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3.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3579-3589, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738830

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell malignancies. Known predisposing factors to adult MDS include rare germline mutations, cytotoxic therapy, age-related clonal hematopoiesis, and autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders. To date, no published studies characterizing MDS-associated germline susceptibility polymorphisms exist. We performed a genome-wide association study of 2 sample sets (555 MDS cases vs 2964 control subjects; 352 MDS cases vs 2640 control subjects) in non-del(5q) MDS cases of European genomic ancestry. Meta-analysis identified 8 MDS-associated loci at 1q31.1 (PLA2G4A), 3p14.1 (FAM19A4), 5q21.3 (EFNA5), 6p21.33, 10q23.1 (GRID1), 12q24.32, 15q26.1, and 20q13.12 (EYA2) that approached genome-wide significance. Gene expression for 5 loci that mapped within or near genes was significantly upregulated in MDS bone marrow cells compared with those of control subjects (P < .01). Higher PLA2G4A expression and lower EYA2 expression were associated with poorer overall survival (P = .039 and P = .037, respectively). Higher PLA2G4A expression is associated with mutations in NRAS (P < .001), RUNX1 (P = .012), ASXL1 (P = .007), and EZH2 (P = .038), all of which are known to contribute to MDS development. EYA2 expression was an independently favorable risk factor irrespective of age, sex, and Revised International Scoring System score (relative risk, 0.67; P = .048). Notably, these genes have regulatory roles in innate immunity, a critical driver of MDS pathogenesis. EYA2 overexpression induced innate immune activation, whereas EYA2 inhibition restored colony-forming potential in primary MDS cells indicative of hematopoietic restoration and possible clinical relevance. In conclusion, among 8 suggestive MDS-associated loci, 5 map to genes upregulated in MDS with functional roles in innate immunity and potential biological relevance to MDS.

4.
Leuk Res ; 87: 106269, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751766

RESUMO

Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal inhibitors (BETi) such as OTX015 are active in Acute Myeloid Leukaemias (AML). Their activity on Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs) is less documented. We interrogated the anti-LSC activity of OTX015 in a niche-like long-term culture in 26 primary AML samples and validated our findings in vivo. OTX015 impaired LSCs in AMLs harbouring Core Binding Factor or KMT2A gene fusions, NPM1 or chromatin/spliceosome genes mutations, but not in those with aneuploidy/TP53 mutations. In four patients, we dissected the transcriptomic footprint of Bet inhibition on LSCs versus blasts. Our results can instruct future clinical trials of BETi in AML.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568568

RESUMO

The prognosis in Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although recently refined by molecular studies, remains largely based on conventional prognostic scores [International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS], classifying patients into "lower risk" MDS (LR-MDS) and "higher risk" MDS (HR-MDS). In LR-MDS, treatment mainly aims at improving cytopenias, principally anaemia, while in HR-MDS it aims at delaying disease progression and prolonging survival. In LR-MDS without deletion 5q, anaemia is generally treated first by erythropoietic stimulating factors, while second line treatments are currently not approved [lenalidomide, hypomethylating agents (HMA), luspatercept] or rarely indicated (antithymocyte globulin). Lenalidomide has major efficacy in LR-MDS with deletion 5q. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is sometimes considered in LR-MDS, and iron chelation can be considered when multiple red blood cell transfusions are required. Allo-SCT is the only potentially curative treatment for HR-MDS; however, it is rarely applicable. It is generally preceded by intensive chemotherapy (IC) or HMA in patients with excess of marrow blasts (especially if >10%). In other patients, HMA can improve survival. The role of new drugs, including venetoclax or, in case of specific mutations, IDH1 or IDH2 inhibitors, is investigated. IC is mainly indicated as a bridge to allo-SCT, in the absence of unfavourable karyotype.

6.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488557

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with TP53 mutations are characterized by frequent relapses, poor or short responses, and poor survival with the currently available therapies including chemotherapy and 5-azacitidine. PRIMA-1Met (APR-246, APR) is a methylated derivative of PRIMA-1, which induces apoptosis in human tumor cells through restoration of the transcriptional transactivation function of mutant p53. We show here that low doses of APR on its own or in combination with 5-azacitidine reactivate the p53 pathway and induce an apoptosis program. Functionally, we demonstrate that APR exerts these activities on its own and that it synergizes with 5-azacitidine in TP53-mutated Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and in TP53-mutated primary cells from Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia patients. Low doses of APR on its own or in combination with 5-azacitidine also show significant efficacy in vivo. Lastly, using transcriptomic analysis, we found that the APR + 5-azacitidine synergy was mediated by downregulation of the FLT3 pathway in drug-treated cells. Activation of the FLT3 pathway by FLT3 ligand reversed the inhibition of cell proliferation by APR + 5-azacitidine. These data suggest that TP53-mutated Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia may be better targeted by the addition of APR-246 to conventional treatments.

