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1.
Subst Abus ; 41(4): 413-418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936695

RESUMO

The actions needed to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) have forged rapid paradigm shifts across healthcare delivery. In a time of crisis, continued access to and delivery of medication for opioid use disorder (M-OUD) is essential to save lives. However, prior to COVID-19, large variability in M-OUD adoption existed across the Veteran Health Administration (VHA) and it is unknown whether the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated this divide. For the past two years, our team worked with eight VHA facilities to enhance adoption of M-OUD through a multi-component implementation intervention. This commentary explores these providers' responses to COVID-19 and the subsequent impact on their progress toward increasing adoption of M-OUD. Briefly, the loosening of regulatory restrictions fostered accelerated adoption of M-OUD, rapid support for telehealth offered a mechanism to increase M-OUD access, and reevaluation of current practices surrounding M-OUD strengthened adoption. Overall, during the COVID-19 crisis, facilities and providers responded positively to the call for increased access to M-OUD and appropriate care of patients with OUD. The VHA providers' responses and continued progress in enhancing M-OUD amidst a crisis may, in part, be attributable to their participation in an implementation effort prior to COVID-19 that established resources, expert support, and a community of practice. We anticipate the themes presented are generalizable to other healthcare systems grappling to deliver care to patients with OUD during a crisis. We propose areas of future research and quality improvement to continue to provide access and high quality, life-saving care to patients with OUD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944814

RESUMO

To evaluate an implementation intervention to increase the uptake, referred to as reach, of two evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) PTSD specialty clinics. The implementation intervention was external facilitation guided by a toolkit that bundled strategies associated with high EBP reach in prior research. We used a prospective quasi-experimental design. The facilitator worked with local champions at two low-reach PTSD clinics. Each intervention PTSD clinic was matched to three control clinics. We compared the change in EBP reach from 6-months pre- to post-intervention using Difference-in-Difference (DID) effect estimation. To incorporate possible clustering effects and adjust for imbalanced covariates, we used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of EBP receipt. Analyses were conducted separately for PTSD and other mental health clinics. 29,446 veterans diagnosed with PTSD received psychotherapy in the two intervention and six control sites in the two 6-month evaluation periods. The proportion of therapy patients with PTSD receiving an EBP increased by 16.98 percentage points in the intervention PTSD clinics compared with .45 percentage points in the control PTSD clinics (DID = 16.53%; SE = 2.26%). The adjusted odd ratio of a patient receiving an EBP from pre to post intervention was almost three times larger in the intervention than in the control PTSD clinics (RoR 2.90; 95% CI 2.22-3.80). EBP reach was largely unchanged in other (not PTSD specialty) mental health clinics within the same medical centers. Toolkit-guided external facilitation is a promising intervention to improve uptake of EBPs in VHA. Toolkits that pre-specify targets for clinic change based on prior research may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of external facilitation. Trial registration ISRCTN registry identifier: ISRCTN65119065. Available at https://www.isrctn.com/search?q=ISRCTN65119065 .

