs. 3.3%, p = .01), iliotibial band syndrome (4.1% vs. 1.4%, p = .001) and Osgood-Schlatter disease (3.8% vs. 1.2%, p = .001). Runners with history of running-related injuries were older, ran greater average weekly mileage, ran faster, had fewer average hours of sleep on weekends, skipped more meals, missed breakfast, and consumed less milk (all p < .05). Girls with history of running-related injuries reported higher dietary restraint scores, later age of menarche, more menstrual cycle disturbances, and higher likelihood of following vegetarian diets and an eating disorder diagnosis (all p < .05). Runners with no history of running-related injuries were more likely to have participated in ≥2 years of soccer or basketball (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Most middle school runners reported a history of running-related injuries and certain injuries differing by gender. Modifiable factors with the greatest association with running-related injuries included training volume, dietary restraint, skipping meals, and less sleep. Sport sampling, including participation in ball sports, may reduce running-related injury risk in this population.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 524762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054716

RESUMO

The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the presence of low Energy Availability (EA) and its impact on components of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in a population of female collegiate runners. Seven female NCAA Division I athletes (age: 22.3 ± 1.5 yrs; height: 169.7 ± 5.7 cm; weight: 58.3 ± 4.1 kg) were tracked from August until February, covering the beginning (Pre XC), end (Post XC) of their competitive cross country season, and beginning of the following track season (Pre Track). The athletes were assessed for female athlete triad (Triad) risk, energy availability, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), nutritional intake, and blood markers (including vitamin D, ferritin, and triiodothyronine (T3)). From Pre XC to Post XC there were no significant differences in body mass, fat free mass or body fat percentage. At Pre XC, mean EA was 31.6 ± 13.3 kcal/kg FFM∙d-1. From Post XC to Pre Track, there was a significant increase in body mass (59.1 ± 5.1 to 60.6 ± 5.7 kg, p<0.001,d=0.27). From Post XC to Pre Track, there was a significant increase in RMR (1466 ± 123.6 to 1614.6 ± 89.1 kcal·d-1, p<0.001,d=2.6). For 25(OH) vitamin D, there was a significant reduction from Pre XC to Post XC (44.1 ± 10.6 vs 39.5 ± 12.2 ng·mL-1, p=0.047,d=-0.4), and a significant increase from Post XC to Pre Track (39.5 ± 12.2 vs. 48.1 ± 10.4 ng·mL-1, p=0.014,d=0.75). For ferritin, there was a trend towards a decrease from Pre XC to Post XC (24.2 ± 13.2 vs. 15.7 ± 8.8 ng·mL-1, p=0.07, d=-0.75), as well as a trend toward an increase from Post XC to Pre Track (15.7 ± 8.8 vs. 34.1 ± 18.0 ng·mL-1, p=0.08, d=1.3). No differences in T3 were observed across time points. Average Triad risk score was 2.3 ± 1.4. Notably, 5 of 7 athletes met criteria for moderate risk. Despite many athletes meeting criteria for low EA and having elevated Triad risk assessment scores, most were able to maintain body mass and RMR. One athlete suffered severe performance decline and a reduced RMR. Surprisingly, she was the only athlete above the recommended value for ferritin. Following increased nutritional intake and reduced training volume, her performance and RMR recovered. Changes in body mass and body composition were not indicative of the presence of other concerns associated with RED-S. This exploratory work serves as a guide for future, larger studies for tracking athletes, using RMR and nutritional biomarkers to assess RED-S.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(10): 2182-2189, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine differences in health and physical activity history, bone density, microarchitecture, and strength among female athletes with a history of multiple BSI, athletes with ≤1 BSI, and nonathletes. METHODS: We enrolled 101 women (age, 18-32 yr) for this cross-sectional study: nonathlete controls (n = 17) and athletes with a history of ≥3 BSIs (n = 21) or ≤1 BSI (n = 63). We collected subjects' health and training history and measured bone microarchitecture of the distal tibia via high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and areal bone mineral density of the hip and spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Groups did not differ according to age, body mass index, age at menarche, areal bone mineral density, or tibial bone microarchitecture. Women with multiple BSI had a higher prevalence of primary and secondary amenorrhea (P < 0.01) compared with other groups. Total hours of physical activity in middle school were similar across groups; however, women with multiple BSI performed more total hours of physical activity in high school (P = 0.05), more hours of uniaxial loading in both middle school and high school (P = 0.004, P = 0.02), and a smaller proportion of multiaxial loading activity compared with other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that participation in sports with multiaxial loading and maintaining normal menstrual status during adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the risk of multiple bone stress injuries.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fraturas de Estresse/fisiopatologia , Menstruação/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Tíbia/anatomia & histologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 50, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine if following specific diets was associated with reporting behaviors that are consistent with disordered eating compared to non-diet-adherent athletes. We hypothesized that athletes adhering to specific diets were more likely to report disordered eating than those not following a diet. METHODS: One thousand female athletes (15-30 years) completed a comprehensive survey about athletic health and wellness. Athletes were asked to specify their diet and completed 3 eating disorder screening tools: the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care, and self-reported current or past history of eating disorder or disordered eating. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study measures and chi-squared tests assessed relationships between athletes' dietary practices and their responses to eating disorder screening tools. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four of 1000 female athletes reported adherence to specific diets. 69 of the 234 diet-adhering athletes (29.5%) were excluded due to medically-indicated dietary practices or vague dietary descriptions. Of the 165 diet-adherent athletes, 113 (68.5%) screened positively to ≥1 of the 3 eating disorder screening tools. Specifically, athletes practicing a low-carbohydrate diet were more likely to report disordered eating vs. athletes without dietary restrictions (80% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Specific diet adherence in female athletes may be associated with reporting behaviors that are consistent with disordered eating. Health practitioners should consider further questioning of athletes reporting specific diet adherence in order to enhance nutritional knowledge and help treat and prevent eating disorders or disordered eating.

