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1.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 364-373, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571037

RESUMO

To enhance our ability to monitor poliovirus circulation and certify eradication, we evaluated the performance of the bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) against the two-phase separation (TPS) method for concentrating wastewater samples for poliovirus detection. Sequential samples were collected at two sites in Mexico; one L was collected by grab and ~ 5 L were collected and filtered in situ with the BMFS. In the laboratory, 500 mL collected by grab were concentrated using TPS and the sample contained in the filter of the BMFS was eluted without secondary concentration. Concentrates were tested for the presence of poliovirus and non-poliovirus enterovirus (NPEV) using Global Poliovirus Laboratory Network standard procedures. Between February 16, 2016, and April 18, 2017, 125 pairs of samples were obtained. Collectors spent an average (± standard deviation) of 4.3 ± 2.2 min collecting the TPS sample versus 73.5 ± 30.5 min collecting and filtering the BMFS sample. Laboratory processing required an estimated 5 h for concentration by TPS and 3.5 h for elution. Sabin 1 poliovirus was detected in 37 [30%] samples with the TPS versus 24 [19%] samples with the BMFS (McNemar's mid p value = 0.004). Sabin 3 poliovirus was detected in 59 [47%] versus 49 (39%) samples (p = 0.043), and NPEV was detected in 67 [54%] versus 40 [32%] samples (p < 0.001). The BMFS method without secondary concentration did not perform as well as the TPS method for detecting Sabin poliovirus and NPEV. Further studies are needed to guide the selection of cost-effective environmental surveillance methods for the polio endgame.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Filtração , México , Poliovirus/classificação , Poliovirus/genética , Esgotos/virologia , Águas Residuárias/química
2.
Medisur ; 17(1): 136-143, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002659

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: En la carrera de Odontología de la Universidad de Guayaquil, la asignatura prótesis removible carece de un sistema estructurado para el contenido, que garantice la articulación de los componentes académico investigativo y laboral. Ello puede revertirse a mediano y largo plazo en deficiencias en el desempeño laboral de los futuros profesionales. Objetivo: describir los resultados evaluativos en la asignatura prótesis removible en relación con los componentes académico, investigativo y laboral. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, correlacional, con diseño longitudinal de panel, para realizar un análisis en la asignatura prótesis removible, de la carrera de Odontología, en la Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante el curso académico 2017-2018. Las variables fueron los resultados obtenidos en las evaluaciones por 57 estudiantes; y las valoraciones acerca los tres componentes articulados: académico, investigativo y laboral. Se emplearon estadísticos descriptivos de tendencia central y de dispersión, así como la prueba alternativa no paramétrica de los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon. Resultados: se observaron diferencias significativas en el promedio de las calificaciones en ambos trabajos investigativos para cada uno de los grupos. Los tres componentes mostraron un comportamiento similar, aunque quedó evidenciada una acentuada disminución del componente laboral. Conclusión: las calificaciones obtenidas revelan mejores resultados en el conocimiento teórico y en relación a habilidades para la actividad investigativa, no así para las actividades prácticas vinculadas al diseño de las prótesis. La integración de los tres componentes del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje se ve afectada, al no estar debidamente potenciado el componente laboral.


ABSTRACT Foundation: in Odontology studies at the University of Guayaquil, the subject removable Prosthesis lacks a structured system that guarantees the articulation of the labor, research and academic components. That could be reverted at a medium and long terms in deficiencies at working performance in future professionals. Objective: to describe the tests results in the subject removable prosthesis in regards to abor, research and academic components. Methods: a correlational, observation study was developed with panel design, to develop the analysis of the subject removable prosthesis, of the Odontology studies at the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador during the academic year 2017-2018. The variables were the results obtained in the test of 57 students, valuations about the three components articulated: academic, research and labor, so as the alternative non parametric ranking test with Wilcoxon sign. Results: significant differences were observed in the average marks in both research works for each of the groups. The three components had a similar behavior, though there was evidence of a decrease in the labor component. Conclusion: the marks obtained revealed better results in theoretical knowledge related to research abilities, not in the same way in at the job practice linked to prosthesis design. The integration of the three components of the teaching learning process is affected since the labor component isn not properly developed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509911

