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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1905035, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104961

RESUMO

Excess/unreacted lead iodide (PbI2 ) has been commonly used in perovskite films for the state-of-the-art solar cell applications. However, an understanding of intrinsic degradation mechanisms of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) containing unreacted PbI2 has been still insufficient and, therefore, needs to be clarified for better operational durability. Here, it is shown that degradation of PSCs is hastened by unreacted PbI2 crystals under continuous light illumination. Unreacted PbI2 undergoes photodecomposition under illumination, resulting in the formation of lead and iodine in films. Thus, this photodecomposition of PbI2 is one of the main reasons for accelerated device degradation. Therefore, this work reveals that carefully controlling the formation of unreacted PbI2 crystals in perovskite films is very important to improve device operational stability for diverse opto-electronic applications in the future.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009257

RESUMO

In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on materials that show thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), the internal quantum efficiency of 100% can be obtained without using phosphorescence-based organometallics that contain rare metals. Therefore, with TADF-based emitters, it is possible to fabricate high-performing OLEDs at a lower cost. However, compared with fluorescence- and phosphorescence-based OLEDs, an understanding of degradation mechanisms in TADF-based OLEDs is still insufficient for future commercialization. In particular, it is widely recognized that the development of electron transport materials is crucial for improving OLED characteristics, especially driving voltages and operational durability. In this study, we demonstrated that the operational durability of TADF-based OLEDs was greatly improved by introducing a triazine-based material of 2,4,6-tris(1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl)-[1,3,5]triazine (pT2T) as a hole-blocking layer (HBL) compared with a conventional HBL material of 2,4,6-tris(biphenyl-3-yl)-[1,3,5]triazine (T2T). We carried out several experiments to make the reasons of the improved durability clearer, and attributed the improved durability to the shift of a carrier recombination zone from the emitting layer/HBL interface and the suppressed formation of excited-state quenchers in the pT2T HBL, because of the higher electron mobility of pT2T and the better stability of its radical anion state.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020791

RESUMO

We report a series of pentacarbazolyl-benzonitrile derivatives such as 2,4,6-tri(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3,5-bis(3,6-di(pyridin-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (mPyBN), 3,5-bis(3,6-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2,4,6-tri(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (pCF3BN), 2,4,6-tri(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3-(3,6-di(pyridin-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-5-(3,6-diphenyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (PyPhBN), 3-(3,6-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2,4,6-tri(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-5-(3,6-di(pyridin-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (PyCF3BN), and 3-(3,6-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-5-(3,6-di(pyridin-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-4-(9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-9-yl)benzonitrile (CbPyCF3BN) in which some of the carbazoles are substituted with modified 3,5-diphenyl carbazoles, exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) properties. These emitters comprised two, three, and four different types of donors, capable of bluish-green emission of around 480 nm with relatively high photoluminescence quantum yields over 90% in solution. Emitters, namely, PyPhBN, PyCF3BN, and CbPyCF3BN, composed of three and four different types of donors endowed a rather short delayed lifetime (τd) of 4.25, 5.01, and 3.65 µs in their film state, respectively. Bluish-green organic light-emitting diodes based on PyPhBN, PyCF3BN, and CbPyCF3BN exhibit a high external quantum efficiency of 20.6, 19.5, and 19.6%, respectively, with unsurpassed efficiency roll-off behavior. These results indicate that the TADF properties of multidonor type molecules can be manipulated by controlling the types and number of electron donor units.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 191, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924793

RESUMO

Organic long-persistent luminescence (LPL) is an organic luminescence system that slowly releases stored exciton energy as light. Organic LPL materials have several advantages over inorganic LPL materials in terms of functionality, flexibility, transparency, and solution-processability. However, the molecular selection strategies for the organic LPL system still remain unclear. Here we report that the energy gap between the lowest localized triplet excited state and the lowest singlet charge-transfer excited state in the exciplex system significantly controls the LPL performance. Changes in the LPL duration and spectra properties are systematically investigated for three donor materials having a different energy gap. When the energy level of the lowest localized triplet excited state is much lower than that of the charge-transfer excited state, the system exhibits a short LPL duration and clear two distinct emission features originating from exciplex fluorescence and donor phosphorescence.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1906614, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975459

