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1.
Exp Eye Res ; 187: 107751, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394104

RESUMO

The vascular endothelium responds to the shear stress generated by blood flow and changes function to maintain tissue homeostasis and adapt to injury in pathological conditions. Shear stress in the retinal circulation is altered in patients with retinal vascular diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of laminar shear stress on barrier properties and on the release of proinflammatory cytokines in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC). HRMEC were cultured in Ibidi flow chambers and exposed to laminar shear stress (0-50 dyn/cm2) for 24-48 h. Tight junction distribution (ZO-1 and claudin-5) and cytokine production were determined by immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. The chemotactic effect of conditioned media exposed to shear stress was determined by measuring lymphocyte transmigration in Transwells. We found that cells exposed to moderately low shear stress (1.5 and 5 dyn/cm2) showed enhanced distribution of membrane ZO-1 and claudin-5 and decreased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, CCL2, and IL-6 compared to static conditions and high shear stress values. Moreover, conditioned media from cells exposed to low shear stress, had the lowest chemotactic effect to recruit lymphocytes compared to conditioned media from cells exposed to static and high shear stress conditions. In conclusion, high shear stress and static flow, associated to impaired retinal circulation, may compromise the inner blood retinal barrier phenotype and barrier function in HRMEC.

2.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672119861623, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop guidance on the use of intravitreal dexamethasone implants in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. METHOD: The study was performed using the modified Delphi method to obtain a consensus among a panel of experts on management of patients with diabetic macular edema and use of intravitreal dexamethasone implants in clinical practice. Thirty-seven panel members, experts on retina, from different Spanish centers were invited to participate. Individual and anonymous opinions were asked by answering a 76-item questionnaire across 11 topic areas (two rounds were done). Level of agreement was assessed using a Likert-type scale of 9 points. RESULTS: Agreement on "consensus" was reached during the first round in 63 items. The 13 remaining items underwent a second round of voting. After the second round, agreement on "consensus" was reached on five items. Finally, eight items remained without consensus. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal dexamethasone implants are useful in the treatment of patients with diabetic macular edema with different profiles, for example, pseudophakic, poor-adherents, vitrectomized, candidates for cataract surgery, patients with high inflammatory component, and with a history of cardiovascular events. The use of intravitreal dexamethasone reduces the number of visits and facilitates compliance. Experts thought that the switch from anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy to intravitreal dexamethasone implants should be done preferably after three injections. Also, pro re nata treatment provides better results in diabetic macular edema patients as it helps to prevent undertreatment. Finally, experts concluded that clinical guidelines and treatment protocols for diabetic macular edema need to be updated.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare IL-6, sIL-6R, and IL-17 secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultured with tocilizumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor), dexamethasone, and placebo, obtained from patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) and healthy controls. METHODS: The study was a prospective proof of concept test. We cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TED patients and healthy controls with tocilizumab, dexamethasone, and placebo. IL-6, sIL-6R, and IL-17 levels in supernatants obtained from PBMCs cultures were analyzed by ELISA. RESULTS: We included seventeen patients with thyroid eye disease (12 females and five males). The mean age was 49 years. Both dexamethasone and tocilizumab influenced IL-6 and IL-6Rs levels in patients' group. Supernatants obtained from PBMCs treated with dexamethasone showed 77.2% and 82.8% lower IL-6 levels compared with those cultured with placebo and tocilizumab, respectively. Furthermore, overnight culture of PBMCs with dexamethasone showed significantly lower sIL-6R secretion compared with untreated (33.71%, p = 0.04) and tocilizumab treated (58.21%, p = 0.01) PBMCs. Neither dexamethasone nor tocilizumab affected IL-17 concentrations in PBMCs cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Both dexamethasone and tocilizumab affect the IL-6/sIL-6R system. Specifically, dexamethasone reduces and tocilizumab increases the levels of these cytokines in PBMCs cultures. These results strengthen the molecular rationale for interrogating the efficacy of tocilizumab in steroid-resistant TED, as IL-6 seems to be a common target for both anti-IL-6R antibody and steroids.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) versus adalimumab (ADA) as first biologic drug in a large series of patients with refractory uveitis due to Behçet's disease (BD) for 1-year period. METHODS: Open-label multicenter study of IFX or ADA-treated patients with BD-uveitis refractory to conventional non-biologic treatment. IFX or ADA were chosen as first biologic treatment based on physician and patient agreement. Dosing schedule was: IFX: 3-5 mg/kg i.v. at 0, 2 and 6 weeks and every 4-8 weeks thereafter, and ADA: 40 mg/s.c./every other week without loading dose. Comparison between patients treated with IFX and patients treated with ADA was performed. RESULTS: 177 patients (316 affected eyes) were included. IFX was used in 103 and ADA in 74 cases. No significant differences at baseline were observed between IFX vs ADA groups regarding main demographic features, previous therapy and ocular severity. After one year of therapy, we observed an improvement in all ocular parameters in both groups. However, ADA therapy yielded better outcome in some parameters that in some cases yielded statistically significant differences: anterior chamber inflammation (78.18% in IFX-treated vs 92.31%in ADA-treated; p=0.06), vitritis (78.95% vs 93.33%; p=0.04), retinal vasculitis (97% vs 95%; p=0.28), macular thickness (264.89±59.74 vs 250.62±36.85; p=0.15), best-corrected visual acuity (0.67±0.34 vs 0.81±0.26; p=0.001), and drug retention (84.95% vs 95.24%; p=0.042). CONCLUSION: Although IFX and ADA yields efficacy refractory BD uveitis, ADA appears to be associated with better outcome than IFX after one-year follow-up. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(5): 1336-1343, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933261