RESUMO

Abiotic stress shapes how communities assemble and support ecological functions. However, it remains unclear whether artificially increasing or decreasing stress levels would lead to communities assembling predictably along a single axis of variation or along multiple context-dependent trajectories of change. In response to stress intensity alterations, we hypothesize that a single trajectory of change occurs when trait-based assembly prevails, while multiple trajectories of change arise when dispersal-related processes modify colonization and trait-filtering dynamics. Here, we tested these hypotheses using aquatic macroinvertebrates from rivers exposed to gradients of natural salinity and artificially diluted or salinized ion contents. Our results showed that trait-filtering was important in driving community assembly in natural and diluted rivers, while dispersal-related processes seemed to play a relevant role in response to salinization. Salinized rivers showed novel communities with different trait composition, while natural and diluted communities exhibited similar taxonomic and trait compositional patterns along the conductivity gradient. Our findings suggest that the artificial modification of chemical stressors can result in different biological communities, depending on the direction of the change (salinization or dilution), with trait-filtering, and organism dispersal and colonization dynamics having differential roles in community assembly. The approach presented here provides both empirical and conceptual insights that can help in anticipating the ecological effects of global change, especially for those stressors with both natural and anthropogenic origins.This article is part of the theme issue 'Salt in freshwaters: causes, ecological consequences and future prospects'.


Assuntos
Biota , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Rios/química , Salinidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(1): 6-27, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-897651

RESUMO

Resumen Podonominae es una subfamilia de Chironomidae cuyos estados inmaduros habitan ríos y arroyos fríos. En América del Sur, la mayoría de las especies han sido reportadas solamente para la subregión Andina/Patagónica. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de su diversidad en áreas tropicales es aún escaso. Estudiamos la riqueza de géneros y morfotipos de pupas y exuvias pupales Podonominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) en los ríos altoandinos de Colombia, Ecuador y Perú y se discutió su distribución geográfica en el área de estudio. Los especímenes fueron recolectados entre 2004 - 2011 en 197 puntos de muestreo, 17 cuencas hidrográficas por encima de los 2 000 msnm. Durante la estación seca, muestras bentónicas y de deriva fueron tomadas en diferentes sustratos. Reconocimos tres géneros:Podonomopsis,ParochlusyPodonomus,con uno, nueve y 14 morfotipos respectivamente. Sólo seis de ellos fueron claramente determinados como especies previamente descritas.Podonomopsisestuvo representado sólo por una especie,P. illiesi, encontrado únicamente en ríos altos de Perú (más de 3 500 msnm). La abundancia y riqueza de morfotipos deParochlusfueron las altas en ríos de Ecuador y Colombia (P.incaicus,Parochlussp. 1 yParochlussp. 2 fueron las especies más comunes). Por el contrario,Podonomusfue más diverso y abundante en ríos de Perú (P. caranqui,P. fittkauiyP. fastigiansfueron las especies más comunes).Encontramos un claro patrón de distribución de morfotipos en el gradiente latitudinal. Primero, se confirmó una evidente disminución en la riqueza de morfotipos en relación a los Andes del Sur. Segundo, se encontraron especies comoPodomopsisilliesi,PodonomusfittkauiyPodomusfastigiansque solamente estuvieron presentes en Perú, pero no en Ecuador y Colombia. Para estas especies, la Depresión de Huancabamba (6°S Latitud, Norte de Perú), pudo representar una importante barrera en su dispersión hacia latitudes más bajas. También se presenta una clave taxonómica para la determinación de géneros y morfotipos.


