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1.
Brain Stimul ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation applied to individual organs, peripheral nerves, or specific brain regions has been used to treat a range of medical conditions. In cardiovascular disease, autonomic dysfunction contributes to the disease progression and electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has been pursued as a treatment for the purpose of restoring the autonomic balance. However, this approach lacks selectivity in activating function- and organ-specific vagal fibers and, despite promising results of many preclinical studies, has so far failed to translate into a clinical treatment of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we report a successful application of optogenetics for selective stimulation of vagal efferent activity in a large animal model (sheep). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve weeks after viral transduction of a subset of vagal motoneurons, strong axonal membrane expression of the excitatory light-sensitive ion channel ChIEF was achieved in the efferent projections innervating thoracic organs and reaching beyond the level of the diaphragm. Blue laser or LED light (>10 mW mm-2; 1 ms pulses) applied to the cervical vagus triggered precisely timed, strong bursts of efferent activity with evoked action potentials propagating at speeds of ∼6 m s-1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that in species with a large, multi-fascicled vagus nerve, it is possible to stimulate a specific sub-population of efferent fibers using light at a site remote from the vector delivery, marking an important step towards eventual clinical use of the optogenetic technology for autonomic neuromodulation.

2.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute global shortages of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) threaten to impact adversely on perioperative and critical care. The use of pharmacological adjuncts may reduce NMBA dose. However, the magnitude of any putative effects remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database (1970-2020) for RCTs comparing use of pharmacological adjuncts for NMBAs. We excluded RCTs not reporting perioperative NMBA dose. The primary outcome was total NMBA dose used to achieve a clinically acceptable depth of neuromuscular block. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) criteria. Data are presented as the standardised mean difference (SMD); I2 indicates percentage of variance attributable to heterogeneity. RESULTS: From 3082 records, the full texts of 159 trials were retrieved. Thirty-one perioperative RCTs met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis (n=1962). No studies were conducted in critically ill patients. Reduction in NMBA dose was associated with use of magnesium (SMD: -1.10 [-1.44 to -0.76], P<0.001; I2=85%; GRADE=moderate), dexmedetomidine (SMD: -0.89 [-1.55 to -0.22]; P=0.009; I2=87%; GRADE=low), and clonidine (SMD: -0.67 [-1.13 to -0.22]; P=0.004; I2=0%; GRADE=low) but not lidocaine (SMD: -0.46 [-1.01 to -0.09]; P=0.10; I2=68%; GRADE=moderate). Meta-analyses for nicardipine, diltiazem, and dexamethasone were not possible owing to the low numbers of studies. We estimated that 30-50 mg kg-1 magnesium preoperatively (8-15 mg kg h-1 intraoperatively) reduces rocuronium dose by 25.5% (inter-quartile range, 14.7-31). CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium, dexmedetomidine, and clonidine may confer a clinically relevant sparing effect on the required dose of neuromuscular block ing drugs in the perioperative setting. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42020183969.

