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2.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 570-583, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547969

RESUMO

The systemic stress response triggered by surgical trauma is characterised by sterile inflammation preceding metabolic and neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the relevance of the classically described 'stress response' is now highly questionable in an era where profound physiological deconditioning is common in older, frail surgical patients. Commonly used assessment techniques do not accurately reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after major surgery. Clinical interpretation of plasma concentrations of cortisol, the prototypical stress hormone, is rarely accurate, because of study heterogeneity, the inherently dynamic characteristics of cortisol production, and assay variability. Before surgery, chronic psychosocial stress and common cardiorespiratory co-morbidities are clinically relevant modifiers of neuroendocrine activation to acute stress/inflammation. The frequent development of multi-morbidity after major surgery further clouds the compartmentalised, discrete model of neuroendocrine activation after initial tissue injury. Starvation, impaired mobility, and sepsis after surgery generate distinct neuroendocrine profiles that challenge the conventional model of neuroendocrine activation. Basic science studies suggest that high circulating levels of cortisol may directly cause organ injury. Conversely, randomised controlled clinical trials investigating glucocorticoid supplementation have delivered contrasting results, with some suggesting a protective effect in the perioperative period. Here, we consider many of the confounding factors that have emerged to challenge the conventional model of the surgical stress response, and suggest that a more nuanced understanding of changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis physiology is warranted to advance perioperative medicine. Re-examining the perioperative stress response presents opportunities for improving outcomes through enhancing the understanding of the neuroendocrine aspects of preparation for and recovery from surgery.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Período Perioperatório , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 758-767, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is more frequent after noncardiac surgery in patients with preoperative cardiac vagal dysfunction, as quantified by delayed heart rate (HR) recovery after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We hypothesised that serial and dynamic measures of cardiac vagal activity are also associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Serial autonomic measurements were made before and after surgery in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Cardiac vagal activity was quantified by HR variability and HR recovery after orthostatic challenge (supine to sitting). Revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) was calculated for each patient. The primary outcome was myocardial injury (high-sensitivity troponin ≥15 ng L-1) within 48 h of surgery, masked to investigators. The exposure of interest was cardiac vagal activity (high-frequency power spectral analysis [HFLn]) and HR recovery 90 s from peak HR after the orthostatic challenge. RESULTS: Myocardial injury occurred in 48/189 (25%) patients, in whom 41/48 (85%) RCRI was <2. In patients with myocardial injury, vagal activity (HFLn) declined from 5.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.58-5.72) before surgery to 4.33 (95% CI: 3.76-4.90; P<0.001) 24 h after surgery. In patients who remained free of myocardial injury, HFLn did not change (4.95 [95% CI: 4.64-5.26] before surgery vs 4.76 [95% CI: 4.44-5.08] after surgery). Before and after surgery, the orthostatic HR recovery was slower in patients with myocardial injury (5 beats min-1 [95% CI: 3-7]), compared with HR recovery in patients who remained free of myocardial injury (10 beats min-1 [95% CI: 7-12]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Serial HR measures indicating loss of cardiac vagal activity are associated with perioperative myocardial injury in lower-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 457-469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil depletion improves neurologic outcomes in experimental sepsis/brain injury. We hypothesized that neutrophils may exacerbate neuronal injury through the release of neurotoxic quantities of the neurotransmitter glutamate. METHODS: Real-time glutamate release by primary human neutrophils was determined using enzymatic biosensors. Bacterial and direct protein-kinase C (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) activation of neutrophils in human whole blood, isolated neutrophils or human cell lines were compared in the presence/absence of N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. Bacterial and direct activation of neutrophils from wild-type and transgenic murine neutrophils deficient in NMDAR-scaffolding proteins were compared using flow cytometry (phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and real-time respirometry (oxygen consumption). FINDINGS: Both glutamate and the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine are rapidly released by neutrophils in response to bacterial and PMA-induced activation. Pharmacological NMDAR blockade reduced both the autocrine release of glutamate, d-serine and the respiratory burst by activated primary human neutrophils. A highly specific small-molecule inhibitor ZL006 that limits NMDAR-mediated neuronal injury also reduced ROS by activated neutrophils in a murine model of peritonitis, via uncoupling of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit from its' scaffolding protein, postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Genetic ablation of PSD-95 reduced ROS production by activated murine neutrophils. Pharmacological blockade of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit reduced primary human neutrophil activation induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, a glutamate-secreting Gram-negative bacillus closely related to pathogens that cause hospital-acquired infections. INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that release of glutamate by activated neutrophils augments ROS production in an autocrine manner via actions on NMDAR expressed by these cells. FUND: GLA: Academy Medical Sciences/Health Foundation Clinician Scientist. AVG is a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac vagal function, quantified preoperatively as slower heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, is independently associated with perioperative myocardial injury. Parasympathetic (vagal) dysfunction may also promote (extra-cardiac) multi-organ dysfunction, although perioperative data are lacking. Assuming that