7.
Blood ; 134(17): 1441-1444, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients, which we classified as causal (n = 21) or unknown significance (n = 7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. The median age was 69 years; most patients were men (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, and 15 (46%) had a personal history of cytopenia years before MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had a normal karyotype (85%), and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n = 9) or azacitidine (n = 11) had an overall response rate of 100% or 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent preexisting cytopenia, additional somatic DDX41 mutation, and relatively good outcome.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(500)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292266

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with ring sideroblasts are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with erythroid dysplasia and mutations in the SF3B1 splicing factor gene. Patients with MDS with SF3B1 mutations often accumulate excessive tissue iron, even in the absence of transfusions, but the mechanisms that are responsible for their parenchymal iron overload are unknown. Body iron content, tissue distribution, and the supply of iron for erythropoiesis are controlled by the hormone hepcidin, which is regulated by erythroblasts through secretion of the erythroid hormone erythroferrone (ERFE). Here, we identified an alternative ERFE transcript in patients with MDS with the SF3B1 mutation. Induction of this ERFE transcript in primary SF3B1-mutated bone marrow erythroblasts generated a variant protein that maintained the capacity to suppress hepcidin transcription. Plasma concentrations of ERFE were higher in patients with MDS with an SF3B1 gene mutation than in patients with SF3B1 wild-type MDS. Thus, hepcidin suppression by a variant ERFE is likely responsible for the increased iron loading in patients with SF3B1-mutated MDS, suggesting that ERFE could be targeted to prevent iron-mediated toxicity. The expression of the variant ERFE transcript that was restricted to SF3B1-mutated erythroblasts decreased in lenalidomide-responsive anemic patients, identifying variant ERFE as a specific biomarker of clonal erythropoiesis.

12.
Blood ; 133(15): 1630-1643, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803991

RESUMO

Since the comprehensive recommendations for the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) reported in 2009, several studies have provided important insights, particularly regarding the role of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in frontline therapy. Ten years later, a European LeukemiaNet expert panel has reviewed the recent advances in the management of APL in both frontline and relapse settings in order to develop updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations on the management of this disease. Together with providing current indications on genetic diagnosis, modern risk-adapted frontline therapy, and salvage treatment, the review contains specific recommendations for the identification and management of the most important complications such as the bleeding disorder APL differentiation syndrome, QT prolongation, and other all-trans retinoic acid- and ATO-related toxicities, as well as recommendations for molecular assessment of the response to treatment. Finally, the approach to special situations is also discussed, including management of APL in children, elderly patients, and pregnant women. The most important challenges remaining in APL include early death, which still occurs before and during induction therapy, and optimizing treatment in patients with high-risk disease.

13.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1565-1571, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733271

RESUMO

High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia patients have a very poor survival after azacitidine failure. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a novel subcutaneous hypomethylating agent which results in extended decitabine exposure. This multicenter phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of guadecitabine in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients refractory or relapsing after azacitidine. We included 56 patients with a median age of 75 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 69-76]. Fifty-five patients received at least one cycle of guadecitabine (60 mg/m2/d subcutaneously days 1-5 per 28-day treatment cycles), with a median of 3 cycles (range, 0-27). Eight (14.3%) patients responded, including two complete responses; median response duration was 11.5 months. Having no or few identified somatic mutations was the only factor predicting response (P=0.035). None of the 11 patients with TP53 mutation responded. Median overall survival was 7.1 months, and 17.9 months in responders (3 of whom had overall survival >2 years). In multivariate analysis, IPSS-R (revised International Prognostic Scoring System) score other than very high (P=0.03) primary versus secondary azacitidine failure (P=0.01) and a high rate of demethylation in blood during the first cycle of treatment (P=0.03) were associated with longer survival. Thus, guadecitabine can be effective, sometimes yielding relatively prolonged survival, in a small proportion of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients who failed azacitidine. (Trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02197676).

14.
Leukemia ; 33(7): 1747-1758, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635634

RESUMO

Risk stratification is critical in the care of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Approximately 10% have a complex karyotype (CK), defined as more than two cytogenetic abnormalities, which is a highly adverse prognostic marker. However, CK-MDS can carry a wide range of chromosomal abnormalities and somatic mutations. To refine risk stratification of CK-MDS patients, we examined data from 359 CK-MDS patients shared by the International Working Group for MDS. Mutations were underrepresented with the exception of TP53 mutations, identified in 55% of patients. TP53 mutated patients had even fewer co-mutated genes but were enriched for the del(5q) chromosomal abnormality (p < 0.005), monosomal karyotype (p < 0.001), and high complexity, defined as more than 4 cytogenetic abnormalities (p < 0.001). Monosomal karyotype, high complexity, and TP53 mutation were individually associated with shorter overall survival, but monosomal status was not significant in a multivariable model. Multivariable survival modeling identified severe anemia (hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL), NRAS mutation, SF3B1 mutation, TP53 mutation, elevated blast percentage (>10%), abnormal 3q, abnormal 9, and monosomy 7 as having the greatest survival risk. The poor risk associated with CK-MDS is driven by its association with prognostically adverse TP53 mutations and can be refined by considering clinical and karyotype features.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/classificação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Blood ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404811