3.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 661-671, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma or serum troponin, indicating perioperative myocardial injury (PMI), is common after noncardiac surgery. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with the early appearance of circulating microRNAs, which regulate post-translational gene expression. We hypothesised that if PMI and ACS share pathophysiological mechanisms, common microRNA signatures should be evident. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study of samples obtained before and after noncardiac surgery from patients enrolled in two prospective observational studies of PMI (postoperative troponin I/T>99th centile). In cohort one, serum microRNAs were compared between patients with or without PMI, matched for age, gender, and comorbidity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantified (qRT-PCR) relative microRNA expression (cycle quantification [Cq] threshold <37) before and after surgery for microRNA signatures associated with ACS, blinded to PMI. In cohort two, we analysed (EdgeR) microRNA from plasma extracellular vesicles using next-generation sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 500). microRNA-messenger RNA-function pathway analysis was performed (DIANA miRPath v3.0/TopGO). RESULTS: MicroRNAs were detectable in all 59 patients (median age 67 yr [61-75]; 42% male), who had similar clinical characteristics independent of developing PMI. In cohort one, serum microRNA expression increased after surgery (mean fold-change) hsa-miR-1-3p: 3.99 (95% confidence interval [CI: 1.95-8.19]; hsa-miR-133-3p: 5.67 [95% CI: 2.94-10.91]; P<0.001). These changes were not associated with PMI. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs from cohorts one (n=48) and two (n=11) identified pathways associated with adrenergic stress and calcium dysregulation, rather than ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating microRNAs associated with cardiac ischaemia were universally elevated in patients after surgery, independent of development of myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): 87-97, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a frequent cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for postoperative infections remain poorly characterised. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective international cohort study of patients aged ≥45 yr who had noncardiac surgery (VISION), including data describing infection within 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative infection. The secondary outcome was 30 day mortality. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify baseline risk factors for infection. Results are presented as n (%) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Some denominators vary according to rates of missing data. RESULTS: Among 39 996 surgical patients, 3905 (9.8%) experienced 5152 postoperative infections and 715 (1.8%) died. The most frequent infection was surgical site infection (1555/3905 [39.8%]). Infection was most strongly associated with general surgery (OR: 3.74 [3.11-4.49]; P<0.01) and open surgical technique (OR: 2.03 [1.82-2.27]; P<0.01); 30 day mortality was greater amongst patients who experienced infection (262/3905 [6.7%] vs 453/36 091 patients who did not [1.3%]; OR: 3.47 [2.84-4.22]; P<0.01). Mortality was highest amongst patients with CNS infections (OR: 14.72 [4.41-49.12]; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Infection is a common and important complication of noncardiac surgery, which is associated with high mortality. Further research is needed to identify more effective measures to prevent infections after surgery.


Assuntos
Infecções/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 881: 173188, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439258

RESUMO

The effects of anaesthetic agents on brain energy metabolism may explain their shared neurophysiological actions but remain poorly understood. The brain lactate shuttle hypothesis proposes that lactate, provided by astrocytes, is an important neuronal energy substrate. Here we tested the hypothesis that anaesthetic agents impair the brain lactate shuttle by interfering with astrocytic glycolysis. Lactate biosensors were used to record changes in lactate release by adult rat brainstem and cortical slices in response to thiopental, propofol and etomidate. Changes in cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD+) ratio as a measure of glycolytic rate were recorded in cultured astrocytes. It was found that in brainstem slices thiopental, propofol and etomidate reduced lactate release by 7.4 ± 3.6% (P < 0.001), 9.7 ± 6.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.0 ± 7.8% (P = 0.04), respectively. In cortical slices, thiopental reduced lactate release by 8.2 ± 5.6% (P = 0.002) and propofol by 6.0 ± 4.5% (P = 0.009). Lactate release in cortical slices measured during the light phase (period of sleep/low activity) was ~25% lower than that measured during the dark phase (period of wakefulness) (326 ± 83 µM vs 430 ± 118 µM, n = 10; P = 0.04). Thiopental and etomidate induced proportionally similar decreases in cytosolic [NADH]:[NAD+] ratio in astrocytes, indicative of a reduction in glycolytic rate. These data suggest that anaesthetic agents inhibit astrocytic glycolysis and reduce the level of extracellular lactate in the brain. Similar reductions in brain lactate release occur during natural state of sleep, suggesting that general anaesthesia may recapitulate some of the effects of sleep on brain energy metabolism.