Abstract The Podonominae is a subfamily of Chironomidae which immature stages inhabit cold streams and brooks. In South America, most of the species have been reported only from the Andean/Patagonian subregion. However, the knowledge of its diversity from high tropical areas is still scarce. We studied the richness of genera and morphotypes of pupae and pupal exuviae of Podonominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the high Andean rivers from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and discussed its geographical distribution in the studied area. The specimens were collected between 2004 and 2011 in 197 sampling points, from 17 basins over 2 000 masl. During the dry season, benthic and drift samples were taken in different substrates. We recognized three genera:Podonomopsis,ParochlusandPodonomus,with one, nine and 14 morphotypes, respectively. Only six of them were clearly determined as species previously described.Podonomopsiswas represented only by one species,P.illiesi, only found in high altitude rivers in Perú (above 3 500 masl). Morphotypes richness and abundance ofParochluswere higher in rivers from Ecuador and Colombia (P.incaicus,Parochlussp. 1 andParochlussp. 2 were the most common species). Conversely,Podonomuswas more diverse and abundant in rivers from Perú (P. caranqui,P. fittkauiandP. fastigianswere the most common species). We found a clear pattern of distribution of morphotypes in the latitudinal gradient. First, we confirmed an evident decrease in the morphotypes richness in relation to the South Andes. Second, we found species such asPodomopsisilliesi,PodonomusfittkauiandPodomusfastigiansthat only were present in Perú, but not in Ecuador and Colombia. For these species, the Huancabamba Depression (6°S Latitude, North of Perú), could represent an important barrier in their dispersion toward lower latitudes. A taxonomic key to genera and morphotypes determination was also provided. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(1): 6-27. Epub 2018 March 01.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(1): 580-598, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608568

RESUMO

Here, we aimed to further characterize the mechanisms involved in protoxin (p) Cry1Ac-induced macrophage activation. We demonstrated that pCry1Ac induces MAPK ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Because MAPK activation is mainly triggered via ligand-receptor interactions, we focused on the identification of potential pCry1Ac-receptor proteins. Flow cytometry and confocal analysis showed specific saturable pCry1Ac-binding to the macrophage surface and evidenced its internalization via the clathrin-pathway. We performed immunoprecipitation assays and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF several possible pCry1Ac-binding proteins, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), vimentin, α-enolase, and actin; whose interaction and presence was confirmed, respectively, by ligand blot and Western blot assays. We also detected cell-surface (cs) pCry1Ac-HSP70 colocalization, so HSP70 was chosen for further characterization. Co-immunoprecipitation with HSP70 antibodies followed by Western blot confirmed the pCry1Ac-HSP70 interaction. Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with HSP70 antibodies reduced pCry1Ac-induced ERK1 phosphorylation and MCP-1 production; thus suggest the functional participation of csHSP70 in pCry1Ac-induced macrophage activation. csHSP70 also was evaluated in peritoneal-cavity (PerC) macrophages of untreated BALB/c mice, interestingly it was found that the predominant population namely large-peritoneal-macrophages (LPM) displayed csHSP70 + hi. Furthermore, the dynamics of PerC macrophage subsets, LPM, and small-peritoneal macrophages (SPM) were evaluated in response to in vivo pCry1Ac stimuli in presence or not of phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) a functional HSP70 inhibitor. It was found that pCry1Ac increased the proportion of SPM CD11b + F4/80 + lowMHCII + csHSP70 + low and markedly reduced the amount of LPM CD11b + F4/80 + hiMHCII-csHSP70 + hi; while PES, partially suppressed this pCry1Ac-induced effect, further suggesting the participation of HSP70 in macrophage activation process. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 580-598, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Endotoxinas/química , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
6.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(1): 16-24, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-909093