cardiac vagal activity, and therefore heart rate recovery response, is a marker of brainstem parasympathetic dysfunction, we hypothesized that impaired HRR would be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In two prospective, blinded, observational cohort studies, we established the definition of impaired vagal function in terms of the HRR threshold that is associated with perioperative myocardial injury (HRR ≤ 12 beats min-1 (bpm), 60 seconds after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was all-cause morbidity three and five days after surgery, defined using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey. Secondary outcomes of this analysis were type of morbidity and time to become morbidity-free. Logistic regression and Cox regression tested for the association between HRR and morbidity. Results are presented as odds/hazard ratios [OR or HR; (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: 882/1941 (45.4%) patients had HRR≤12bpm. All-cause morbidity within 5 days of surgery was more common in 585/822 (71.2%) patients with HRR≤12bpm, compared to 718/1119 (64.2%) patients with HRR>12bpm (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.67); p = 0.001). HRR≤12bpm was associated with more frequent episodes of pulmonary (OR:1.31 (1.05-1.62);p = 0.02)), infective (OR:1.38 (1.10-1.72); p = 0.006), renal (OR:1.91 (1.30-2.79); p = 0.02)), cardiovascular (OR:1.39 (1.15-1.69); p<0.001)), neurological (OR:1.73 (1.11-2.70); p = 0.02)) and pain morbidity (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.68); p = 0.001) within 5 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ dysfunction is more common in surgical patients with cardiac vagal dysfunction, defined as HRR ≤ 12 bpm after preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN88456378.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(1): 17-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physiological measures of heart failure are common in surgical patients, despite the absence of a diagnosis. Heart rate (HR) increases during exercise are frequently blunted in heart failure (termed chronotropic incompetence), which primarily reflects beta-adrenoreceptor dysfunction. We examined whether chronotropic incompetence was associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a predefined analysis of an international cohort study where participants aged ≥40 yr underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing before noncardiac surgery. Chronotropic incompetence was defined as the ratio of increase in HR during exercise to age-predicted maximal increase in HR <0.6. The primary outcome was myocardial injury within 3 days after surgery, defined by high-sensitivity troponin assays >99th centile. Explanatory variables were biomarkers for heart failure (ventilatory efficiency slope [minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production] ≥34; peak oxygen consumption ≤14 ml kg-1 min-1; HR recovery ≤6 beats min-1 decrease 1 min post-exercise; preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT pro-BNP] >300 pg ml-1). Myocardial injury was compared in the presence or absence of sympathetic (i.e. chronotropic incompetence) or parasympathetic (i.e. impaired HR recovery after exercise) thresholds indicative of dysfunction. Data are presented as odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: Chronotropic incompetence occurred in 396/1325 (29.9%) participants; only 16/1325 (1.2%) had a heart failure diagnosis. Myocardial injury was sustained by 162/1325 (12.2%) patients. Raised preoperative NT pro-BNP was more common when chronotropic incompetence was <0.6 (OR: 1.57 [1.11-2.23]; P=0.011). Chronotropic incompetence was not significantly associated with myocardial injury (OR: 1.05 [0.74-1.50]; P=0.78), independent of rate-limiting therapy. HR recovery <12 beats min-1 decrease after exercise was associated with myocardial injury in the presence (OR: 1.62 [1.05-2.51]; P=0.03) or absence (OR: 1.60 [1.06-2.39]; P=0.02) of chronotropic incompetence. CONCLUSIONS: Chronotropic incompetence is common in surgical patients. In contrast to parasympathetic dysfunction which was associated with myocardial injury, preoperative chronotropic incompetence (suggestive of sympathetic dysfunction) was not associated with postoperative myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Austrália , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(5): 542-551, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative arterial blood pressure management is a physiologically complex challenge influenced by multiple factors. METHODS: A multidisciplinary, international working subgroup of the Third Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) consensus meeting reviewed the (patho)physiology and measurement of arterial pressure as applied to perioperative medicine. We addressed predefined questions by undertaking a modified Delphi analysis, in which primary clinical research and review articles were identified using MEDLINE. Strength of recommendations, where applicable, were graded by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. RESULTS: Multiple physiological factors contribute to the perioperative physiological importance of arterial pressure: (i) arterial pressure is the input pressure to organ blood flow, but is not the sole determinant of perfusion pressure; (ii) blood flow is often independent of changes in perfusion pressure because of autoregulatory changes in vascular resistance; (iii) microvascular dysfunction uncouples microvascular blood flow from arterial pressure (haemodynamic incoherence). From a practical clinical perspective, we identified that: (i) ambulatory measurement is the optimal method to establish baseline arterial pressure; (ii) automated and invasive arterial pressure measurements have inherent physiological and technical limitations; (iii) individualised arterial pressure targets may change over time, especially in the perioperative period. There remains a need for research in non-invasive, continuous arterial pressure measurements, macro- and micro-circulatory control, regional perfusion pressure measurement, and the development of sensitive, specific, and continuous measures of cellular function to evaluate blood pressure management in a physiologically coherent manner. CONCLUSION: The multivariable, complex physiology contributing to dynamic changes in perioperative arterial pressure may be underappreciated clinically. The frequently unrecognised dissociation between arterial pressure, organ blood flow, and microvascular and cellular function requires further research to develop a more refined, contextualised clinical approach to this routine perioperative measurement.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Técnica Delfos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos
10.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 34(1): 71-80, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540229

