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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270973

RESUMO

The electrochemical three-component assembly of isoquinolines has been accomplished by ruthenaelectro-catalyzed C-H/N-H functionalization. The robustness of the electrocatalysis was reflected by an ample substrates scope, an efficient electrooxidation and an operationally-friendly procedure. The isolation of key intermediates and detailed mechanistic studies, including unprecedented cyclovoltammetric analysis of a seven-membered ruthenacycle provided support for an unusual ruthenium(II/III/I) regime.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085807

RESUMO

The construction of C-N bonds by free radical reactions represents a powerful synthetic approach for direct C-H amidations of arenes or heteroarenes. Developing efficient and more environmentally friendly synthetic methods for C-H amidation reactions remains highly desirable. Herein, metal-free electrochemical oxidative dehydrogenative C-H amidations of heteroarenes with N-alkylsulfonamides have been accomplished. The catalyst- and chemical-oxidant-free C-H amidation features an ample scope and employs electricity as the green and sole oxidant. A variety of heteroarenes, including indoles, pyrroles, benzofuran and benzothiophene, thereby underwent this C(sp2 )-H nitrogenation. Cyclic voltammetry studies and control experiments provided evidence for nitrogen-centered radicals being directly generated under metal-free electrocatalysis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991021

RESUMO

Electrocatalyzed oxidative B-H nitrogenations of nido-carborane (nido-7,8-C2 B9 H12 - ) with N-heterocycles have been established, enabling the preparation of various N-substituted nido-carboranes without chemical oxidants or metal catalyst under ambient conditions. The electrolysis manifold occurred with high levels of efficiency as well as chemo- and position- selectivity, employing sustainable electricity as the sole oxidant. The strategy set the stage for a user-friendly access to novel amino acid and fluorogenic boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY)-labeled nido-carborane hybrids.

4.
Chemistry ; 26(66): 15290-15297, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770682

RESUMO

We disclose the unprecedented hybrid-ruthenium catalysis for distal meta-C-H activation. The hybrid-ruthenium catalyst was recyclable, as was proven by various heterogeneity tests, and fully characterized with various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, highlighting the physical and chemical stability. Thereby, the hybrid-ruthenium catalysis proved broadly applicable for meta-C-H alkylations of among others purine-based nucleosides and natural product conjugates. Additionally, its versatility was further reflected by meta-C-H activations through visible-light irradiation, as well as para-selective C-H activations.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759737

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen associated with severe pathology. Current options of antiviral therapy only partly satisfy the needs of a well-tolerated long-term treatment/prophylaxis free from drug-induced viral resistance. Recently, we reported the strong antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo of the broad-spectrum anti-infective drug artesunate and its optimized derivatives. NF-κB signaling was described as a targeting mechanism and additional target proteins have recently been identified. Here, we analyzed the autofluorescent hybrid compound BG95, which could be utilized for intracellular visualization by confocal imaging and a tracking analysis in virus-infected primary human fibroblasts. As an important finding, BG95 accumulated in mitochondria visualized by anti-prohibitin and MitoTracker staining, and induced statistically significant changes of mitochondrial morphology, distinct from those induced by HCMV infection. Notably, mitochondrial membrane potential was found substantially reduced by BG95, an effect apparently counteracting efficient HCMV replication, which requires active mitochondria and upregulated energy levels. This finding was consistent with binding properties of artesunate-like compounds to mitochondrial proteins and thereby suggested a new mechanistic aspect. Combined, the present study underlines an important role of mitochondria in the multifaceted, host-directed antiviral mechanism of this drug class, postulating a new mitochondria-specific mode of protein targeting.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(17): 7034-7040, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816494

RESUMO

A secondary phosphine oxide (SPO)-nickel catalyst allowed the activation of otherwise inert C-F bonds of unactivated arenes in terms of challenging couplings with primary and secondary alkyl Grignard reagents. The C-F activation is characterized by mild reaction conditions and high levels of branched selectivity. Electron-rich and electron-deficient arenes were suitable electrophiles for this transformation. In addition, this strategy also proved suitable to heterocycles and for the activation of C-O bonds under slightly modified conditions.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(41): 18103-18109, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662573

RESUMO

Ambient temperature ruthenium-catalyzed C-H arylations were accomplished by visible light without additional photocatalysts. The robustness of the ruthenium-catalyzed C-H functionalization protocol was reflected by a broad range of sensitive functional groups and synthetically useful pyrazoles, triazoles and sensitive nucleosides and nucleotides, as well as multifold C-H functionalizations. Biscyclometalated ruthenium complexes were identified as the key intermediates in the photoredox ruthenium catalysis by detailed computational and experimental mechanistic analysis. Calculations suggested that the in situ formed photoactive ruthenium species preferably underwent an inner-sphere electron transfer.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700444