RESUMO

Exciplex system exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) holds a considerable potential to improve organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performances. However, the operational lifetime of current exciplex-based devices, unfortunately, falls far behind the requirement for commercialization. Herein, rationally choosing a TADF-type electron acceptor molecule is reported as a new strategy to enhance OLEDs' operating lifetime. A comprehensive study of the exciplex system containing 9,9',9''-triphenyl-9H,9'H,9''H-3,3':6',3''-tercarbazole (Tris-PCz) and triazine (TRZ) derivatives clarifies the relationship between unwanted carrier recombination on acceptor molecules, TADF property of acceptors, and the device degradation event. By employing a proposed "exciton recycling" strategy, a threefold increased operational lifetime can be achieved while still maintaining high-performance OLED properties. In particular, a stable blue OLED that employs this strategy is successfully demonstrated. This research provides an important step for exciplex-based devices toward the significant improvement of operational stability.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(2): 562-566, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887042

RESUMO

Excited states of emissive organic molecules undergo various kinds of quenching phenomena such as vibration-coupled quenching depending on their environmental conditions. Because bright singlet excitons in purely organic molecules exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can access dark triplet excited states, photogenerated singlet excitons can decay nonradiatively through both singlet and triplet excited states. Here, we investigated nonradiative decay behavior, including internal and external exciton quenching processes, of various types of TADF materials in solution. Under air-saturated conditions, both the lowest singlet and triplet excited states of almost all of the TADF materials showed oxygen quenching. We considered the effect of oxygen quenching for both spin states to develop a method for determination of the triplet contribution to the total photoluminescence quantum yield from the transient photoluminescence profiles. Furthermore, we observed a clear energy gap law for the internal nonradiative processes.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(50): 10825-10836, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804083

RESUMO

We describe the kinetics of excimer electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a liquid pyrene derivative, 1-pyrenebutyricacid 2-ethylhexylester (PLQ) dissolved in a molecular solvent, acetonitrile (MeCN), and an ionic liquid, triethylpentylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P2225][TFSI]). Pyrene was also used for comparison. To discuss the kinetics of the excimer ECLs, the photophysical and electrochemical properties and electronic states of PLQ and pyrene were revealed. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra, rate constants for the radiative transitions, and redox potentials of PLQ and pyrene dissolved in MeCN and [P2225][TFSI] suggest that as a solvent, [P2225][TFSI] behaves more polar than MeCN. By analyzing the PL decay curves, the rate constants to form the excimer were determined to be on the order of 109 and 107 M-1 s-1 in MeCN and [P2225][TFSI], respectively, which were limited by the diffusion. For neat PLQ (1.6 M), a delay of 0.3-0.4 ns for the excimer emission compared to the monomer emission was observed. It is likely that the delay corresponds to the timescale for arranging the conformation to form the excimer. The ECL of PLQ was generated by applying a square wave voltage to produce the radical anion and cation, and on the ECL spectra, the excimer emission was more prevailed compared to the PL spectra. Kinetic analysis for the electron transfer reaction between the radical ions based on Marcus theory indicates that the electron transfer is limited by the diffusion of the radical ions. Moreover, the electron transfer distance (det) between the radical cation and anion to generate excited states was calculated with a framework of the theory. Kinetically, the electron transfer can take place at det < ∼11 Å in MeCN and det < ∼12 Å in [P2225][TFSI]. The density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the potential energy curve of the excimer against the distance between the pyrene rings reaches a minimum at 3.50 Å. This suggests that through the electron transfer, the process of the direct formation of the monomer S1 state followed by the excimer formation is more prevailed than that of the direct excimer formation.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5748, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848335