6.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 535-543, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) after noncardiac surgery is associated with higher mortality, but the temporal relationship between early elevated troponin and the later development of noncardiac morbidity remains unclear. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients aged ≥45 yr undergoing major noncardiac surgery at four UK hospitals (two masked to hsTnT). The exposure of interest was early elevated troponin, as defined by hsTnT >99th centile (≥15 ng L-1) within 24 h after surgery. The primary outcome was morbidity 72 h after surgery, defined by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS). Secondary outcomes were time to become morbidity-free and Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications. RESULTS: Early elevated troponin (median 21 ng L-1 [16-32]) occurred in 992 of 4335 (22.9%) patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery (mean [standard deviation, sd] age, 65 [11] yr; 2385 [54.9%] male). Noncardiac morbidity was more frequent in 494/992 (49.8%) patients with early elevated troponin compared with 1127/3343 (33.7%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (odds ratio [OR]=1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.25). Patients with early elevated troponin had a higher risk of proven/suspected infectious morbidity (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91) and critical care utilisation (OR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.73-2.43). Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications occurred in 167/992 (16.8%) patients with early elevated troponin, compared with 319/3343 (9.5%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (OR=1.78; 95% CI, 1.48-2.14). Absence of early elevated troponin was associated with morbidity-free recovery (OR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.39-0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Early elevated troponin within 24 h of elective noncardiac surgery precedes the subsequent development of noncardiac organ dysfunction and may help stratify levels of postoperative care in real time.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 261-270, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) questionnaire might help incorporate self-reported functional capacity into preoperative risk assessment. Nonetheless, prognostically important thresholds in DASI scores remain unclear. We conducted a nested cohort analysis of the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) study to characterise the association of preoperative DASI scores with postoperative death or complications. METHODS: The analysis included 1546 participants (≥40 yr of age) at an elevated cardiac risk who had inpatient noncardiac surgery. The primary outcome was 30-day death or myocardial injury. The secondary outcomes were 30-day death or myocardial infarction, in-hospital moderate-to-severe complications, and 1 yr death or new disability. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to characterise the adjusted association of preoperative DASI scores with outcomes. RESULTS: The DASI score had non-linear associations with outcomes. Self-reported functional capacity better than a DASI score of 34 was associated with reduced odds of 30-day death or myocardial injury (odds ratio: 0.97 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-0.99) and 1 yr death or new disability (odds ratio: 0.96 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99). Self-reported functional capacity worse than a DASI score of 34 was associated with increased odds of 30-day death or myocardial infarction (odds ratio: 1.05 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.00-1.09), and moderate-to-severe complications (odds ratio: 1.03 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: A DASI score of 34 represents a threshold for identifying patients at risk for myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, moderate-to-severe complications, and new disability.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 758-767, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is more frequent after noncardiac surgery in patients with preoperative cardiac vagal dysfunction, as quantified by delayed heart rate (HR) recovery after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We hypothesised that serial and dynamic measures of cardiac vagal activity are also associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Serial autonomic measurements were made before and after surgery in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Cardiac vagal activity was quantified by HR variability and HR recovery after orthostatic challenge (supine to sitting). Revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) was calculated for each patient. The primary outcome was myocardial injury (high-sensitivity troponin ≥15 ng L-1) within 48 h of surgery, masked to investigators. The exposure of interest was cardiac vagal activity (high-frequency power spectral analysis [HFLn]) and HR recovery 90 s from peak HR after the orthostatic challenge. RESULTS: Myocardial injury occurred in 48/189 (25%) patients, in whom 41/48 (85%) RCRI was <2. In patients with myocardial injury, vagal activity (HFLn) declined from 5.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.58-5.72) before surgery to 4.33 (95% CI: 3.76-4.90; P<0.001) 24 h after surgery. In patients who remained free of myocardial injury, HFLn did not change (4.95 [95% CI: 4.64-5.26] before surgery vs 4.76 [95% CI: 4.44-5.08] after surgery). Before and after surgery, the orthostatic HR recovery was slower in patients with myocardial injury (5 beats min-1 [95% CI: 3-7]), compared with HR recovery in patients who remained free of myocardial injury (10 beats min-1 [95% CI: 7-12]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Serial HR measures indicating loss of cardiac vagal activity are associated with perioperative myocardial injury in lower-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 570-583, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547969