RESUMO

Ruthenium(II)biscarboxylate complexes enabled the selective alkylation of C-H and C-C bonds at the ortho- or meta-position. ortho-C-H Alkylations were achieved with 4-, 5- as well as 6-membered halocycloalkanes. Furthermore, the judicious choice of the directing group allowed for a full control of ortho-/meta-selectivities. Detailed mechanistic studies by experiment and computation were performed and provided strong support for an oxidative addition/reductive elimination process for ortho-alkylations, while a homolytic C-X cleavage was operative for the meta-selective transformations.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(30): 12534-12540, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485007

RESUMO

C7-H-functionalized indoles are ubiquitous structural units of biological and pharmaceutical compounds for numerous antiviral agents against SARS-CoV or HIV-1. Thus, achieving site-selective functionalizations of the C7-H position of indoles, while discriminating among other bonds, is in high demand. Herein, we disclose site-selective C7-H activations of indoles by ruthenium(II) biscarboxylate catalysis under mild conditions. Base-assisted internal electrophilic-type substitution C-H ruthenation by weak O-coordination enabled the C7-H functionalization of indoles and offered a broad scope, including C-N and C-C bond formation. The versatile ruthenium-catalyzed C7-H activations were characterized by gram-scale syntheses and the traceless removal of the directing group, thus providing easy access to pharmaceutically relevant scaffolds. Detailed mechanistic studies through spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses shed light on the unique nature of the robust ruthenium catalysis for the functionalization of the C7-H position of indoles.

10.
Chemistry ; 26(69): 16450-16454, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596872

RESUMO

C-H hydroxylation of aryl acetamides and alkyl phenylacetyl esters was accomplished via challenging distal weak O-coordination by versatile ruthenium(II/IV) catalysis. The ruthenium(II)-catalyzed C-H oxygenation of aryl acetamides proceeded through C-H activation, ruthenium(II/IV) oxidation and reductive elimination, thus providing step-economical access to valuable phenols. The p-cymene-ruthenium(II/IV) manifold was established by detailed experimental and DFT-computational studies.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(30): 13102-13111, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536163

RESUMO

The iron-catalyzed hydroarylation of allenes was accomplished by weak phenone assistance. The C-H activation proceeded with excellent efficacy and high ortho-regioselectivity in proximity to the weakly coordinating carbonyl group for a range of substituted phenones and allenes. Detailed mechanistic studies, including the isolation of key intermediates, the structural characterization of an iron-metallacycle, and kinetic analysis, allowed the sound elucidation of a plausible catalytic working mode. This mechanistic rationale is supported by detailed computational density functional theory studies, which fully address multi-spin-state reactivity. Furthermore, in operando nuclear magnetic resonance monitoring of the catalytic reaction provided detailed insights into the mode of action of the iron-catalyzed C-H alkylation with allenes.

12.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485071

RESUMO

Viral infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year and there is an urgent need for new, effective antiviral drugs. Hybridization of two chemically diverse compounds into a new bioactive effector product is a successful concept to improve the properties of a hybrid drug relative to the parent compounds. In this study, (iso)quinoline-artemisinin hybrids, obtained through copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or metal-free click reactions (in organic solvents or in the presence of water), were analyzed in vitro, for the first time, for their inhibitory activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), relative to their parent compounds and the reference drug ganciclovir. EC50 (HCMV) values were obtained in a range 0.22-1.20 µm, which indicated highly potent antiviral properties in the absence of cytotoxic effects on normal cells (CC50 >100 µm). The most active hybrid, 1 (EC50 =0.22 µm), is 25 times more potent than its parent compound artesunic acid (EC50 =5.41 µm) and 12 times more efficient than the standard drug ganciclovir (EC50 =2.6 µm). Interestingly, hybrid 1 also shows inhibitory activity against hepatitis B virus in vitro (EC50 (HBeAg)=2.57 µm).

13.
Nat Chem ; 12(6): 511-519, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472105

RESUMO

The magic methyl effect is well acknowledged in medicinal chemistry, but despite its significance, accessing such analogues via derivatization at a late stage remains a pivotal challenge. In an effort to mitigate this major limitation, we here present a strategy for the cobalt-catalysed late-stage C-H methylation of structurally complex drug molecules. Enabling broad applicability, the transformation relies on a boron-based methyl source and takes advantage of inherently present functional groups to guide the C-H activation. The relative reactivity observed for distinct classes of functionalities were determined and the sensitivity of the transformation towards a panel of common functional motifs was tested under various reaction conditions. Without the need for prefunctionalization or postdeprotection, a diverse array of marketed drug molecules and natural products could be methylated in a predictable manner. Subsequent physicochemical and biological testing confirmed the magnitude with which this seemingly minor structural change can affect important drug properties.

