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Clin Ophthalmol ; 13: 2285-2292, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819353


Purpose: To assess adherence, non-persistence, discontinuation, and switching of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (CYC) and lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% (LIF) use in the real world among patients with dry eye disease (DED). Design: Retrospective insurance claims study. Methods: Adult patients with DED and ≥1 prescription claim for CYC or LIF (first claim = index date) in the IBM® MarketScan® databases from July 2016 to February 2018 were identified. Eligible patients had continuous medical and pharmacy benefits in the 12 months pre- and post-index periods, and no prior use of the index medication. The proportion of days covered (PDC), adherence, non-persistence, discontinuation, and switching were examined over the 12-month post-index period. Results: This study included 6537 CYC and 3235 LIF patients. The adherence rate was 5.9% for CYC and 9.7% for LIF; the median PDC was 0.3 for both cohorts. Overall, 70.8% of CYC and 64.4% of LIF patients discontinued treatment with median days to discontinuation of 89 and 29, respectively. Non-persistence was 7.1% for CYC and 6.8% for LIF (median days to discontinuation: 89 and 105). In addition, 5.0% switched from CYC to LIF, and 9.6% switched from LIF to CYC over the post-index period. Conclusion: Over 60% of DED patients discontinued treatment within 12 months of initiation; the median time to discontinuation was 3 months for CYC and 1 month for LIF. Although this analysis did not capture the reasons why patients discontinued treatment, the results demonstrate there likely exists a significant unmet need amongst DED patients.

Value Health ; 21(7): 881-890, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005761


BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute major comorbidities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), contributing substantially to treatment costs for T2DM. An updated overview of the economic burden of CVD in T2DM has not been presented to date. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review published articles describing the costs associated with treating CVD in people with T2DM. METHODS: Two reviewers searched MEDLINE, Embase, and abstracts from scientific meetings to identify original research published between 2007 and 2017, with no restrictions on language. Studies reporting direct costs at either a macro level (e.g., burden of illness for a country) or a micro level (e.g., cost incurred by one patient) were included. Extracted costs were inflated to 2016 values using local consumer price indexes, converted into US dollars, and presented as cost per patient per year. RESULTS: Of 81 identified articles, 24 were accepted for analysis, of which 14 were full articles and 10 abstracts. Cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with T2DM incurred a significant burden at both the population and patient levels. From a population level, CVD costs contributed between 20% and 49% of the total direct costs of treating T2DM. The median annual costs per patient for CVD, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke were, respectively, 112%, 107%, 59%, and 322% higher compared with those for T2DM patients without CVD. On average, treating patients with CVD and T2DM resulted in a cost increase ranging from $3418 to $9705 compared with treating patients with T2DM alone. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, CVD has a substantial impact on direct medical costs of T2DM at both the patient and population levels.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 17(1): 83, 2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884191


BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CVD's prevalence has been growing over time. PURPOSE: To estimate the current prevalence of CVD among adults with T2DM by reviewing literature published within the last 10 years (2007-March 2017). METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and proceedings of major scientific meetings for original research documenting the prevalence of CVD in T2DM. CVD included stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular death. No restrictions were placed on country of origin or publication language. Two reviewers independently searched for articles and extracted data, adjudicating results through consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. Risk of bias was examined by applying the STROBE checklist. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 57 articles with 4,549,481 persons having T2DM. Europe produced the most articles (46%), followed by the Western Pacific/China (21%), and North America (13%). Overall in 4,549,481 persons with T2DM, 52.0% were male, 47.0% were obese, aged 63.6 ± 6.9 years old, with T2DM duration of 10.4 ± 3.7 years. CVD affected 32.2% overall (53 studies, N = 4,289,140); 29.1% had atherosclerosis (4 studies, N = 1153), 21.2% had coronary heart disease (42 articles, N = 3,833,200), 14.9% heart failure (14 studies, N = 601,154), 14.6% angina (4 studies, N = 354,743), 10.0% myocardial infarction (13 studies, N = 3,518,833) and 7.6% stroke (39 studies, N = 3,901,505). CVD was the cause of death in 9.9% of T2DM patients (representing 50.3% of all deaths). Risk of bias was low; 80 ± 12% of STROBE checklist items were adequately addressed. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, overall CVD affects approximately 32.2% of all persons with T2DM. CVD is a major cause of mortality among people with T2DM, accounting for approximately half of all deaths over the study period. Coronary artery disease and stroke were the major contributors.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
Curr Med Res Opin ; 33(2): 331-358, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819150


BACKGROUND: Undetected/uncontrolled diabetes is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and consequent costs. Early detection through screening identifies patients at risk, allowing for earlier treatment initiation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the economic impact of screening for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). DATA SOURCES: We systematically reviewed health economic analyses of screening programs for T2DM/pre-diabetes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Published between 2000 and 2015 in any language. Articles must have reported costs of screening, test/patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Any type of screening (universal, targeted, opportunistic) was accepted. METHODS: Data were extracted from Scopus/Medline/Embase, then tabulated. RESULTS: There were 137 studies identified, 108 rejected; 29 were analyzed. Screening types included 18 universal, 8 targeted and 8 opportunistic. One study screened for pre-diabetes, 16 for T2DM and 12 examined both. Fourteen (48%) reported costs of screening only, 9 (31%) costs of screening combined with interventions and 6 (21%) presented all costs separately. Screening was compared to no screening in 13 studies (45%); screening was cost-effective in 8 (62%), not cost-effective in 4 (31%) and neither in 1 (8%). When comparing different screening methods, 6 found targeted screening was cost-effective compared with universal screening (none found the opposite), 2 found opportunistic superior to universal. Sensitivity analyses generally confirmed primary findings. Cost drivers included prevalence of T2DM/pre-diabetes, type of blood test used and uptake of testing. For optimal cost-effectiveness, screening for both T2DM and pre-diabetes should be initiated around age 45-50, with repeated testing every 5 years. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Targeted screening appears to be cost-effective compared to universal screening.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Humanos , Risco