RESUMO

Introducción: la forma amnésica del deterioro cognoscitivo leve (DCL-amn) es considerada fenotípica de la enfermedad de Alzheimer en fase prodrómica. Dado el déficit de memoria que caracteriza a los pacientes con DCL-amn, se hipotetiza que su desempeño en tareas de memoria explícita no se vería afectado por el efecto de la práctica al realizar un retest en un tiempo relativamente corto. Objetivo: evaluar la memoria explícita verbal y visual de un grupo de pacientes (N = 13) con DCL-amn, comparando su desempeño en 2 momentos evaluativos: el primero al diagnóstico clínico y el otro cuatro meses después. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio ex post facto descriptivo comparativo con el plan de investigación evolutivo de grupo. Se evaluó la memoria explícita verbal con el Buschke Selective Reminded Test y la memoria explícita visual con la figura compleja de Rey. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS versión 2.0, obteniendo medias y desviaciones estándar y empleando una p < 0,05 como estadísticamente significativa. Resultados: los análisis a partir de la prueba t-student demuestran que las diferencias entre ambos momentos no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05). Conclusiones: los resultados apoyan la evidencia previa de ausencia de efecto de la práctica en las evaluaciones sucesivas en el DCL-amn, que se explica por el déficit crónico de memoria anterógrada que impide hacer aprendizajes significativos, aún ante la exposición repetida a los mismos materiales de prueba y en cortos períodos de retest.


Introduction: The amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (amn-MCI) is considered to be a phenotype of Alzheimer´s disease in the prodromal stages. Given memory deficit that characterizes patients with amn-MCI, it hypothesized that their performance in explicit memory task would not be influenced by the practice effect when a retest is performed over a relatively short time. Objective: To evaluate the explicit verbal and visual memory of a group of patients (N = 13) with amn-MCI, comparing their performance in 2 evaluative moments: the first to the clinical diagnosis and the other four months after. Materials and methods: An ex post facto comparative descriptive study was carried out with a group evolutionary research plan. Verbal explicit memory was evaluated with the Buschke Selective Reminded Test and explicit visual memory with the Complex Figure of Rey. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS program version 2.0, obtaining means and standard deviations and using p <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: The analyzes from the t-student test show that the differences between both moments were not statistically significant (p <0.05). Conclusions: The results support the previous evidence of absence of practice effect in the successive evaluations in the amn-MCI, which is explained by the chronic deficit of anterograde memory that prevents significant learning, even in the face of repeated exposure to the same test materials and in short retest periods.


Assuntos
Humanos , Amnésia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diagnóstico
7.
Zootaxa ; 4365(1): 53-70, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245369

RESUMO

Morphological analysis of all developmental stages (except female), mitochondrial DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and cytological analysis of the polytene chromosomes were used to describe a new species of Chironomus found in the littoral and profundal zones of an endorheic, warm-monomictic lake in Mexico. Male imago is distinguished by the shape of superior volsella and by an antennal and bristle ratio lower than two. The pupa is characterized by the spur morphology of abdominal segment VIII. There is also a continuous row of hooklets on abdominal segment II. The larva is distinguished by a combination of antenna, mentum, mandible, and pecten epipharyngis characteristics, and abdominal ventral tubules. Molecular and cytological analysis supported the morphological differences found. The maximum likelihood tree obtained shows that Chironomus alchichica sp. n. clusters together with Chironomus decorus-group sp. 2 Butler et al. (1995) (bootstrap support = 92%), but genetic p-distances within C. alchichica sp. n. (0.004) were lower than the p-distances between other species of the decorus-group (C. decorus-group sp. 2, Chironomus bifurcatus Wülker et al., 2009 and Chironomus maturus Johannsen, 1908) confirming that it is a different species. The new species belongs to thummi cytocomplex, (decorus-group), with chromosome set- 2n = 8 and chromosome arm combinations: AB CD EF G. Karyologically, the species is closest to Chironomus riihimaekiensis Wülker (1973). This species has very compact salivary gland chromosomes with well heterochromatinized centromere regions in chromosomes AB CD G. Several fixed homozygous inversions distinguish arm A of the species from that of C. riihimaekiensis. Arm E differs from that of C. riihimaekiensis by simple fixed homozygous inversion. Some similarities in band sequences of this arm were found with species from the decorus-group as Chironomus blaylocki Wülker et al., 2009 and C. bifurcatus (decorus-group). The position of the key constrictions in chromosome G: Nucleolar organizer (NOR) and Balbiani rings (BRs) is similar to the species of decorus-group. C. alchichica sp. n. has been found in soft sediments rich in organic matter in well mineralized waters (where conductivity >10 mS cm-1) and with a high pH (≥9). The profundal zone is inhabited only during the mixing period, when dissolved oxygen is present.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Dípteros , Feminino , Lagos , Larva , Masculino , México , Cromossomos Politênicos
8.
Mol Ecol ; 26(21): 6085-6099, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881498