11.
Front Sports Act Living ; 3: 606799, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665612

RESUMO

The SARS CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) caused the whole sporting calendar to be paused. As we embark on the challenge of navigating through the return to play (RTP) process, there is a necessity to consider the needs of all athletes. This commentary specifically considers recommendations and requirements for the female athlete with a physiological emphasis during and following the COVID-19 pandemic, however, it will be relevant for any similar future scenarios that may present. It is important to acknowledge that there remain many unknowns surrounding COVID-19 and the female athlete both in the short- and long-term.

12.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(16): 893-899, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To synthesise evidence on low back pain (LBP) in adult rowers and to create a consensus statement to inform clinical practice. METHODS: There were four synthesis steps that informed the consensus statement. In step one, seven expert clinicians and researchers established the scope of the consensus statement and conducted a survey of experienced and expert clinicians to explore current practice. In step two, working groups examined current evidence relating to key scope questions and summarised key issues. In step three, we synthesised evidence for each group and used a modified Delphi process to aid in the creation of the overall consensus statements. Finally, in step four, we combined information from step three with the findings of the clinician survey (and with athlete and coach input) to produce recommendations for clinical practice. RESULTS: The scope of the consensus statement included epidemiology; biomechanics; management; the athlete's voice and clinical expertise. Prevention and management of LBP in rowers should include education on risk factors, rowing biomechanics and training load. If treatment is needed, non-invasive management, including early unloading from aggravating activities, effective pain control and exercise therapy should be considered. Fitness should be maintained with load management and progression to full training and competition. The role of surgery is unclear. Management should be athlete focused and a culture of openness within the team encouraged. CONCLUSION: Recommendations are based on current evidence and consensus and aligned with international LBP guidelines in non-athletic populations, but with advice aimed specifically at rowers. We recommend that research in relation to all aspects of prevention and management of LBP in rowers be intensified.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Dor Lombar/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/terapia , Esportes Aquáticos/lesões , Adulto , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sports Med ; 51(5): 843-861, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725341