RESUMO

The systemic stress response triggered by surgical trauma is characterised by sterile inflammation preceding metabolic and neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the relevance of the classically described 'stress response' is now highly questionable in an era where profound physiological deconditioning is common in older, frail surgical patients. Commonly used assessment techniques do not accurately reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after major surgery. Clinical interpretation of plasma concentrations of cortisol, the prototypical stress hormone, is rarely accurate, because of study heterogeneity, the inherently dynamic characteristics of cortisol production, and assay variability. Before surgery, chronic psychosocial stress and common cardiorespiratory co-morbidities are clinically relevant modifiers of neuroendocrine activation to acute stress/inflammation. The frequent development of multi-morbidity after major surgery further clouds the compartmentalised, discrete model of neuroendocrine activation after initial tissue injury. Starvation, impaired mobility, and sepsis after surgery generate distinct neuroendocrine profiles that challenge the conventional model of neuroendocrine activation. Basic science studies suggest that high circulating levels of cortisol may directly cause organ injury. Conversely, randomised controlled clinical trials investigating glucocorticoid supplementation have delivered contrasting results, with some suggesting a protective effect in the perioperative period. Here, we consider many of the confounding factors that have emerged to challenge the conventional model of the surgical stress response, and suggest that a more nuanced understanding of changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis physiology is warranted to advance perioperative medicine. Re-examining the perioperative stress response presents opportunities for improving outcomes through enhancing the understanding of the neuroendocrine aspects of preparation for and recovery from surgery.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Período Perioperatório , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
12.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 457-469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil depletion improves neurologic outcomes in experimental sepsis/brain injury. We hypothesized that neutrophils may exacerbate neuronal injury through the release of neurotoxic quantities of the neurotransmitter glutamate. METHODS: Real-time glutamate release by primary human neutrophils was determined using enzymatic biosensors. Bacterial and direct protein-kinase C (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) activation of neutrophils in human whole blood, isolated neutrophils or human cell lines were compared in the presence/absence of N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. Bacterial and direct activation of neutrophils from wild-type and transgenic murine neutrophils deficient in NMDAR-scaffolding proteins were compared using flow cytometry (phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and real-time respirometry (oxygen consumption). FINDINGS: Both glutamate and the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine are rapidly released by neutrophils in response to bacterial and PMA-induced activation. Pharmacological NMDAR blockade reduced both the autocrine release of glutamate, d-serine and the respiratory burst by activated primary human neutrophils. A highly specific small-molecule inhibitor ZL006 that limits NMDAR-mediated neuronal injury also reduced ROS by activated neutrophils in a murine model of peritonitis, via uncoupling of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit from its' scaffolding protein, postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Genetic ablation of PSD-95 reduced ROS production by activated murine neutrophils. Pharmacological blockade of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit reduced primary human neutrophil activation induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, a glutamate-secreting Gram-negative bacillus closely related to pathogens that cause hospital-acquired infections. INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that release of glutamate by activated neutrophils augments ROS production in an autocrine manner via actions on NMDAR expressed by these cells. FUND: GLA: Academy Medical Sciences/Health Foundation Clinician Scientist. AVG is a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/biossíntese , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac vagal function, quantified preoperatively as slower heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, is independently associated with perioperative myocardial injury. Parasympathetic (vagal) dysfunction may also promote (extra-cardiac) multi-organ dysfunction, although perioperative data are lacking. Assuming that cardiac vagal activity, and therefore heart rate recovery response, is a marker of brainstem parasympathetic dysfunction, we hypothesized that impaired HRR would be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In two prospective, blinded, observational cohort studies, we established the definition of impaired vagal function in terms of the HRR threshold that is associated with perioperative myocardial injury (HRR ≤ 12 beats min-1 (bpm), 60 seconds after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was all-cause morbidity three and five days after surgery, defined using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey. Secondary outcomes of this analysis were type of morbidity and time to become morbidity-free. Logistic regression and Cox regression tested for the association between HRR and morbidity. Results are presented as odds/hazard ratios [OR or HR; (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: 882/1941 (45.4%) patients had HRR≤12bpm. All-cause morbidity within 5 days of surgery was more common in 585/822 (71.2%) patients with HRR≤12bpm, compared to 718/1119 (64.2%) patients with HRR>12bpm (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.67); p = 0.001). HRR≤12bpm was associated with more frequent episodes of pulmonary (OR:1.31 (1.05-1.62);p = 0.02)), infective (OR:1.38 (1.10-1.72); p = 0.006), renal (OR:1.91 (1.30-2.79); p = 0.02)), cardiovascular (OR:1.39 (1.15-1.69); p<0.001)), neurological (OR:1.73 (1.11-2.70); p = 0.02)) and pain morbidity (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.68); p = 0.001) within 5 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ dysfunction is more common in surgical patients with cardiac vagal dysfunction, defined as HRR ≤ 12 bpm after preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN88456378.