RESUMO

Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Insetos/classificação , Rios , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Medisur ; 15(3): 350-355, may.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-894726

RESUMO

El modelo pedagógico de aprendizaje híbrido es cada vez más utilizado en la educación superior, por el hecho de que promueve cambios significativos en el aprendizaje. El objetivo de este artículo es facilitar una propuesta teórica sobre la metodología clase invertida, para su implementación en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Facultad Piloto de Odontología de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Esta concepción implica la apertura a oportunidades efectivas de diálogo y construcción colaborativa de contenidos, así como la promoción de la cultura digital en función de las actividades de colaboración y cooperación entre directivos y profesores para actuar de manera diferente en el aula.


The pedagogical hybrid learning model is increasingly used in higher education, due to the fact that it promotes significant changes in learning. The objective of this article is to facilitate a theoretical proposal on the inverted class methodology, for its implementation in the teaching process of the Dentistry Experimental Faculty of the Guayaquil University. This concept implies opening effective opportunities for dialogue and collaborative content construction, as well as the promotion of digital culture in terms of collaboration and cooperation between managers and teachers to act differently in the classroom.

10.
Medisur ; 15(3): 297-303, may.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-894733

RESUMO

El aprendizaje es un tema de discusión constante en el ámbito de las ciencias pedagógicas. Dentro de este, el protagonismo del estudiante es un tema complejo, al cual se presenta como alternativa el aprendizaje basado en problemas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las investigaciones que apoyan la efectividad del aprendizaje basado en problemas, como método de enseñanza en la educación odontológica. Este concepto fue introducido en la década del 60, en Canadá, como respuesta a los problemas y limitaciones de los enfoques tradicionales de enseñanza. Se exponen y debaten los aspectos teóricos del enfoque de aprendizaje basado en problemas, así como sus diferentes tendencias, extrapolables a la educación odontológica. El aprendizaje basado en problemas puede mejorar el pensamiento crítico de los estudiantes de odontología, enseñándoles a analizar y resolver problemas reales, que los preparen para su futura vida profesional.


Learning is a topic of constant discussion in the pedagogical sciences field. Within this, the student protagonism is a complex subject, which has as an alternative problem based learning. The aim of this article is to review the research supporting the effectiveness of problem based learning as a teaching method in dental education. This concept was introduced in the 1960s in Canada in response to the problems and limitations of traditional approaches to teaching. The theoretical aspects of problem based approach to learning, as well as its different trends, extrapolated to dentistry education, are presented and discussed. Problem based learning can improve dentistry students' critical thinking by teaching them to analyze and solve real problems which prepare them for their future professional life.

11.
Medisur ; 15(2): 190-196, mar.-abr. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-841746

RESUMO

Los avatares de la Web 2.0 como filosofía de concepción de los procesos docentes educativos, han cobrado auge en los últimos años. EL objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar teóricamente las herramientas de la Web 2.0 en función de la docencia en el contexto de la educación superior. El estudio se ha realizado con documentos socializados por autores con experiencia en el tema, procedentes de la región y del mundo. La Web 2.0 cuenta con herramientas fundamentales, como cursos en línea masivos y abiertos, ePortafolio, entre otras, las que funcionan como elementos mediadores en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje. Se concluye que la Web 2.0 supone para los docentes de la educación superior un instrumento teórico, cuyo conocimiento y aplicación se revierte en la calidad de la docencia universitaria.