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine whether baseline cytokine aqueous humor (AH) levels are associated with diabetic macular edema (DME) anatomic response to dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX) injection. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of DME cases receiving DEX treatment. Seventy patients were recruited with center-involving DME with spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) detection of central macular thickness (CMT) ≥300 µm on macular cube 518 × 128-µm scan protocol (Cirrus SD-OCT). DEX injection and anterior chamber tap to obtain an AH sample were performed at the same time. Multiplex immunoassay was carried out for interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1; interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A follow-up visit and OCT exam were undertaken 6 to 8 weeks afterward. The association between AH cytokine baseline levels and change in CMT and macular volume (MV) was defined as main outcome measure. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a higher decrease in MV to be associated (Rs of 0.512) with four baseline items: higher MCP-1 (ß = -0.4; P = 0.028), higher CMT (ß = -0.003; P = 0.024), decreased visual acuity (ß = -0.7; P = 0.040), and a diffuse retinal thickening (DRT) OCT pattern (ß = -1.3; P < 0.001). Logistic regression found DRT also to be associated with higher odds of a good MV response (odds ratio, 31.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.11-143.72; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Even though visual acuity response and anatomic effect are not always correlated in DME, we found that baseline elevated MCP-1 AH levels and DRT pattern were biomarkers that predicted a future favorable anatomic response to DEX.

6.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-10, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the long-term clinical outcomes in a cohort of uveitic eyes treated with the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex; Allergan, Inc). METHODS: Seventy-nine (63 patients) receiving 134 implant injections over 82 months were included. Indication, visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), vitreous haze score (VHS), central retinal thickness (CRT), time to reinjection, systemic treatments, and complications data were recorded. RESULTS: The cumulative probability of VA improvement was 80% at 1 month and 90% at 12 months, and it was maintained until 60 months. Eyes with baseline vitritis (VHS >0.5; 68%) had a probability of VHS improvement of 33% at 1 month, 75% at 12 months, and 85% at 60 months. The probability of CRT improvement was 33% at 1 month, 75% at 12 months, and 85% at 60 months. The most frequent adverse event was moderate IOP elevation (≥25 mmHg) in 30.3%, no cases of retinal detachment or endophthalmitis were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The dexamethasone implant provides favorable VA, CRT, and VHS long-term outcomes in uveitis with a reduced rate of severe adverse events.