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Traumatismos Cardíacos/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(1): 17-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physiological measures of heart failure are common in surgical patients, despite the absence of a diagnosis. Heart rate (HR) increases during exercise are frequently blunted in heart failure (termed chronotropic incompetence), which primarily reflects beta-adrenoreceptor dysfunction. We examined whether chronotropic incompetence was associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a predefined analysis of an international cohort study where participants aged ≥40 yr underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing before noncardiac surgery. Chronotropic incompetence was defined as the ratio of increase in HR during exercise to age-predicted maximal increase in HR <0.6. The primary outcome was myocardial injury within 3 days after surgery, defined by high-sensitivity troponin assays >99th centile. Explanatory variables were biomarkers for heart failure (ventilatory efficiency slope [minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production] ≥34; peak oxygen consumption ≤14 ml kg-1 min-1; HR recovery ≤6 beats min-1 decrease 1 min post-exercise; preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT pro-BNP] >300 pg ml-1). Myocardial injury was compared in the presence or absence of sympathetic (i.e. chronotropic incompetence) or parasympathetic (i.e. impaired HR recovery after exercise) thresholds indicative of dysfunction. Data are presented as odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: Chronotropic incompetence occurred in 396/1325 (29.9%) participants; only 16/1325 (1.2%) had a heart failure diagnosis. Myocardial injury was sustained by 162/1325 (12.2%) patients. Raised preoperative NT pro-BNP was more common when chronotropic incompetence was <0.6 (OR: 1.57 [1.11-2.23]; P=0.011). Chronotropic incompetence was not significantly associated with myocardial injury (OR: 1.05 [0.74-1.50]; P=0.78), independent of rate-limiting therapy. HR recovery <12 beats min-1 decrease after exercise was associated with myocardial injury in the presence (OR: 1.62 [1.05-2.51]; P=0.03) or absence (OR: 1.60 [1.06-2.39]; P=0.02) of chronotropic incompetence. CONCLUSIONS: Chronotropic incompetence is common in surgical patients. In contrast to parasympathetic dysfunction which was associated with myocardial injury, preoperative chronotropic incompetence (suggestive of sympathetic dysfunction) was not associated with postoperative myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Austrália , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(5): 542-551, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative arterial blood pressure management is a physiologically complex challenge influenced by multiple factors. METHODS: A multidisciplinary, international working subgroup of the Third Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) consensus meeting reviewed the (patho)physiology and measurement of arterial pressure as applied to perioperative medicine. We addressed predefined questions by undertaking a modified Delphi analysis, in which primary clinical research and review articles were identified using MEDLINE. Strength of recommendations, where applicable, were graded by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. RESULTS: Multiple physiological factors contribute to the perioperative physiological importance of arterial pressure: (i) arterial pressure is the input pressure to organ blood flow, but is not the sole determinant of perfusion pressure; (ii) blood flow is often independent of changes in perfusion pressure because of autoregulatory changes in vascular resistance; (iii) microvascular dysfunction uncouples microvascular blood flow from arterial pressure (haemodynamic incoherence). From a practical clinical perspective, we identified that: (i) ambulatory measurement is the optimal method to establish baseline arterial pressure; (ii) automated and invasive arterial pressure measurements have inherent physiological and technical limitations; (iii) individualised arterial pressure targets may change over time, especially in the perioperative period. There remains a need for research in non-invasive, continuous arterial pressure measurements, macro- and micro-circulatory control, regional perfusion pressure measurement, and the development of sensitive, specific, and continuous measures of cellular function to evaluate blood pressure management in a physiologically coherent manner. CONCLUSION: The multivariable, complex physiology contributing to dynamic changes in perioperative arterial pressure may be underappreciated clinically. The frequently unrecognised dissociation between arterial pressure, organ blood flow, and microvascular and cellular function requires further research to develop a more refined, contextualised clinical approach to this routine perioperative measurement.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Técnica Delfos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos
17.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 34(1): 71-80, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540229