The avatars of Web 2.0 as a philosophy of educational teaching processes conception, have gained momentum in recent years. The objective of this paper is to characterize theoretically the Web 2.0 tools in terms of higher education context teaching. The study was done with documents socialized by experienced authors in the subject, coming from the region and the world. Web 2.0 has fundamental tools, such as massive and open online courses, ePortafolio, among others, which function as mediating elements in the teaching-learning process. It is concluded that the Web 2.0 supposes for higher education teachers a theoretical instrument, whose knowledge and application is reverted in university teaching quality.

12.
MEDISUR ; 15(3)20170000.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71215

RESUMO

El aprendizaje es un tema de discusión constante en el ámbito de las ciencias pedagógicas. Dentro de este, el protagonismo del estudiante es un tema complejo, al cual se presenta como alternativa el aprendizaje basado en problemas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las investigaciones que apoyan la efectividad del aprendizaje basado en problemas, como método de enseñanza en la educación odontológica. Este concepto fue introducido en la década del 60, en Canadá, como respuesta a los problemas y limitaciones de los enfoques tradicionales de enseñanza. Se exponen y debaten los aspectos teóricos del enfoque de aprendizaje basado en problemas, así como sus diferentes tendencias, extrapolables a la educación odontológica. El aprendizaje basado en problemas puede mejorar el pensamiento crítico de los estudiantes de odontología, enseñándoles a analizar y resolver problemas reales, que los preparen para su futura vida profesional(AU)


Learning is a topic of constant discussion in the pedagogical sciences field. Within this, the student protagonism is a complex subject, which has as an alternative problem based learning. The aim of this article is to review the research supporting the effectiveness of problem based learning as a teaching method in dental education. This concept was introduced in the 1960s in Canada in response to the problems and limitations of traditional approaches to teaching. The theoretical aspects of problem based approach to learning, as well as its different trends, extrapolated to dentistry education, are presented and discussed. Problem based learning can improve dentistry students critical thinking by teaching them to analyze and solve real problems which prepare them for their future professional life(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Educação em Odontologia/tendências , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/tendências , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação a Distância/tendências
13.
MEDISUR ; 15(2)2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-69928

RESUMO

Los avatares de la Web 2.0 como filosofía de concepción de los procesos docentes educativos, han cobrado auge en los últimos años. EL objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar teóricamente las herramientas de la Web 2.0 en función de la docencia en el contexto de la educación superior. El estudio se ha realizado con documentos socializados por autores con experiencia en el tema, procedentes de la región y del mundo. La Web 2.0 cuenta con herramientas fundamentales, como cursos en línea masivos y abiertos, ePortafolio, entre otras, las que funcionan como elementos mediadores en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje. Se concluye que la Web 2.0 supone para los docentes de la educación superior un instrumento teórico, cuyo conocimiento y aplicación se revierte en la calidad de la docencia universitaria(AU)


The avatars of Web 2.0 as a philosophy of educational teaching processes conception, have gained momentum in recent years. The objective of this paper is to characterize theoretically the Web 2.0 tools in terms of higher education context teaching. The study was done with documents socialized by experienced authors in the subject, coming from the region and the world. Web 2.0 has fundamental tools, such as massive and open online courses, ePortafolio, among others, which function as mediating elements in the teaching-learning process. It is concluded that the Web 2.0 supposes for higher education teachers a theoretical instrument, whose knowledge and application is reverted in university teaching quality(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Competência Profissional/normas , Educação Superior , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Instrução por Computador/tendências , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação a Distância/tendências , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Mídias Sociais , Ensino/métodos , Ensino/tendências
14.
CCH, Correo cient. Holguín ; 20(4): 702-713, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-828330