3.
Med Care ; 58 Suppl 2 9S: S88-S93, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmacological options to treat pain are in demand, in part to address the opioid crisis. One such option is acupuncture. Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) is an auricular needling protocol currently used to treat pain in the Veterans Health Administration. We aimed to identify the advantages and disadvantages of BFA from providers' perspectives. METHODS: We rely on an inductive qualitative approach to explore provider perceptions through thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 43 BFA providers across the nation. RESULTS: We identified the following themes. Disadvantages included: (1) clinical guidelines are insufficient; (2) patients often request multiple BFA visits from providers; (3) BFA can be uncomfortable; (4) BFA may not be an effective treatment option unless it can be provided "on demand"; and (5) BFA can promote euphoria, which can have deleterious consequences for patient self-care. Perceived advantages included: (1) BFA can simultaneously effectively control pain while reducing opioid use; (2) BFA may alleviate the pain that has been unsuccessfully treated by conventional methods; (3) BFA gives providers a treatment option to offer patients with substance use disorder; (4) BFA helps build a trusting patient-provider relationship; (5) BFA can create the opportunity for hope. CONCLUSIONS: Providers perceive BFA to have many benefits, both clinical and relational, including ways in which it may have utility in addressing the current opioid crisis. BFA is easy to deliver and has potential clinical and relational utility. Efforts to better understand effectiveness are warranted.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Acupuntura Auricular/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Euforia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde dos Veteranos
4.
Med Care ; 58 Suppl 2 9S: S101-S107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) launched a national initiative to train providers in a specific, protocolized auricular acupuncture treatment (also called Battlefield Acupuncture or BFA) as a nonpharmacological approach to pain management. This evaluation assessed the real-world effectiveness of BFA on immediate pain relief and identified subgroups of patients for whom BFA is most effective. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a cross-sectional cohort study, electronic medical record data for 11,406 Veterans treated with BFA at 57 VHA medical centers between October 2016 and September 2018 was analyzed. The multivariate analysis incorporated data on pain history, change in pain level on an 11-point scale, complications, and demographic information. METHODS: A total of 11,406 Veterans were treated with BFA at 57 VHA medical centers between October 2016 and September 2018 and had effectiveness data recorded in their electronic medical record. RESULTS: More than 3 quarters experienced immediate decreases in pain following administration of BFA, with nearly 60% reported experiencing a minimal clinically important difference in pain intensity. The average decrease in pain intensity was -2.5 points (SD=2.2) at the initial BFA treatment, and -2.2 points (SD=2.0) at subsequent treatments. BFA was effective across a wide range of Veterans with many having preexisting chronic pain, or physical, or psychological comorbid conditions. Veterans with opioid use in the year before BFA experienced less improvement, with pain intensity scores improving more among Veterans who had not recently used opioids. CONCLUSION: VHA's rapid expansion of training providers to offer BFA as a nonpharmacological approach to pain management has benefited many Veterans.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Veteranos , Acupuntura Auricular/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Saúde dos Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 35(1): 1-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal behavior, and depressive, substance use, and anxiety disorders in US service members or Veterans with and without a deployment-related mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) (mTBI). DESIGN: Systematic review using multiple databases (January 2000 to October 2017). We included national or geographically diverse samples. MAIN MEASURE: Prevalence and severity of psychiatric conditions based on diagnostic codes, clinician assessments, and self-report measures with results stratified by sample type. RESULTS: We identified 11 studies on the basis of national samples and 22 studies on the basis of geographically diverse samples. Traumatic brain injury severity was not always ascertained or reported. In national studies, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and anxiety disorder prevalence were higher in those with TBI than in those without. One national sample reported prevalence of suicide attempts. Across psychiatric conditions, strength of evidence ranged from insufficient to moderate. In geographically diverse samples, the pattern of findings was similar. National studies provided insufficient evidence on psychiatric condition severity; geographically diverse studies found greater severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with mixed results for symptoms of depressive or substance use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Service members and Veterans with TBI history have higher prevalence and possibly severity of selected psychiatric conditions.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 493-501, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-morbidity of psychiatric conditions with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among service members and Veterans from recent deployments. Practice guidelines for mild TBI (mTBI) recommend management of co-occurring psychiatric conditions with existing treatments, but it is unclear whether the effectiveness of treatments for psychiatric conditions is impacted by mTBI. We conducted a systematic literature review to examine the effectiveness and harms of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, substance use disorders, suicidal ideation or attempts, and anxiety disorders in the presence of co-morbid deployment-related mTBI. METHODS: We searched bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed, English language studies published from 2000 to October 2017. Two reviewers independently completed abstract triage and full text review. RESULTS: We identified 7 studies (5 pre-post and 2 secondary analysis). Six assessed psychotherapy and one reported on hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2). Studies comparing outcomes by TBI history found that a history of TBI does not affect treatment outcomes. Harms were reported only for HBO2 and were mild. No study examined the effectiveness of treatments for substance use disorders or suicidal ideation, or the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for the psychiatric conditions of interest in service members and Veterans with mTBI. LIMITATIONS: Studies lacked usual care or wait-list control groups and no randomized trials were found, making the strength of evidence insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is insufficient to fully assess the impact of TBI on the effectiveness of treatments for psychiatric conditions. Higher quality evidence with definitive guidance for providers treating this population is needed.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Militares/psicologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/psicologia , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 13(1): 25, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors. While the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has made great strides in OAT implementation, national treatment rates remain low (35% of patients with OUD) and several facilities continue to have much lower prescribing rates. METHODS: Eight VA sites with low baseline prescribing rates (lowest quartile, < 21%) were randomly selected from the 35 low prescribing sites to receive an intensive external facilitation implementation intervention to increase OAT prescribing rates. The intervention includes a site-specific developmental evaluation, a kick-off site visit, and 12 months of ongoing facilitation. The developmental evaluation includes qualitative interviews with patients, substance use disorders clinic staff, and primary care and general mental health leadership to assess site-level barriers. The site visit includes: (1) a review of site-specific barriers and potential implementation strategies; (2) instruction on using available dashboards to track prescribing rates and identify actionable patients; and (3) education on OAT, including, if requested, buprenorphine certification training for prescribers. On-going facilitation consists of monthly conference calls with individual site teams and expert clinical consultation. The primary outcomes is the proportion of Veterans with OUD initiating and sustaining OAT, with intervention sites expected to have larger increases in prescribing compared to control sites. Final qualitative interviews and a cost assessment will inform future implementation efforts. DISCUSSION: This project will examine and respond to barriers encountered in low prescribing VHA clinics allowing refinement of an intervention to enhance access to medication treatment for OUD in additional facilities.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/normas , Veteranos
8.
Med Acupunct ; 30(5): 252-261, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377461

