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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
2.
Pediatr Int ; 63(3): 311-315, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting, the most common type of malnutrition, has been a big burden for developing countries such as the Republic of Malawi. The state of malnutrition and the eating behavior of children were surveyed at the border between Malawi and Zambia using anthropometrical measurements and Household Diet Diversity Scores. METHODS: Two rural sites were chosen to compare the impact of empowering communities with nutritional knowledge. Children between 6 months and 5 years old were randomly recruited to evaluate nutritional status. Their caregivers were interviewed to collect Household Dietary Diversity Scores. RESULTS: Nutritional knowledge at the site where intervention had occurred was higher than at the site where intervention had not yet occurred. However, stunting prevalence at the site where intervention occurred was not statistically lower than site that had not experienced intervention. The Household Dietary Diversity Scores study revealed that some kinds of food groups were almost absent such as organ meat (kidney, liver, and heart), and dairy products but that cereals, spices, and other vegetables were almost 100% taken at both sites, and distance from market was not associated with diet diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that food diversity was not associated with distance from market would explain the limited food accessibility and poor utilization. Although animal resource foods are available at market, they were not been consumed. The profound challenge lays in their accessibility and utilization. A successful project would aim to introduce vitamin A-rich vegetables and would explore the sustainable production of animal resource foods in the community.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento , Animais , Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional
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