RESUMO

Introducción: el embarazo constituye un proceso natural que provoca una serie de cambios fisiológicos, patológicos y psicológicos que las convierten en pacientes especiales que demandan cuidados exclusivos. Objetivo: determinar las principales enfermedades bucodentales que afectan a las embarazadas del Policlínico Pedro Díaz Coello. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de enero de 2014 a enero de 2015 en el Policlínico Pedro Díaz Coello de Holguín a un total de 395 embarazadas que acudieron a la consulta en el período de estudio. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, nivel educacional, área de residencia, clasificación epidemiológica, factores de riesgo y principales enfermedades bucales. Resultados: predominó como área de residencia la zona rural, el grupo de edad de 25 a 29 años, el nivel educacional preuniversitario con 53,9%, 35,2% y 53,7% respectivamente. El mayor número de las pacientes se encontraban enfermas (grupo III) con el 52,9%. El factor de riesgo que más incidió fue la higiene bucal deficiente representado por el 94,2%. La caries dental se identificó como la enfermedad que más afectó a las gestantes con el 47,8%. Conclusiones: la realización de trabajos educativos dirigidos a mejorar el estado de salud bucal en este grupo priorizado constituye una necesidad del momento actual. La caries dental es la afección más frecuente en las gestantes y el factor de riesgo la higiene bucal deficiente.


Introduction: pregnancy constitutes a natural process in a woman´s life; this stage is accompanied by a series of physiologic, pathologic and psychological changes that make them a kind of patients who demand exclusive cares. Objective: to determine the main dental diseases that affect pregnant woman at Pedro Díaz Coello polyclinic. Method: a cross-sectional study was carried out in the period from January 2014 to January 2015 at Pedro Díaz Coello polyclinic. The universe and sample coincided with 395 women, those who were attended in the consultation during the period of this study. The variables analyzed were: age, educational level, habitat area, epidemiologic classification, risk factors and main dental disease. Result: the rural zone as a residential area, the age group from 25 to 29 years old and the pre-university educational level prevailed, with 53.9%, 35.2% and 53.7% respectively. The highest concentration of patients were sick (group III) with a 52.9%. On the other hand, the risk factor that affected the community the most was an inadequate buccal hygiene representing 94.2%. Dental caries was the disease that affected the pregnant women the most with 47.8%. Conclusions: the development of educational works directed to improve the state of dental health of this prioritized group constitutes a current necessity. Dental caries was the disease that affected the pregnant women the most, as well as, the inadequate buccal hygiene as risk factor.

16.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 78: 106-115, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394658

RESUMO

The Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is used commercially as a bio-insecticide and is expressed in transgenic plants that are used for human and animal consumption. Although it was originally considered innocuous for mammals, the Cry1Ac toxin is not inert and has the ability to induce mucosal and systemic immunogenicity. Herein, we examined whether the Cry1Ac toxin promotes macrophage activation and explored the signalling pathways that may mediate this effect. Treatment of primary and RAW264.7 macrophages with the Cry1Ac toxin resulted in upregulation of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86 and ICOS-L and enhanced production of nitric oxide, the chemokine MCP-1 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Remarkably, the Cry1Ac toxin induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2, JNK and p38 and promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p50 and p65. p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs were involved in this effect, as indicated by the Cry1Ac-induced upregulation of CD80 and IL-6 and TNF-α abrogation by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Furthermore, treatment the MEK1/2 kinase inhibitor PD98059 blocked increases in MCP-1 secretion and augmented Cry1Ac-induced ICOS-L upregulation. These data demonstrate the capacity of the Cry1Ac toxin to induce macrophage activation via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/biossíntese , Feminino , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Infect Immun ; 84(7): 2012-2021, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113356