RESUMO

Objective: Battlefield Acupuncture (BFA) is an auricular needling protocol for pain. More than 1300 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinicians have been trained in BFA delivery. However, little is known about how well BFA has been implemented at the VHA. The aim of this research was to identify the challenges providers experience in implementing BFA and to look for any successful strategies used to overcome these challenges. Materials and Methods: Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted from June 2017 to January 2018, using an interview guide informed by the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework to address several implementation domains: knowledge and attitudes about BFA; professional roles and training in BFA; organization of BFA delivery and resources to provide BFA; and implementation challenges and strategies to address challenges. The interviews were analyzed, using a grounded theory-informed approach. This research was conducted at 20 VHA facilities and involved 23 VHA BFA providers nationwide. Results: Nine main implementation themes were identified: (1) providers organizing BFA delivery in various ways; (2) insufficient time to provide BFA to meet patient demand; (3) beliefs and knowledge about BFA; (4) lack of BFA indication guidelines or effectiveness data; (5) self-efficacy; (6) time delay between training and practice; (7) limited access to resources; (8) key role of leadership and administrative buy-in, and (9) written consent an unwarranted documentation burden. Providers offered some possible strategies to address these issues. Conclusions: System- and provider-level challenges can impede BFA implementation. However, several providers discovered strategies to address some challenges that can be used within and outside the VHA, which, in turn, might improve access to this potentially promising pain-management intervention.

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(10): 979-988, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that group "mantram" (sacred word) repetition therapy, a non-trauma-focused complementary therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be an effective treatment for veterans. The authors compared individually delivered mantram repetition therapy and another non-trauma-focused treatment for PTSD. METHOD: The study was a two-site, open-allocation, blinded-assessment randomized trial involving 173 veterans diagnosed with military-related PTSD from two Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics (January 2012 to March 2014). The mantram group (N=89) learned skills for silent mantram repetition, slowing thoughts, and one-pointed attention. The comparison group (N=84) received present-centered therapy, focusing on currently stressful events and problem-solving skills. Both treatments were delivered individually in eight weekly 1-hour sessions. The primary outcome measure was change in PTSD symptom severity, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and by self-report. Secondary outcome measures included insomnia, depression, anger, spiritual well-being, mindfulness, and quality of life. Intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using linear mixed models. RESULTS: The mantram group had significantly greater improvements in CAPS score than the present-centered therapy group, both at the posttreatment assessment (between-group difference across time, -9.98, 95% CI=-3.63, -16.00; d=0.49) and at the 2-month follow-up (between-group difference, -9.34, 95% CI=-1.50, -17.18; d=0.46). Self-reported PTSD symptom severity was also lower in the mantram group compared with the present-centered therapy group at the posttreatment assessment, but there was no difference at the 2-month follow-up. Significantly more participants in the mantram group (59%) than in the present-centered therapy group (40%) who completed the 2-month follow-up no longer met criteria for PTSD (p<0.04). However, the percentage of participants in the mantram group (75%) compared with participants in the present-centered therapy group (61%) who experienced clinically meaningful changes (≥10-point improvements) in CAPS score did not differ significantly between groups. Reductions in insomnia were significantly greater for participants in the mantram group at both posttreatment assessment and 2-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of veterans with PTSD, individually delivered mantram repetition therapy was generally more effective than present-centered therapy for reducing PTSD symptom severity and insomnia.


Assuntos
Meditação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
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