RESUMO

Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203795, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-operative infections occur frequently following major surgery. The magnitude of the post-operative immune response is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections, although the mechanisms driving post-operative immune-dysfunction and the potential reversibility of this response with immune stimulants are not well understood. This study aims to describe the immediate immune response to major surgery and establish links to both post-operative infection and functional aspects of immune dysregulation. We also investigate the potential of clinically available immune stimulants to reverse features of post-operative immune-dysfunction. METHODS: Patients over 45 years old undergoing elective gastro-intestinal surgery with planned post-operative surgical ICU admission were recruited. The expression of selected genes was determined pre-operatively and at 2, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively using qRT-PCR. Circulating levels of Interleukin-10 protein were determined by ELISA. Peri-operative cell surface monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression was determined using flow cytometry. Gene expression and mHLA-DR levels were determined in healthy monocytes cultured in peri-operative serum with and without neutralising antibodies and immune stimulants. RESULTS: 119 patients were recruited; 44 developed a post-operative infection. Interleukin-10 mRNA and protein increased 4-fold post-operatively (P<0.0001), peaking within 2 hours of the procedure. Higher post-operative Interleukin-10 mRNA (P = 0.007) and protein (P = 0.001) levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. Cell surface mHLA-DR expression fell post-operatively (P<0.0001). Reduced production, rather than intracellular sequestration, accounted for the post-operative decline in cell surface mHLA-DR expression. Interleukin-10 antibody prevented the decrease in mHLA-DR expression observed when post-operative serum was added to healthy monocytes. GM-CSF and IFN-γ prevented the decline in mHLA-DR production through distinct pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Monocyte dysfunction and features of immune suppression occur frequently after major surgery. Greater post-operative Interleukin-10 production is associated with later infection. Interleukin-10 is an important mediator of post-operative reductions in mHLA-DR expression, while clinically available immune stimulants can restore mHLA-DR levels.

12.
PeerJ ; 6: e5061, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042876

RESUMO

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications in higher-risk surgical patients. However, there is no clinical consensus on their use in the perioperative period, in part, due to an inconsistent evidence-base. To help inform the design of a large multi-centre randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN17251494), we undertook a questionnaire-based survey exploring variability in ACEi/ARB prescribing in perioperative practice. Methods: The online survey included perioperative scenarios to examine how consistent respondents were with their stated routine preoperative practice. Clinicians with an academic interest in perioperative medicine were primarily targeted between July and September 2017. STROBE guidelines for observational research and ANZCA Trials Group Survey Reporting recommendations were adhered to. Results: 194 responses were received, primarily from clinicians practicing in the UK. A similar minority of respondents continue ACEi (n = 57; 30%) and ARBs (n = 62; 32%) throughout the perioperative period. However, timing of preoperative cessation was highly variable, and rarely influenced by the pharmacokinetics of individual ACE-i/ARBs. Respondents' stated routine practice was frequently misaligned with their management of common pre- and postoperative scenarios involving continuation or restarting ACE-i/ARBs. Discussion: This survey highlights many inconsistencies amongst clinicians' practice in perioperative ACE-i/ARB management. Studies designed to reveal an enhanced understanding of perioperative mechanisms at play, coupled with randomised controlled trials, are required to rationally inform the clinical management of ACE-i/ARBs in patients most at risk of postoperative morbidity.