14.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(13): 4254-4272, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458919

RESUMO

Resource economy constitutes one of the key challenges for researchers and practitioners in academia and industries, in terms of rising demand for sustainable and green synthetic methodology. To achieve ideal levels of resource economy in molecular syntheses, novel avenues are required, which include, but are not limited to the use of naturally abundant, renewable feedstocks, solvents, metal catalysts, energy, and redox reagents. In this context, electrosyntheses create the unique possibility to replace stoichiometric amounts of oxidizing or reducing reagents as well as electron transfer events by electric current. Particularly, the merger of Earth-abundant 3d metal catalysis and electrooxidation has recently been recognized as an increasingly viable strategy to forge challenging C-C and C-heteroatom bonds for complex organic molecules in a sustainable fashion under mild reaction conditions. In this review, we highlight the key developments in 3d metallaelectrocatalysis in the context of resource economy in molecular syntheses until February 2020.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347643

RESUMO

Metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H olefinations have emerged as powerful tools for the construction of functionalized alkenes. Herein, we describe the rhoda-electrocatalyzed C-H activation/alkenylation of arenes. The olefinations of challenging electron-poor benzamides were thus accomplished in a fully dehydrogenative fashion under electrochemical conditions, avoiding stoichiometric chemical oxidants, and with H2 as the only byproduct. This versatile alkenylation reaction also features broad substrate scope and used electricity as a green oxidant.

16.
Chemistry ; 26(48): 10936-10947, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329534

RESUMO

C-H activation has emerged as one of the most efficient tools for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds, avoiding the use of prefunctionalized materials. In spite of tremendous progress in the field, stoichiometric quantities of toxic and/or costly chemical redox reagents, such as silver(I) or copper(II) salts, are largely required for oxidative C-H activations. Recently, electrosynthesis has experienced a remarkable renaissance that enables the use of storable, safe and waste-free electric current as a redox equivalent. While major recent momentum was gained in electrocatalyzed C-H activations by 4d and 5d metals, user-friendly and inexpensive nickela-electrocatalysis has until recently proven elusive for oxidative C-H activations. Herein, the early developments of nickela-electrocatalyzed reductive cross-electrophile couplings as well as net-redox-neutral cross-couplings are first introduced. The focus of this Minireview is, however, the recent emergence of nickel-catalyzed electrooxidative C-H activations until April 2020.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(31): 12842-12847, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329560

RESUMO

The chemical use of CO2 as an inexpensive, nontoxic C1 synthon is of utmost topical interest in the context of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). We present the merger of cobalt catalysis and electrochemical synthesis for mild catalytic carboxylations of allylic chlorides with CO2 . Styrylacetic acid derivatives were obtained with moderate to good yields and good functional group tolerance. The thus-obtained products are useful as versatile synthons of γ-arylbutyrolactones. Cyclic voltammetry and in operando kinetic analysis were performed to provide mechanistic insights into the electrocatalytic carboxylation with CO2 .

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(33): 14154-14159, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324948

RESUMO

Direct alkylations of carboxylic acid derivatives are challenging and particularly nickel catalysis commonly requires high reaction temperatures and strong bases, translating into limited substrate scope. Herein, nickel-catalyzed C-H alkylations of unactivated 8-aminoquinoline amides have been realized under exceedingly mild conditions, namely at room temperature, with a mild base and a user-friendly electrochemical setup. This electrocatalyzed C-H alkylation displays high functional group tolerance and is applicable to both the primary and secondary alkylation. Based on detailed mechanistic studies, a nickel(II/III/I) catalytic manifold has been proposed.

19.
Nat Protoc ; 15(5): 1760-1774, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296151

RESUMO

The direct cleavage of otherwise inert C-H bonds has emerged as a sustainable approach for organic synthesis; in contrast to other approaches, these reactions result in the formation of fewer undesired by-products and do not require pre-functionalization steps. In recent years, oxidative C-H/N-H alkyne annulations and C-H oxygenations were realized by 3d metals. Unfortunately, most of these reactions require stoichiometric amounts of often toxic chemical oxidants. This protocol provides a general method for cobaltaelectro-catalyzed C-H activations of benzamides. Here, anodic oxidation obviates the need for a chemical oxidant and uses 10-20% of a more environmentally benign, inexpensive catalyst. We outline a detailed and precise description of the designed electrolytic cell for metallaelectrocatalysis, including readily available electrode materials and electrode holders. The custom-made device is further compared with the commercially available and standardized ElectraSyn 2.0 electrochemistry kit. As example applications of this approach, we describe cobaltaelectro-catalyzed C-H activation protocols for the direct C-H oxygenation of benzamides and resource-economical synthesis of isoquinolones. The cobaltaelectrocatalysis setup and reaction take about 17 h, while an additional 5 h have to be anticipated for workup and chromatographic purification. The methods described herein feature broad functional group tolerance, operational simplicity, low waste-product formation and an overall exceptional level of resource economy.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Cobalto/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Catálise , Oxirredução
20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(32): 13451-13457, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243685

RESUMO

Asymmetric pallada-electrocatalyzed C-H olefinations were achieved through the synergistic cooperation with transient directing groups. The electrochemical, atroposelective C-H activations were realized with high position-, diastereo-, and enantio-control under mild reaction conditions to obtain highly enantiomerically-enriched biaryls and fluorinated N-C axially chiral scaffolds. Our strategy provided expedient access to, among others, novel chiral BINOLs, dicarboxylic acids and helicenes of value to asymmetric catalysis. Mechanistic studies by experiments and computation provided key insights into the catalyst's mode of action.

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