7.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are chronic and highly disabling diseases that share inflammatory sequences and immunological dysregulations. Considered as a disease in itself, the prevalence of IMID is virtually unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of 10 selected UDI, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, hidradenitis suppurativa, sarcoidosis and uveitis in Spain. METHODS: cross-sectional epidemiological study of point prevalence was made. This study was carried out through a series of computerized interviews in households chosen at random in 17 autonomous communities in Spain. A structured questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of diagnosis and the concurrence of 10 IMID in the respondents and other individuals belonging to the same family nucleus. The point prevalence estimates were used and compared with the objective of determining the frequency of IMID by age, sex and communities. The data were processed using Excel 2016 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) and the SPSS V.019 system (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY, USA) for statistical analysis using the usual statistical tests in this type of studies. RESULTS: Of the 7,980 respondents, 510 were diagnosed with an IMID, representing a cross-sectional study of 6.39% (95% CI: 6.02-6.76). One, two, three or more members of the family were affected in 87.2%, 7.8% and 5% of positive relatives in IMID, respectively. The most recurrent diseases were psoriasis (2.69% [95% CI: 2.32-3.06]) and rheumatic arthritis (1.07% [95% CI: 0.70-1.44]). There were differences in prevalence due to sex (p = 0.004) and age (p = 0.000). No significant differences were identified related to geographic location (p = 0.819). Attendance of at least 2 IMID was reported in 8.9% of respondents. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence was of the IMID studied was 6.39%, psoriasis being the most frequent with 2.69%. This study constitutes an initial step to consider IMID as an independent disease within the health system..


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Hidradenite Supurativa/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sarcoidose/imunologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Uveíte/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210799, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677041

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate predictive factors for visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with macular edema secondary to non-infectious uveitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, observational, 12-month follow-up study. Participants included in the study were adults with non-infectious uveitic macular edema (UME), defined as central subfoveal thickness (CST) of >300 µm as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluid in the macula. Demographic, clinical and tomographic data was recorded at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Foveal-centered SD-OCT exploration was set as the gold-standard determination of UME using a standard Macular Cube 512x128 A-scan, within a 6 x 6 mm2 area, and the Enhanced High Definition Single-Line Raster. To assess favorable prognosis, the main outcomes analyzed were the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the CST. Favorable prognosis was defined as sustained improvement of BCVA (2 lines of gain of the Snellen scale) and CST (decrease of 20% of the initial value or <300 µm) within a 12 month period. RESULTS: Fifty-six eyes were analyzed. The number of eyes with sustained improvement in the CST was 48 (86.2%), against 23 (41.1%) eyes with sustained improvement in BCVA. Favorable prognosis, as defined above, was observed in 18 (32.1%) eyes. UME prognosis was negatively correlated with baseline foveal thickening, alteration in the vitreo-macular interface and cystoid macular edema. In contrast, bilaterally, systemic disease and the presence of anterior chamber cells were predictive of favorable prognosis. CONCLUSION: Available treatment modalities in UME may avoid chronic UME and improve anatomic outcome. However, the proportion of functional amelioration observed during 12 months of follow-up is lower. Thicker CST, alteration in the vitreo-macular interface and cystoid macular edema may denote less favorable prognosis. Conversely, bilaterally, systemic disease and anterior chamber cells may be associated with favorable prognosis in UME.