RESUMO

The harvesting of excitons as luminescence by organic fluorophores forms the basis of light-emitting applications. Although high photoluminescence quantum yield is essential for efficient light emission, concentration-dependent quenching of the emissive exciton is generally observed. Here we demonstrate generation and accumulation of concentration-dependent "long-lived" (i.e., over 1 h) photo-generated carriers and the successive release of their energy as electroluminescence in a solid-state film containing a polar fluorophore. While fluorophore excitons are generally believed to be stable because of their high exciton binding energies, our observations show that some of the excitons undergo spontaneous exciton dissociation in a solid-state film by spontaneous orientation polarization even without an external electric field. These results lead to the reconsideration of the meaning of "luminescence quantum yield" for the solid films containing polar organic molecules because it can differ for optical and electrical excitation.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5283, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754203

RESUMO

Triplet-triplet upconversion, in which two triplet excitons are converted to one singlet exciton, is a well-known approach to exceed the limit of electroluminescence quantum efficiency in conventional fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes. Considering the spin multiplicity of triplet pairs, upconversion efficiency is usually limited to 20%. Although this limit can be exceeded when the energy of a triplet pair is lower than that of a second triplet excited state, such as for rubrene, it is generally difficult to engineer the energy levels of higher triplet excited states. Here, we investigate the upconversion efficiency of a series of new anthracene derivatives with different substituents. Some of these derivatives show upconversion efficiencies close to 50% even though the calculated energy levels of the second triplet excited states are lower than twice the lowest triplet energy. A possible upconversion mechanism is proposed based on the molecular structures and quantum chemical calculations.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5307, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757959

RESUMO

We report on light-emitting electrochemical cells, comprising a solution-processed single-layer active material and air-stabile electrodes, that exhibit efficient and bright thermally activated delayed fluorescence. Our optimized devices delivers a luminance of 120 cd m-2 at an external quantum efficiency of 7.0%. As such, it outperforms the combined luminance/efficiency state-of-the art for thermally activated delayed fluorescence light-emitting electrochemical cells by one order of magnitude. For this end, we employed a polymeric blend host for balanced electrochemical doping and electronic transport as well as uniform film formation, an optimized concentration (<1 mass%) of guest for complete host-to-guest energy transfer at minimized aggregation and efficient emission, and an appropriate concentration of an electrochemically stabile electrolyte for desired doping effects. The generic nature of our approach is manifested in the attainment of bright and efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emission from three different light-emitting electrochemical cells with invariant host:guest:electrolyte number ratio.

11.
Nat Mater ; 18(10): 1084-1090, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477903

RESUMO

Spin-flip in purely organic molecular systems is often described as a forbidden process; however, it is commonly observed and utilized to harvest triplet excitons in a wide variety of organic material-based applications. Although the initial and final electronic states of spin-flip between the lowest singlet and lowest triplet excited state are self-evident, the exact process and the role of intermediate states through which spin-flip occurs are still far from being comprehensively determined. Here, via experimental photo-physical investigations in solution combined with first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, we show that efficient spin-flip in multiple donor-acceptor charge-transfer-type organic molecular systems involves the critical role of an intermediate triplet excited state that corresponds to a partial molecular structure of the system. Our proposed mechanism unifies the understanding of the intersystem crossing mechanism in a wide variety of charge-transfer-type molecular systems, opening the way to greater control over spin-flip rates.

12.
Chem Sci ; 10(27): 6689-6696, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367323

RESUMO

The carbazolophane (Czp) donor unit (indolo[2.2]paracyclophane) is introduced to the design pool of donors in thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters. The increased steric bulk of the annelated donor unit forces an increased torsion between the carbazole and the aryl bridge resulting in a decreased ΔE ST and an enhancement of the thermally activated delayed fluorescence in the triazine-containing emitter CzpPhTrz. Further, the closely stacked carbazole and benzene units of the paracyclophane show through-space π-π interactions, effectively increasing the spatial occupation for the HOMO orbital. The chiroptical properties of enantiomers of [2.2]paracyclophane reveal mirror image circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with g lum of 1.3 × 10-3. rac-CzpPhTrz is a sky-blue emitter with λ PL of 480 nm, a very small ΔE ST of 0.16 eV and high Φ PL of 70% in 10 wt% doped DPEPO films. Sky blue-emitting OLEDs were fabricated with this new TADF emitter showing a high maximum EQE of 17% with CIE coordinates of (0.17, 0.25). A moderate EQE roll-off was also observed with an EQE of 12% at a display relevant luminance of 100 cd m-2. Our results show that the Czp donor contributes to both a decreased ΔE ST and an increased photoluminescence quantum yield, both advantageous in the molecular design of TADF emitters.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14660-14665, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313424