RESUMO

Until recently, there has been less demand for and interest in female-specific sport and exercise science data. As a result, the vast majority of high-quality sport and exercise science data have been derived from studies with men as participants, which reduces the application of these data due to the known physiological differences between the sexes, specifically with regard to reproductive endocrinology. Furthermore, a shortage of specialist knowledge on female physiology in the sport science community, coupled with a reluctance to effectively adapt experimental designs to incorporate female-specific considerations, such as the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, pregnancy and the menopause, has slowed the pursuit of knowledge in this field of research. In addition, a lack of agreement on the terminology and methodological approaches (i.e., gold-standard techniques) used within this research area has further hindered the ability of researchers to adequately develop evidenced-based guidelines for female exercisers. The purpose of this paper was to highlight the specific considerations needed when employing women (i.e., from athletes to non-athletes) as participants in sport and exercise science-based research. These considerations relate to participant selection criteria and adaptations for experimental design and address the diversity and complexities associated with female reproductive endocrinology across the lifespan. This statement intends to promote an increase in the inclusion of women as participants in studies related to sport and exercise science and an enhanced execution of these studies resulting in more high-quality female-specific data.


Assuntos
Esportes , Adaptação Fisiológica , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual
14.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(3): 290.e1-290.e7, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical syndrome that includes the many complex health and performance consequences of low energy availability (EA) in athletes, when there is insufficient caloric intake to meet exercise-related energy expenditure and to support basic physiologic functions. There is a high prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female athletes and it is more common in female athletes than non-athletes. The objective of this study was to determine if low EA is associated with UI in a population of adolescent and young adult female athletes and to evaluate for an association between sport categories and UI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1000 nulliparous female patients, ages 15-30 years, presenting to a sports medicine subspecialty clinic, provided informed consent/assent to participate in a cross-sectional study involving a comprehensive survey, anthropomorphic measurements, and medical record review. Low EA was defined as meeting ≥1 criterion: self-reported history of eating disorder/disordered eating (ED/DE), and/or a high score on the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire (BEDA-Q), and/or a high score on the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care (ESP). UI was assessed using questions adapted from the International Consultation on Incontinence-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF), questions regarding timing of UI onset/duration, and a binary question regarding UI during sport activities. A total of 36 sport types were included in the survey and sub-divided into categories. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 1000 female athletes surveyed, 165 (16.5%) reported a history of experiencing UI during athletic activities. ICIQ- UI-SF responses indicated that 14% (137/1000) of the cohort experienced slight incontinence, 4% (35/1000) moderate incontinence, and 2 athletes experienced severe incontinence. There was a significant difference between UI categories in age (p = 0.01), low EA (p < 0.001), and sport category (p < 0.001). Females who had low EA had twice the likelihood (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.81; p < 0.001) of UI compared to those with adequate EA, controlling for sports category and menstrual dysfunction. Females who participated in high impact sports were 4.5 times more likely (OR = 4.47; 95% CI = 2.29 to 8.74; p < 0.001) to have had UI compared to females who participated in ball sports, controlling for EA and menstrual dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: UI during athletic activities is a common problem among nulliparous adolescent and young adult female athletes, occurring in 16.5% of female athletes surveyed. UI was significantly associated with low EA across all sport categories. Sport type was significantly associated with UI, with the highest impact sport group demonstrating a higher prevalence and symptom severity compared to other sport categories.