9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 200: 85-94, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a leading cause of blindness. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in refractory CME. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with CME secondary to noninfectious uveitis who had inadequate response to corticosteroids and at least 1 conventional immunosuppressive drug, and in most cases to other biological agents, were studied. CME was defined as central retinal thickness greater than 300 µm. The primary outcome measure was macular thickness. Intraocular inflammation, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and corticosteroid-sparing effect were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 33.6 ± 18.9 years; 17 women) with CME were assessed. Underlying diseases associated with uveitis-related CME are juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 9), Behçet disease (n = 7), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (n = 4), idiopathic (n = 4), and sarcoidosis (n = 1). The ocular patterns were panuveitis (n = 9), anterior uveitis (n = 7), posterior uveitis (n = 5), and intermediate uveitis (n = 4). Most patients had CME in both eyes (n = 24). TCZ was used in monotherapy (n = 11) or combined with conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Regardless of the underlying disease, compared to baseline, a statistically significant improvement in macular thickness (415.7 ± 177.2 vs 259.1 ± 499.5 µm; P = .00009) and BCVA (0.39 ± 0.31 vs 0.54 ± 0.33; P = .0002) was obtained, allowing us to reduce the daily dose of prednisone (15.9 ± 13.6 mg/day vs 3.1 ± 2.3 mg/day; P = .002) after 12 months of therapy. Remission was achieved in 14 patients. Only minor side effects were observed after a mean follow-up of 12.7 ± 8.34 months. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness is reduced following administration of TCZ in refractory uveitis-related CME.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209997, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term cumulative probability of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation with the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) when used to treat different indications: diabetic macular edema, uveitis, retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: 705 IDI injections (429 eyes) were assessed and Kaplan-Meier graphs were generated to assess: the probability of different levels of IOP elevation (IOP≥21, ≥25 or ≥35 mmHg), IOP change ≥10 mmHg, initiation of IOP-lowering treatment, glaucoma surgery, IOP change with repeat injections and IOP elevation in eyes with glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT). RESULTS: The cumulative probability of IOP ≥21, ≥25 and ≥35 mmHg was 50%-60%, 25%-30% and 6%-7% at 12-24 months, respectively. The probability of initiating IOP-lowering medication was 31%-54% at 12-24 months. Glaucoma and OHT eyes had a higher probability of mild IOP elevation (≥21 mmHg, 65.1%, 75% and 57.8%, p = 0.01), yet a similar moderate (≥25 mmHg, 22.3%, 28% and 30.2%, p = 0.91) and severe elevation of IOP (≥35 mmHg, 3.7%, 7.1% and 4%, p = 0.71) as normal eyes. Glaucoma surgery was required in only 0.9% cases (4/429). At baseline, 8.8% of the treated eyes had glaucoma, 6.7% OHT and 16.9% were already on IOP-lowering medication. CONCLUSIONS: In the long-term (24 months), IOP elevation is common, generally mild (30% IOP, ≥25 mmHg) and well-tolerated, resolving with topical treatment (54%) and rarely requiring surgery (0.9%).

11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-8, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the risk factors for visual loss in presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis (TRU). METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of patients with TRU, either treated or not for tuberculosis, from January 2005 to January 2017. Clinical and demographic variables were recorded. Main outcome measure was a loss of visual acuity (VA) of ≥2 Snellen lines. A Generalized Estimation Equation was used to control between-eyes bias. A backward stepwise logistic regression multivariate analysis was conducted to elucidate independent risk factors. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight eyes from 82 patients were included. There were 45 males, median age at onset of uveitis was 40 years (Interquartile range, IQR 24). The median follow-up was 36 months (IQR 49.75) and 51 patients completed antituberculous treatment (ATT) for a mean of 9.37 months. In the multivariate model, ATT was the only independent protective factor for loss of VA (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.37, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ATT itself may prevent visual loss in TRU.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) related to pattern dystrophy-like deposit in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). METHODS: One-year prospective, interventional study. Nine eyes were recruited in the ophthalmology departments of San Raffaele University and University of Barcelona. Each patient underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement on ETDRS chart, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The protocol included a first anti-VEGF injection, followed by monthly evaluations with re-treatments based on new funduscopic hemorrhages, fluid on OCT or leakage on FA and/or ICGA. Primary outcome measures were the mean BCVA changes. Secondary outcomes included central macular thickness (CMT) variations and the number of injections needed. RESULTS: At month 12, mean BCVA significantly improved from 20/45 to 20/35 Snellen equivalent, with 3 eyes gaining at least 3 ETDRS lines. Mean CMT decreased from 297 ± 22 to 262 ± 13 µm, after 5.5 ± 4.0 injections. No leakage was observed at the end of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal anti-VEGF injections represent an effective treatment for CNV related to pattern dystrophy-like deposit in PXE, with an improvement of BCVA and CMT. Mean injection number is in line with other studies performed in CNV secondary to angioid streaks.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(24): 4333-4343, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215709