RESUMO

Developing red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, attainable for both high-efficient red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and non-doped deep red/near-infrared (NIR) OLEDs, is challenging. Now, two red emitters, BPPZ-PXZ and mDPBPZ-PXZ, with twisted donor-acceptor structures were designed and synthesized to study molecular design strategies of high-efficiency red TADF emitters. BPPZ-PXZ employs the strictest molecular restrictions to suppress energy loss and realizes red emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield (ΦPL ) of 100±0.8 % and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 25.2 % in a doped OLED. Its non-doped OLED has an EQE of 2.5 % owing to unavoidable intermolecular π-π interactions. mDPBPZ-PXZ releases two pyridine substituents from its fused acceptor moiety. Although mDPBPZ-PXZ realizes a lower EQE of 21.7 % in the doped OLED, its non-doped device shows a superior EQE of 5.2 % with a deep red/NIR emission at peak of 680 nm.

14.
Nature ; 572(7770): 502-506, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358964

RESUMO

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology is promising for applications in next-generation displays and lighting. However, it is difficult-especially in large-area mass production-to cover a large substrate uniformly with organic layers, and variations in thickness cause the formation of shunting paths between electrodes1,2, thereby lowering device production yield. To overcome this issue, thicker organic transport layers are desirable because they can cover particles and residue on substrates, but increasing their thickness increases the driving voltage because of the intrinsically low charge-carrier mobilities of organics. Chemical doping of organic layers increases their electrical conductivity and enables fabrication of thicker OLEDs3,4, but additional absorption bands originating from charge transfer appear5, reducing electroluminescence efficiency because of light absorption. Thick OLEDs made with organic single crystals have been demonstrated6, but are not practical for mass production. Therefore, an alternative method of fabricating thicker OLEDs is needed. Here we show that extraordinarily thick OLEDs can be fabricated by using the organic-inorganic perovskite methylammonium lead chloride, CH3NH3PbCl3 (MAPbCl3), instead of organics as the transport layers. Because MAPbCl3 films have high carrier mobilities and are transparent to visible light, we were able to increase the total thickness of MAPbCl3 transport layers to 2,000 nanometres-more than ten times the thickness of standard OLEDs-without requiring high voltage or reducing either internal electroluminescence quantum efficiency or operational durability. These findings will contribute towards a higher production yield of high-quality OLEDs, which may be used for other organic devices, such as lasers, solar cells, memory devices and sensors.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(12): 3260-3268, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141375

RESUMO

In the conventional molecular design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic emitters, simultaneously achieving a fast rate of reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) from the triplet to the singlet manifold and a fast rate of radiative decay is a challenging task. A number of recent experimental data, however, point to TADF emitters with intramolecular π-π interactions as a potential pathway to overcome the issue. Here, we report a comprehensive investigation of TADF emitters with intramolecular π···π or lone-pair···π noncovalent interactions. We uncover the impact of those intramolecular noncovalent interactions on the TADF properties. In particular, we find that folded geometries in TADF molecules can trigger lone-pair···π interactions, introduce a n → π* character of the relevant transitions, enhance the singlet-triplet spin-orbit coupling, and ultimately greatly facilitate the RISC process. This work provides a robust foundation for the molecular design of a novel class of highly efficient TADF emitters in which intramolecular noncovalent interactions play a critical function.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(23): 9373-9381, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117656