Assuntos
Esportes , Incontinência Urinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bone ; 145: 115841, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418100

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Low energy availability causes disruption of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion leading to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and hypoestrogenism, which in turn contributes to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT). Transdermal estradiol administration in physiologic doses increases BMD in adolescents and adults with FHA. However, the impact of estrogen replacement on MAT in relation to changes in BMD has not been studied in adolescents and young adults. We hypothesized that physiologic estrogen replacement would lead to decreases in MAT, associated with increases in BMD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We studied 15 adolescent and young adult females with FHA (14-25 years). All participants received a17ß- estradiol transdermal patch at a dose of 0.1 mg/day (applied twice weekly) for 12 months. Participants also received cyclic progestin for 10-12 days each month. We quantified MAT (lipid/water ratio) of the fourth lumbar (L4) vertebral body and femoral diaphysis by single proton (1H)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and compartmental volumetric BMD of the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. RESULTS: Transdermal estradiol therapy over 12 months resulted in a decrease in MAT at the lumbar (L4) vertebra from 0.92 ± 0.55 at baseline to 0.63 ± 0.29 at 12-months (p = 0.008), and an increase in radial and tibial cortical vBMD (p = 0.006, p = 0.0003). Changes in L4 MAT trended to be inversely associated with changes in radial cortical vBMD (rho = -0.47, p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: We show that in adolescent and young adult girls with FHA, MAT decreases following transdermal estrogen therapy and these changes are associated with increased cortical vBMD.


Assuntos
Amenorreia , Medula Óssea , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Amenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea , Estradiol , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(8): 438-443, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The menstrual cycle can affect sports participation and exercise performance. There are very few data on specific menstrual cycle symptoms (symptoms during various phases of the cycle, not only during menstruation) experienced by exercising women. We aimed to characterise the most common symptoms, as well as the number and frequency of symptoms, and evaluate whether menstrual cycle symptoms are associated with sporting outcomes. METHODS: 6812 adult women of reproductive age (mean age: 38.3 (8.7) years) who were not using combined hormonal contraception were recruited via the Strava exercise app user database and completed a 39-part survey. Respondents were from seven geographical areas, and the questions were translated and localised to each region (Brazil, n=892; France, n=1355; Germany, n=839; Spain, n=834; UK and Ireland, n=1350; and USA, n=1542). The survey captured exercise behaviours, current menstrual status, presence and frequency of menstrual cycle symptoms, medication use for symptoms, perceived effects of the menstrual cycle on exercise and work behaviours, and history of hormonal contraception use. We propose a novel Menstrual Symptom index (MSi) based on the presence and frequency of 18 commonly reported symptoms (range 0-54, where 54 would correspond to all 18 symptoms each occurring very frequently). RESULTS: The most prevalent menstrual cycle symptoms were mood changes/anxiety (90.6%), tiredness/fatigue (86.2%), stomach cramps (84.2%) and breast pain/tenderness (83.1%). After controlling for body mass index, training volume and age, the MSi was associated with a greater likelihood of missing or changing training (OR=1.09 (CI 1.08 to 1.10); p≤0.05), missing a sporting event/competition (OR=1.07 (CI 1.06 to 1.08); p≤0.05), absenteeism from work/academia (OR=1.08 (CI 1.07 to 1.09); p≤0.05) and use of pain medication (OR=1.09 (CI 1.08 to 1.09); p≤0.05). CONCLUSION: Menstrual cycle symptoms are very common in exercising women, and women report that these symptoms compromise their exercise participation and work capacity. The MSi needs to be formally validated (psychometrics); at present, it provides an easy way to quantify the frequency of menstrual cycle symptoms.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Prevalência
17.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(6): 305-318, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122252

RESUMO

Despite the worldwide popularity of running as a sport for children, relatively little is known about its impact on injury and illness. Available studies have focused on adolescent athletes, but these findings may not be applicable to preadolescent and pubescent athletes. To date, there are no evidence or consensus-based guidelines identifying risk factors for injury and illness in youth runners, and current recommendations regarding suitable running distances for youth runners at different ages are opinion based. The International Committee Consensus Work Group convened to evaluate the current science, identify knowledge gaps, categorise risk factors for injury/illness and provide recommendations regarding training, nutrition and participation for youth runners.