13.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.

14.
Anesth Analg ; 126(6): 1936-1945, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between intraoperative cardiovascular changes and perioperative myocardial injury has chiefly focused on hypotension during noncardiac surgery. However, the relative influence of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) remains unclear. We investigated both individual and codependent relationships among intraoperative HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, a prospective international cohort study of noncardiac surgical patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis tested for associations between intraoperative HR and/or SBP and MINS, defined by an elevated serum troponin T adjudicated as due to an ischemic etiology, within 30 days after surgery. Predefined thresholds for intraoperative HR and SBP were: maximum HR >100 beats or minimum HR <55 beats per minute (bpm); maximum SBP >160 mm Hg or minimum SBP <100 mm Hg. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction and mortality within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: After excluding missing data, 1197 of 15,109 patients (7.9%) sustained MINS, 454 of 16,031 (2.8%) sustained myocardial infarction, and 315 of 16,061 patients (2.0%) died within 30 days after surgery. Maximum intraoperative HR >100 bpm was associated with MINS (odds ratio [OR], 1.27 [1.07-1.50]; P < .01), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.34 [1.05-1.70]; P = .02), and mortality (OR, 2.65 [2.06-3.41]; P < .01). Minimum SBP <100 mm Hg was associated with MINS (OR, 1.21 [1.05-1.39]; P = .01) and mortality (OR, 1.81 [1.39-2.37]; P < .01), but not myocardial infarction (OR, 1.21 [0.98-1.49]; P = .07). Maximum SBP >160 mm Hg was associated with MINS (OR, 1.16 [1.01-1.34]; P = .04) and myocardial infarction (OR, 1.34 [1.09-1.64]; P = .01) but, paradoxically, reduced mortality (OR, 0.76 [0.58-0.99]; P = .04). Minimum HR <55 bpm was associated with reduced MINS (OR, 0.70 [0.59-0.82]; P < .01), myocardial infarction (OR, 0.75 [0.58-0.97]; P = .03), and mortality (OR, 0.58 [0.41-0.81]; P < .01). Minimum SBP <100 mm Hg with maximum HR >100 bpm was more strongly associated with MINS (OR, 1.42 [1.15-1.76]; P < .01) compared with minimum SBP <100 mm Hg alone (OR, 1.20 [1.03-1.40]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative tachycardia and hypotension are associated with MINS. Further interventional research targeting HR/blood pressure is needed to define the optimum strategy to reduce MINS.

15.
Ann Surg ; 268(2): 357-363, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. BACKGROUND: MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. RESULTS: The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were asymptomatic and would have gone undetected without routine postoperative troponin measurement.

16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 67: 47-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental animal models demonstrate that autonomic activity regulates systemic inflammation. By contrast, human studies are limited in number and exclusively use heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of cardiac autonomic regulation. HRV measures are primarily dependent on, and need to be corrected for, heart rate. Thus, independent autonomic measures are required to confirm HRV-based findings. Here, the authors sought to replicate the findings of preceding HRV-based studies by using HRV-independent, exercise-evoked sympathetic and parasympathetic measures of cardiac autonomic regulation to examine the relationship between autonomic function and systemic inflammation. METHODS: Sympathetic function was assessed by measuring heart rate changes during unloaded pedaling prior to onset of exercise, divided into quartiles; an anticipatory heart rate (AHRR) rise during this period is evoked by mental stress in many individuals. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate recovery (HRR) 60s after finishing cardiopulmonary exercise testing, divided into quartiles. Parasympathetic dysfunction was defined by delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) ≤12.beats.min-1, a threshold value associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in the general population. Systemic inflammation was primarily assessed by neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), where a ratio >4 is prognostic across several inflammatory diseases and correlates strongly with elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was also measured. RESULTS: In 1624 subjects (65±14y; 67.9% male), lower HRR (impaired vagal activity) was associated with progressively higher NLR (p=0.004 for trend across quartiles). Delayed HRR, recorded in 646/1624 (39.6%) subjects, was associated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio >4 (relative risk: 1.43 (95%CI: 1.18-1.74); P=0.0003). Similar results were found for hsCRP (p=0.045). By contrast, AHRR was not associated with NLR (relative risk: 1.24 (95%CI: 0.94-1.65); P=0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed HRR, a robust measure of parasympathetic dysfunction, is independently associated with leukocyte ratios indicative of systemic inflammation. These results further support a role for parasympathetic modulation of systemic inflammation in humans.