RESUMO

Designing stable open-shell organic materials through the modifications of the π-topology of molecular organic semiconductors has recently attracted considerable attention. However, their uses as an active layer in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are very limited, and the obtained hole and electron charge mobilities are around 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. Herein, we disclose the synthesis of two peri-fused materials, so-called tetracenotetracene (TT) and pentacenopentacene (PP), which have low band gaps of 1.79 and 1.42 eV, respectively. Their ground state natures have been investigated by different experiments including steady state absorption, electron spin resonance, superconducting quantum interfering device, and variable-temperature NMR along with DFT calculations. TT and PP have closed-shell and singlet open-shell structures in their ground state, respectively, and possess high stability. Their biradical characteristics were found to be 0.50 and 0.64. The origin of the open-shell character of PP is related to the concomitant opening of two tetracenes with the recovering of two extra aromatic sextets and a small HOMO-LUMO energy gap (gap <1.5 eV). Thanks to the high stability, thin film OFET devices could be fabricated. In TG-BC configuration PP shows a remarkably high hole mobility of 1.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, while TT exhibits a hole mobility of 0.77 cm2 V-1 s-1. In the configuration of BG-TC, ambipolar behaviors for both were obtained with hole and electron mobilities of 0.21 and 0.01 cm2 V-1 s-1 for PP and 0.14 and 0.006 cm2 V-1 s-1 for TT.

17.
Adv Mater ; 31(21): e1804490, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957291

RESUMO

Fluorescent materials that efficiently convert triplet excitons into singlets through reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) rival the efficiencies of phosphorescent state-of-the-art organic light-emitting diodes. This upconversion process, a phenomenon known as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), is dictated by the rate of RISC, a material-dependent property that is challenging to determine experimentally. In this work, a new analytical model is developed which unambiguously determines the magnitude of RISC, as well as several other important photophysical parameters such as exciton diffusion coefficients and lengths, all from straightforward time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. From a detailed investigation of five TADF materials, important structure-property relationships are derived and a brominated derivative of 2,4,5,6-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile that has an exciton diffusion length of over 40 nm and whose excitons interconvert between the singlet and triplet states ≈36 times during one lifetime is identified.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(10): 2475-2480, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973013

RESUMO

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules are gathering attention for their potential to boost the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes without precious metals. Minimizing the energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (Δ EST) is a fundamental strategy to accelerate reverse intersystem crossing (RISC). However, the lack of microscopic understanding of the process prevents adequate design strategies for efficient TADF materials. Here, we focused on four carbazole-benzonitrile (Cz-BN) derivatives that possess identical Δ EST but distinct TADF activities. We systematically compared their geometrical dynamics upon photoexcitation using time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) vibrational spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. We found that the most TADF-active molecule, 4CzBN, shows little structural change after photoexcitation, while the TADF-inactive molecules show relatively large deformation upon S1-T1 conversion. This implies that the suppression of structural deformation is critical for minimizing the activation energy barrier for RISC in cases of the Cz-BN derivatives.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(14): 13472-13480, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892014

RESUMO

Two novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, 3-phenylquinolino[3,2,1- de]acridine-5,9-dione (3-PhQAD) and 7-phenylquinolino[3,2,1- de]acridine-5,9-dione (7-PhQAD), were designed and synthesized based on a rigid quinolino[3,2,1- de]acridine-5,9-dione (QAD) framework. With the effective superimposed resonance effect from electron-deficient carbonyls and electron-rich nitrogen atom, both emitters realize significant TADF characteristics with small Δ ESTs of 0.18 and 0.19 eV, respectively. And, molecular relaxations were dramatically suppressed for both emitters because of their conjugated structure. In the devices, 3-PhQAD realizes superior performance with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.1% and a narrow full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 44 nm, whereas a maximum EQE of 18.7% and an extremely narrow FWHM of 34 nm are realized for 7-PhQAD. These superior results reveal that apart from nitrogen and boron-aromatic systems, QAD framework can also act as a TADF matrix with effective resonance effect, and QAD derivatives are ideal candidates to develop TADF emitters with narrow FWHMs for practical applications.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(36): 5215-5218, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896723

RESUMO

Organic nanoparticles (O-dots) with a high photoluminescence quantum yield (94%) and long-lived delayed emission (3.1 µs) originating from thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) were developed as glassy state particles using an oil in water emulsion under high pressure (<20 bar). The TADF glassy O-dots exhibit not only good dispersibility and high photostability in water but also good uptake properties into living cells. The glassy O-dots will open new uses as organic emitters in biological applications.

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