RESUMO

The heterogeneity of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has made evaluating patient response to treatment challenging. In 2006, an International Working Group (IWG) proposed a revision to previously published standardized response criteria (IWG 2000) for uniformly evaluating clinical responses in MDS. These IWG 2006 criteria have been used prospectively in many clinical trials in MDS, but proved challenging in several of them, especially for the evaluation of erythroid response. In this report, we provide rationale for modifications (IWG 2018) of these recommendations, mainly for "hematological improvement" criteria used for lower risk MDS, based on recent practical and reported experience in clinical trials. Most suggestions relate to erythroid response assessment, which are refined in an overall more stringent manner. Two major proposed changes are the differentiation between "procedures" and "criteria" for hematologic improvement-erythroid (HI-E) assessment and a new categorization of transfusion burden subgroups.

18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457024

RESUMO

We report the 11 cases of +8-MDS/MPN associated with Behcet's-like syndrome and compare them with Behcet's disease and Crohn's disease, pool with literature cases for analysis. Data for patients with +8-MDS/MPN and Behçet's-like syndrome were collected from MINHEMON. Eleven patients had Behcet's-like syndrome and +8-MDS/MPN (median age 75 years [IQR 65-87]; M/F ratio 0.8). MDS and Behcet's-like syndrome were diagnosed at the same time (7/11, 64%). By comparison with 63 patients with idiopathic Behcet's disease without associated MDS, those with Behcet's-like syndrome and +8-MDS/MPN were older (median 75 vs 48 years; p = .0003) and had less pseudofolliculitis (11% vs 62%; p = .0045) and ocular impairment (0% vs 52%; p = .0008), but more frequent gastrointestinal involvement (60% vs 13%; p = .0005). By comparison with Crohn's disease, 39 patients with Behcet's-like syndrome and +8-MDS/MPN were significantly older (median 72 [53-78] vs 36 [27-45] years; p = .0002) and more frequently had oral aphtosis (97% vs 5%, p < .0001), skin features (50% vs 10%, p = .0005) and arthralgia (63% vs 20%, p = .03). Median survival did not differ between patients with Behcet's-like syndrome and +8-MDS/MPN and those with +8-MDS/MPN (n = 103) (47 vs 34 months, p = .61). AML-free survival did not differ between patients with MDS/MPN with and without Behcet's-like syndrome (p = .29). MDS/MPN with trisomy 8 can be associated with particular phenotype of ulcerative digestive disease resembling Behcet's or Crohn's disease and should be considered a single disease.

19.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders mostly affecting the elderly. They are classified into lower and higher risk MDS according to prognostic scoring systems. In higher-risk patients, treatments should aim to modify the disease course by avoiding progression to acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore to improve survival. Areas covered: Stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment when feasible, but this concerns a small minority of patients. Treatment is principally based on hypomethylating agents (HMAs). Our understanding of MDS biology has led to the development of drugs targeting key cellular processes such as apoptosis or post-translational protein changes, microenvironment like immunotherapy and gene mutations. Currently, new drugs are mainly being tested in combination with HMAs in several clinical trials. Expert Commentary: Significant advances have been made in the field of MDS, especially in molecular typing, which are improving our ability to offer patients risk-adapted therapies. The current challenge in the management of higher risk MDS is to improve outcome by combining classical HMAs with novel drugs.

20.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262561

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease that may affect older patients. Data regarding the treatment of aplastic anemia in this ageing population remains scarce. We conducted a retrospective nationwide multicenter study in France to examine current treatments for aplastic anemia patients over 60 years old. Our aims were to evaluate efficacy and tolerance, and to analyze predictive factors for response and survival. Over the course of a decade, 88 patients (median age 68.5) were identified in 19 centers, with a median follow-up of 2.7 years; 21% had very severe and 36% severe aplastic anemia. We analyzed 184 treatment lines, mostly involving the standard combination of anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A (33%), which was also the most frequent first-line treatment (50%). After first-line therapy, 32% of patients achieved a complete response, and 15% a partial response. Responses were significantly better in first line and in patients with good performance status, as well as in those that had followed an anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A regimen (overall response rate of 70% after first-line treatment). All treatments were well tolerated by patients, including over the age of 70. Three-year survival was 74.7% (median 7.36 years). Age, Charlson comorbidity index and very severe aplastic anemia were independently associated with mortality. Age per se is not a limiting factor to aplastic anemia treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A; this regimen should be used as a first-line treatment in elderly patients if they have a good performance status and low comorbidity index score.

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