Assuntos
Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 5(1): 33, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used to assess cardiac autonomic activity in critically ill patients, driven by translational and biomarker research agendas. Several clinical and technical factors can interfere with the measurement and/or interpretation of HRV. We systematically evaluated how HRV parameters are acquired/processed in critical care medicine. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1996-2016) were searched for cohort or case-control clinical studies of adult (>18 years) critically ill patients using heart variability analysis. Duplicate independent review and data abstraction. Study quality was assessed using two independent approaches: Newcastle-Ottowa scale and Downs and Black instrument. Conduct of studies was assessed in three categories: (1) study design and objectives, (2) procedures for measurement, processing and reporting of HRV, and (3) reporting of relevant confounding factors. RESULTS: Our search identified 31/271 eligible studies that enrolled 2090 critically ill patients. A minority of studies (15; 48%) reported both frequency and time domain HRV data, with non-normally distributed, wide ranges of values that were indistinguishable from other (non-critically ill) disease states. Significant heterogeneity in HRV measurement protocols was observed between studies; lack of adjustment for various confounders known to affect cardiac autonomic regulation was common. Comparator groups were often omitted (n = 12; 39%). This precluded meaningful meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Marked differences in methodology prevent meaningful comparisons of HRV parameters between studies. A standardised set of consensus criteria relevant to critical care medicine are required to exploit advances in translational autonomic physiology.

18.
Clin Kidney J ; 10(3): 348-356, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616213

RESUMO

Background: The role of goal-directed therapy (GDT) in preventing creatinine rise following noncardiac surgery is unclear. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial to assess the relationship between postoperative optimization of oxygen delivery and development of acute kidney injury (AKI)/creatinine rise following noncardiac surgery. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned immediately postoperatively to receive either fluid and/or dobutamine therapy to maintain/restore their preoperative oxygen delivery, or protocolized standard care (oxygen delivery only recorded). Primary end point was serial changes in postoperative creatinine within 48 h postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were development of AKI (KDIGO criteria) and minimal creatinine rise (MCR; no decline from preoperative creatinine), related to all-cause morbidity and length of stay. Results: Postoperative reductions in serum creatinine were similar (P = 0.76) in patients randomized to GDT [10 µmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI: 17 to -1); n = 95] or protocolized care [8 µmol/L (95% CI: 17 to -6); n = 92]. Postoperative haemodynamic management was not associated with the development of MCR [78/187 (41.7%)] or AKI [13/187; (7.0%)]. Intraoperative requirement for norepinephrine was more likely in patients who developed postoperative rises in creatinine [relative risk (RR): 1.66 (95% CI: 1.04-2.67); P = 0.04], despite similar volumes of intraoperative fluid being administered. Persistently higher lactate during the intervention period was associated with AKI (mean difference: 1.15 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.48-1.81); P = 0.01]. Prolonged hospital stay was associated with AKI but not MCR [RR: 2.71 (95% CI: 1.51-4.87); P = 0.0008]. Conclusion: These data provide further insights into how perioperative haemodynamic alterations relate to postoperative increases in creatinine once systemic inflammation is established.

19.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15097, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516907

RESUMO

Indirect measures of cardiac vagal activity are strongly associated with exercise capacity, yet a causal relationship has not been established. Here we show that in rats, genetic silencing of the largest population of brainstem vagal preganglionic neurons residing in the brainstem's dorsal vagal motor nucleus dramatically impairs exercise capacity, while optogenetic recruitment of the same neuronal population enhances cardiac contractility and prolongs exercise endurance. These data provide direct experimental evidence that parasympathetic vagal drive generated by a defined CNS circuit determines the ability to exercise. Decreased activity and/or gradual loss of the identified neuronal cell group provides a neurophysiological basis for the progressive decline of exercise capacity with aging and in diverse disease states.

20.
JAMA ; 317(16): 1642-1651, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444280

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
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