RESUMO

Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203795, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-operative infections occur frequently following major surgery. The magnitude of the post-operative immune response is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections, although the mechanisms driving post-operative immune-dysfunction and the potential reversibility of this response with immune stimulants are not well understood. This study aims to describe the immediate immune response to major surgery and establish links to both post-operative infection and functional aspects of immune dysregulation. We also investigate the potential of clinically available immune stimulants to reverse features of post-operative immune-dysfunction. METHODS: Patients over 45 years old undergoing elective gastro-intestinal surgery with planned post-operative surgical ICU admission were recruited. The expression of selected genes was determined pre-operatively and at 2, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively using qRT-PCR. Circulating levels of Interleukin-10 protein were determined by ELISA. Peri-operative cell surface monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression was determined using flow cytometry. Gene expression and mHLA-DR levels were determined in healthy monocytes cultured in peri-operative serum with and without neutralising antibodies and immune stimulants. RESULTS: 119 patients were recruited; 44 developed a post-operative infection. Interleukin-10 mRNA and protein increased 4-fold post-operatively (P<0.0001), peaking within 2 hours of the procedure. Higher post-operative Interleukin-10 mRNA (P = 0.007) and protein (P = 0.001) levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. Cell surface mHLA-DR expression fell post-operatively (P<0.0001). Reduced production, rather than intracellular sequestration, accounted for the post-operative decline in cell surface mHLA-DR expression. Interleukin-10 antibody prevented the decrease in mHLA-DR expression observed when post-operative serum was added to healthy monocytes. GM-CSF and IFN-γ prevented the decline in mHLA-DR production through distinct pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Monocyte dysfunction and features of immune suppression occur frequently after major surgery. Greater post-operative Interleukin-10 production is associated with later infection. Interleukin-10 is an important mediator of post-operative reductions in mHLA-DR expression, while clinically available immune stimulants can restore mHLA-DR levels.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-10/sangue , Monócitos/imunologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-DR/sangue , Humanos , Interferon gama/administração & dosagem , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
PeerJ ; 6: e5061, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042876

RESUMO

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications in higher-risk surgical patients. However, there is no clinical consensus on their use in the perioperative period, in part, due to an inconsistent evidence-base. To help inform the design of a large multi-centre randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN17251494), we undertook a questionnaire-based survey exploring variability in ACEi/ARB prescribing in perioperative practice. Methods: The online survey included perioperative scenarios to examine how consistent respondents were with their stated routine preoperative practice. Clinicians with an academic interest in perioperative medicine were primarily targeted between July and September 2017. STROBE guidelines for observational research and ANZCA Trials Group Survey Reporting recommendations were adhered to. Results: 194 responses were received, primarily from clinicians practicing in the UK. A similar minority of respondents continue ACEi (n = 57; 30%) and ARBs (n = 62; 32%) throughout the perioperative period. However, timing of preoperative cessation was highly variable, and rarely influenced by the pharmacokinetics of individual ACE-i/ARBs. Respondents' stated routine practice was frequently misaligned with their management of common pre- and postoperative scenarios involving continuation or restarting ACE-i/ARBs. Discussion: This survey highlights many inconsistencies amongst clinicians' practice in perioperative ACE-i/ARB management. Studies designed to reveal an enhanced understanding of perioperative mechanisms at play, coupled with randomised controlled trials, are required to rationally inform the clinical management of ACE-i/ARBs in patients most at risk of postoperative morbidity.

20.
Ann Surg ; 268(2): 357-363, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. BACKGROUND: MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. RESULTS: The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were asymptomatic and would have gone undetected without routine postoperative troponin measurement.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
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