RESUMO

Birdshot Uveitis (Birdshot) is a rare eye condition that affects HLA-A29-positive individuals and could be considered a prototypic member of the recently proposed 'MHC-I (major histocompatibility complex class I)-opathy' family. Genetic studies have pinpointed the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP1) and (ERAP2) genes as shared associations across MHC-I-opathies, which suggests ERAP dysfunction may be a root cause for MHC-I-opathies. We mapped the ERAP1 and ERAP2 haplotypes in 84 Dutch cases and 890 controls. We identified association at variant rs10044354, which mediated a marked increase in ERAP2 expression. We also identified and cloned an independently associated ERAP1 haplotype (tagged by rs2287987) present in more than half of the cases; this ERAP1 haplotype is also the primary risk and protective haplotype for other MHC-I-opathies. We show that the risk ERAP1 haplotype conferred significantly altered expression of ERAP1 isoforms in transcriptomic data (n = 360), resulting in lowered protein expression and distinct enzymatic activity. Both the association for rs10044354 (meta-analysis: odds ratio (OR) [95% CI]=2.07[1.58-2.71], P = 1.24 × 10(-7)) and rs2287987 (OR[95% CI]: =2.01[1.51-2.67], P = 1.41 × 10(-6)) replicated and showed consistent direction of effect in an independent Spanish cohort of 46 cases and 2103 controls. In both cohorts, the combined rs2287987-rs10044354 haplotype associated with Birdshot more strongly than either variant alone [meta-analysis: P=3.9 × 10(-9)]. Finally, we observed that ERAP2 protein expression is dependent on the ERAP1 background across three European populations (n = 3353). In conclusion, a functionally distinct combination of ERAP1 and ERAP2 are a hallmark of Birdshot and provide rationale for strategies designed to correct ERAP function for treatment of Birdshot and MHC-I-opathies more broadly.

15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1862, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154790

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the relationship between plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the main ARMS2 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and gender in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). Methods: Our study included 131 patients with wetAMD [age-related eye disease study (AREDS) category 4] and 153 control participants (AREDS category 1) from two Spanish retinal units. CRP levels were determined on blood samples by high-sensitivity ELISA assay. According to their CRP level, subjects were categorized into three well-established CRP categories: low (<1.00 mg/L, L-CRP), moderate (1-2.99 mg/L, M-CRP), and high (>3.00 mg/L, H-CRP). Genomic DNA was extracted from oral swabs using QIAcube (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and the A69S; rs10490924 of ARMS2 gene was genotyped by allelic discrimination with validated TaqMan assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age was used to analyze the genomic frequencies and to calculate odds ratio (OR) using SNPStats software. Results: Considering CRP risk categories, H-CRP group showed a significant [OR 4.0 (1.9-8.3)] association with wetAMD compared to L-CRP group. The risk genotypes of A69S (TT) SNPs showed an association with wetAMD risk [OR 14.0 (4.8-40.8)]. Interestingly, the gender stratification of the CRP categories showed a significant increase in CRP levels in wetAMD women compared with control women [OR 6.9 (2.2-22.3)] and with wetAMD men [OR 4.6 (1.3-16.9)]. In addition, the subgroup analysis of CRP within A69S genotype and gender showed a link in women between the A69S and CRP levels in the AMD group compared to controls [OR 4.2 (1.4-12.6)]. Conclusion: Our study shows, for the first time, that a different genetic association related with gender could contribute to AMD risk. As a consequence, the risk of female gender in the different CRP levels and A69S SNP frequencies could be taken into consideration to the established risk relationship of high levels of CRP and its association with risk A69S genotype.

16.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-9, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe clinical features and outcome in bilateral acute retinal necrosis (BARN). METHODS: Observational retrospective longitudinal review of ocular findings. RESULTS: Thirty eyes of 15 patients (age 44.1 ± 15.8). Delay of involvement between eyes was 57.2 ± 105.2 months (median 3, range 0.5-360). Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was the most frequent (20 eyes, 66.6%), followed by HSV-2 (five eyes, 16.7%) and varicella zoster virus (VZV, four eyes, 13.3%). Visual acuity worsened in 7 (23%) eyes, improved in 4 (13%), and remained stable in 19 (63%). Major complications included retinal detachment (11 eyes, 36%), optic atrophy (11 eyes, 33%), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (four eyes, 13.3%), neovascular glaucoma (four eyes, 13.3%), phthisis bulbi (three eyes, 10%). Symptoms-to-referral average time was 2.7 ± 1.0 weeks (range 1-4). CONCLUSIONS: In our study BARN was associated with severe visual outcome and high rate of ocular complications. Although BARN is a rare disease, the course is aggressive, regardless prompt referral in tertiary-care uveitis centers.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200819, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measured with Swept source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) in eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). METHODS: 42 DME eyes were imaged using SS-OCT standard Macular scanning protocols. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured in the Total macular circle (TMC) and foveal central subfield (FCS) using device-integrated specific software. The coefficient of repeatability (CR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were determined as a measure of repeatability and relative reliability within graders. Reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were determined as a measure of interobserver variability. RESULTS: Intragrader CR of retinal and choroidal thickness were 8.37 and 12.20 microns for TMC and 22.24 and 32.40 microns for FCS, and intergrader 95% LoA were 7.37-8.69 and -27.2-27.71 microns for TMC and -34.21-41.93 and -30.46-24.84 for FCS, respectively. Retinal and choroidal thickness showed very good intraobserver reliability for both TMC and FCS (ICC 0.99, LoA 0.98-0.99 in all cases). Intraobserver and interobserver variability for retinal and choroidal thickness was not significantly different for TMC (p = 0.98 and p = 0.90, p = 0.98 and p = 0.91) or FCS (p = 0.97 and p = 0.85, p = 0.78 and p = 0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal and choroidal thickness in DME eyes can be quantified with good reliability, repeatability and reproducibility using new OCT devices that incorporate swept source technology. The technical advantages of this technology may provide new insights in the understanding of the choroidal changes related with DME.