Assuntos
Corrida/lesões , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Criança , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Força Muscular , Necessidades Nutricionais , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Sapatos , Estresse Mecânico
18.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(12): 656-662, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence for non-pharmacological management of low back pain (LBP) in athletes, a common problem in sport that can negatively impact performance and contribute to early retirement. DATA SOURCES: Five databases (EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus) were searched from inception to September 2020. The main outcomes of interest were pain, disability and return to sport (RTS). RESULTS: Among 1629 references, 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 541 athletes were included. The trials had biases across multiple domains including performance, attrition and reporting. Treatments included exercise, biomechanical modifications and manual therapy. There were no trials evaluating the efficacy of surgery or injections. Exercise was the most frequently investigated treatment; no RTS data were reported for any exercise intervention. There was a reduction in pain and disability reported after all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: While several treatments for LBP in athletes improved pain and function, it was unclear what the most effective treatments were, and for whom. Exercise approaches generally reduced pain and improved function in athletes with LBP, but the effect on RTS is unknown. No conclusions regarding the value of manual therapy (massage, spinal manipulation) or biomechanical modifications alone could be drawn because of insufficient evidence. High-quality RCTs are urgently needed to determine the effect of commonly used interventions in treating LBP in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Avaliação da Deficiência , Dor Lombar/terapia , Volta ao Esporte , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Ciclismo , Críquete , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Golfe , Hóquei , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Massagem/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Medição da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(1): 226-235, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone stress injuries (BSIs) occur in up to 20% of runners and military personnel. Typically, after a period of unloading and gradual return to weightbearing activities, athletes return to unrestricted sports participation or military duty approximately 4 to 14 weeks after a BSI diagnosis, depending on the injury location and severity. However, the time course of the recovery of the bone's mechanical competence is not well-characterized, and reinjury rates are high. PURPOSE: To assess the bone microarchitecture and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) over 12 months after a tibial BSI diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We enrolled 30 female athletes from the local community (aged 18-35 years) with a tibial BSI (grade ≥2 of 4 on magnetic resonance imaging) for this prospective observational study. Participants completed a baseline visit within 3 weeks of the diagnosis. At baseline and 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after the BSI diagnosis, we collected high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the ultradistal tibia (4% of tibial length) of the injured and uninjured legs as well as pain and physical activity assessment findings. RESULTS: From baseline to 12 weeks after the diagnosis, total, trabecular, and cortical vBMD declined by 0.58% to 0.94% (P < .05 for all) in the injured leg. Total and trabecular vBMD also declined by 0.61% and 0.67%, respectively, in the uninjured leg (P < .05 for both). At 24 weeks, mean values for all bone parameters were nearly equivalent to baseline values, and by 52 weeks, several mean values had surpassed baseline values. Of the 30 participants, 10 incurred a subsequent BSI during the course of the study, and 1 of these 10 incurred 2 subsequent BSIs. Participants who suffered an additional BSI were younger and had a later age of menarche, a greater incidence of previous fractures, and lower serum parathyroid hormone levels (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSION: Bone density declined in both the injured and the uninjured legs and, on average, did not return to baseline for 3 to 6 months after a tibial BSI diagnosis. The observed time to the recovery of baseline vBMD, coupled with the high rate of recurrent BSIs, suggests that improved return-to-sports and military duty guidelines may be in order.


Assuntos
Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Militares , Volta ao Esporte , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 133-145, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187604

RESUMO

Female athletes are participating in collision sports in greater numbers than previously. The overall incidence of concussion is known to be higher in female athletes than in male athletes participating in similar sports. Evidence suggests anatomic, biomechanical, and biochemical etiologies behind this sex disparity. Future research on female athletes is needed for further guidance on prevention and management of concussion in girls and women.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Volta ao Esporte , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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