RESUMO

Most autotransporter passenger domains, regardless of their diversity in function, fold or are predicted to fold as right-handed ß-helices carrying various loops that are presumed to confer functionality. Our goal here was to identify the subdomain (loop) or amino acid sequence of the Pet passenger domain involved in the receptor binding site on the host cell for Pet endocytosis. Here, we show that d1 and d2 subdomains, as well as the amino acid sequence linking the subdomain d2 and the adjacent ß-helix (PDWET), are not required for Pet secretion through the autotransporter system and that none of our deletion mutants altered the predicted long right-handed ß-helical structure. Interestingly, Pet lacking the d2 domain (PetΔd2) was unable to bind on the epithelial cell surface, in contrast to Pet lacking d1 (PetΔd1) subdomain or PDWET sequences. Moreover, the purified d1 subdomain, the biggest subdomain (29.8 kDa) containing the serine protease domain, was also unable to bind the cell surface. Thus, d2 sequence (54 residues without the PDWET sequence) was required for Pet binding to eukaryotic cells. In addition, this d2 sequence was also needed for Pet internalization but not for inducing cell damage. In contrast, PetΔd1, which was able to bind and internalize inside the cell, was unable to cause cell damage. Furthermore, unlike Pet, PetΔd2 was unable to bind cytokeratin 8, a Pet receptor. These data indicate that the surface d2 subdomain is essential for the ligand-receptor (Pet-Ck8) interaction for Pet uptake and to start the epithelial cell damage by this toxin.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Queratina-8/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Enterotoxinas/química , Enterotoxinas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratina-8/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/genética
18.
Rev Biol Trop ; 62 Suppl 2: 249-73, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25189082

RESUMO

Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).


Assuntos
Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/química , Invertebrados/classificação , Rios/química , Animais , Equador , Humanos , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional , Poluição da Água
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 249-273, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753769

RESUMO

Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2 000masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA). Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 249-273. Epub 2014 April 01.


Los índices bióticos basados en puntuación son ampliamente utilizados para evaluar la calidad del agua de los arroyos y ríos. Varias áreas de los Andes están densamente pobladas y hay necesidad de métodos para evaluar el impacto de la creciente presión humana sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos. Dadas las características ecológicas y geográficas únicas de los Andes, los índices de macroinvertebrados utilizados en otras regiones deben adaptarse con cautela. Aquí se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre distribución de macroinvertebrados y la tolerancia a la contaminación en las zonas andinas por encima de 2 000msnm. Usando estos datos, se propone un Índice Biolótico Andino (ABI), que se basa en el índice de BMWP. En general, ABI incluye un menor número de familias de macroinvertebrados que en otras regiones del mundo donde se ha aplicado el índice BMWP porque la altitud restringe la distribución de varias de ellas. Nuestra revisión muestra que la tolerancia de varias familias a la contaminación en los ríos altoandinos difiere de lo reportado en otras áreas. Probamos el índice ABI en dos cuencas en Ecuador y Perú, y comparamos con otras adaptaciones BMWP utilizando el enfoque de condición de referencia. Nuestros resultados muestran que el índice de ABI es extremadamente útil para detectar el deterioro general de los ríos, pero que los límites entre las clases de calidad deben ser definidos independientemente para cada cuenca debido a que las condiciones de referencia pueden ser diferentes. El ABI es ampliamente utilizado en Ecuador y Perú, y es parte integral del nuevo índice multimétrico diseñado para corrientes altas andinas (IMEERA).


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/química , Invertebrados/classificação , Rios/química , Equador , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional , Poluição da Água
20.
Infect Immun ; 82(4): 1719-24, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24516112

RESUMO

Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Queratina-8/fisiologia , Laminina/fisiologia , Adesinas de Escherichia coli , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Fibronectinas/imunologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Queratina-8/metabolismo , Laminina/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana
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