18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 18(1): 179, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperreflective foci have been described in OCT imaging of patients with retinal vascular diseases. It has been suggested that they may play a role as a prognostic factor of visual outcomes in these diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe the presence of hyperreflective foci in patients with non-infectious uveitic macular edema and evaluate their behavior after treatment. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, observational, 12-month follow-up study. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years and a diagnosis of non-infectious uveitic macular edema, defined as central macular thickness of > 300 µm as measured by OCT and fluid in the macula. Collected data included best corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness and the presence, number and distribution (inner or outer retinal layers) of hyperreflective foci. Evaluations were performed at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after starting treatment. RESULTS: We included 24 eyes of 24 patients. The frequency of patients with ≥11 hyperreflective foci was 58.4% at baseline, falling to 20.8% at 12 months. Further, hyperreflective foci were observed in the outer retinal layers in 50% of patients at baseline and just 28.6% at 12 months. Mean LogMAR visual acuity improved from 0.55 (95% CI 0.4-0.71) at baseline to 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.35) at 12 months (p < 0.001). Mean central macular thickness decreased from 453.83 µm (95% CI 396.6-511) at baseline to 269.32 µm (95% CI 227.7-310.9) at 12 months (P < 0.001). Central macular thickness was associated with number (p = 0.017) and distribution (p = 0.004) of hyperreflective foci. CONCLUSIONS: We have observed hyperreflective foci in most of our patients with non-infectious uveitic macular edema. During follow-up and after treatment, the number of foci diminished and they tended to be located in the inner layers of the retina.


Assuntos
Macula Lutea/patologia , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Uveíte/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 808, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725335

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a retinal degenerative disease, is the leading cause of central vision loss among the elderly population in developed countries and an increasing global burden. The major risk is aging, compounded by other environmental factors and association with genetic variants for risk of progression. Although the etiology of AMD is not yet clearly understood, several pathogenic pathways have been proposed, including dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The identification of AMD susceptibility genes encoding complement factors and the presence of complement and other inflammatory mediators in drusen, the hallmark deposits of AMD, support the concept that local inflammation and immune-mediated processes play a key role in AMD pathogenesis that may be accelerated through systemic immune activation. In this regard, increased levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with higher risk of AMD. Besides being a risk marker for AMD, CRP may also play a role in the progression of the disease as it has been identified in drusen, and we have recently found that its monomeric form (mCRP) induces blood retinal barrier disruption in vitro. In this review, we will address recent evidence that links CRP and AMD pathogenesis, which may open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent the progression of AMD.

20.
Ophthalmologica ; 240(2): 61-72, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617689

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease frequently associated with comorbidities that include diabetic macular edema (DME). The current medical approach to treating DME involves intravitreal injections with either anti-vascular endothelial growth factors or steroids. However, the burden associated with intravitreal injections and DM-derived complications is high, underlining the need to find optimal treatment regimens. In this article we describe the considerations we apply when treating DME patients with dexamethasone intravitreal implants (Ozurdex®), particularly those that influence the clinical decision-making process during the follow-up period. These considerations are based both on the available medical literature and on our clinical experience following the use of these implants in this type of patient, the goal being to optimize the number of injections and the clinical outcome of this therapy. We also provide a general overview of the pathophysiology of DME, highlighting the inflammatory component as a rationale to use steroids in these patients.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes de Medicamento , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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