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2.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23308, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization recommends that complementary foods that are adequate, safe, and appropriate be introduced to infants at age 6 months. Using an innovative modeling technique, we examine patterns of nutrient intake in HIV-exposed and uninfected (HEU) infants and establish their relationship with growth. METHODS: Single-day dietary recalls and anthropometrics were collected every two to 3 months from 543 infants living in Kigali, Rwanda, and attending clinics for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A common weaning food index (CWFI) was calculated in grams and nutrient density for infants to reflect the extent to which the infants consumed the weaning foods typical of this population at ages 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and 16 to 20 months. Regressions among the CWFI, length-for-age z-scores (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) were conducted to estimate the relationship between the dietary patterns and growth. RESULTS: Mean absolute intake of zinc and calcium from complementary foods was insufficient. Increasing CWFI was related to increasing cow milk consumption. The density CWFI showed a decrease in the density of iron and folate as infants consume more of the weaning foods typical of this population. Density CWFI, breastfeeding, and caloric intake act on early LAZ and WLZ and interact with one another. Among breastfed infants, those who consume little of the common weaning foods and have a high caloric intake develop deficits in LAZ and have an elevated WLZ. CONCLUSIONS: A diet that is more dominated by the typical weaning foods of this population may support a healthy growth pattern.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e011368, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165668

RESUMO

Background China faces a substantial burden from cardiometabolic diseases, but longitudinal studies on a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors are limited. We examined the 6-year incidence of 8 cardiometabolic risk factors in a diverse, population-based cohort. Methods and Results In the China Health and Nutrition Survey, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were collected from 9621 adults (47.6% men) aged 18 to 99 years in 2009 who were followed into 2015. Using inverse probability weights to account for loss to follow-up, we estimated the 6-year incidence of 8 cardiometabolic risk factors and compared the incidence of each risk factor across age groups using inverse probability-weighted sex-stratified logistic regression models. Incidence was noted for the following cardiometabolic risk factors during 2009-2015: hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg; men: 29.2%; women: 24.9%), high waist circumference/height ratio (≥0.5; men: 42.4%; women: 43.8%), and high total to HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol ratio (≥5; men: 17.0%; women: 14.5%). Older men and women (aged ≥65 years) had the highest incidence of hypertension. Incidence of high waist circumference/height ratio and high LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (≥130 mg/ dL ) was highest among older (aged ≥65 years) women, whereas incidence of overweight (body mass index ≥25) and high triglycerides (≥150 mg/ dL ) was highest among younger (aged 18-35 and 35-50 years) men. Conclusions We found increases in cardiometabolic risk among Chinese adults during this recent, short, 6-year period that are higher than previous studies in China. The higher incidence of overweight and elevated dyslipidemia markers in younger versus older men portends an increasing burden of cardiometabolic diseases in China as the younger population ages.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

5.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(3): e23237, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in low and middle-income countries, but studies of CVD epidemiology in such settings often focus on risk factors rather than measures of disease progression. Here we use the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among older women living in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines, and relationships between ABI and CVD risk factors and body composition. METHODS: ABI was measured using the Doppler technique in 538 female participants in the 2015 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 58 years, range 47-78 years). ABI was related to a panel of CVD risk factors measured in 2005 and 2012, and to 2012 body composition measures. RESULTS: The prevalence of PAD (1.8%) was among the lowest reported in any comparably-aged sample, and only 9.9% of participants had an ABI indicating borderline PAD risk. Smoking (P < 0.011) and use of CVD medications (P < 0.0001) predicted lower ABI (indicating higher PAD risk), which was also lower in relation to 2012 systolic blood pressure (P < 0.054). ABI was unrelated to other CVD risk factors. An apparent protective relationship between body mass index (BMI) and ABI, noted in previous studies, was found to be confounded by protective relationships between ABI and fat free mass, height, and grip strength (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PAD is low in Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey participants, and ABI was related to few CVD risk factors. Past reports of lower PAD risk in relation to BMI may reflect confounding by lean mass, which has protective relationships with ABI.

6.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(3): e12776, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609287

RESUMO

HIV-exposed and HIV-uninfected (HEU) infants may be at increased risk of poor health and growth outcomes. We characterized infant growth trajectories in a cohort of HEU infants to identify factors associated with healthy growth. HIV-positive women participating in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes in Kigali, Rwanda, were followed until their infants were 2 years old. Infant anthropometrics were regularly collected. Latent class analysis was used to categorize infant growth trajectories. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of infants belonging to each growth trajectory class. On average, this population of HEU infants had moderate linear growth faltering, but only modest faltering in weight, resulting in mean weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) above the World Health Organization (WHO) median. Mean WLZ was 0.53, and mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) was -1.14 over the first 2 years of life. We identified four unique WLZ trajectories and seven trajectories in LAZ. Low neonatal weight-for-age and a high rate of illness increased the likelihood that infants were in the lightest WLZ class. Shorter mothers were more likely to have infants with linear growth faltering. Female infants who were older at the end of exclusive breastfeeding were more likely to be in the second tallest LAZ class. In conclusion, the current WHO recommendations of Option B+ and extended breastfeeding may induce higher WLZ and lower LAZ early in infancy. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in growth patterns that is obscured by simply analysing average growth trends, necessitating the analysis of growth in subpopulations.

7.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 3(4)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450359

RESUMO

As life expectancy and obesity increase in low and middle-income countries, the relationship of weight status to functional outcomes in older adults in these settings requires attention. We examined how overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and high waist circumference (WC > 80 cm) related to grip strength, timed up-and-go, and development of limitations in mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among Filipino women. We analyzed data from seven rounds of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1994, n = 2279 to 2015, n = 1568, age 49-78 years) to examine how women's reports of functional limitations related to their prior WC, and how their grip strength and timed up-and-go related to concurrently measured overweight and obesity, adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. High WC was associated with higher odds of subsequent mobility and IADL limitations. Chronic disease morbidity (sum of self-reported arthritis, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer) fully mediated the association of high WC with ADL and IADL limitations, but not physical/mobility limitations. Longer up-and-go times, and higher grip strength were related to overweight and obesity. Results emphasize the need for obesity prevention to reduce chronic diseases and maintain good functional status as women age.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5052, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487518

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N = 289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-analysis in East Asians and Europeans. We report 19 new genetic loci and ancestry-specific BP variants, conforming to a common ancestry-specific variant association model. At 10 unique loci, distinct non-rare ancestry-specific variants colocalize within the same linkage disequilibrium block despite the significantly discordant effects for the proxy shared variants between the ethnic groups. The genome-wide transethnic correlation of causal-variant effect-sizes is 0.898 and 0.851 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Some of the ancestry-specific association signals are also influenced by a selective sweep. Our results provide new evidence for the role of common ancestry-specific variants and natural selection in ethnic differences in complex traits such as BP.

9.
Nutr Rev ; 76(12): 910-928, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184168

RESUMO

Context: Food insecurity matters for women's nutrition and health. Objective: This review sought to comprehensively evaluate how food insecurity relates to a full range of dietary outcomes (food groups, total energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and overall dietary quality) among adult women living in Canada and the United States. Data sources: Peer-reviewed databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) and gray literature sources from 1995 to 2016 were searched. Data extraction: Observational studies were used to calculate a percentage difference in dietary intake for food-insecure and food-secure groups. Results: Of the 24 included studies, the majority found food-insecure women had lower food group frequencies (dairy, total fruits and vegetables, total grains, and meats/meat alternatives) and intakes of macro- and micronutrients relative to food-secure women. Methodological quality varied. Among high-quality studies, food insecurity was negatively associated with dairy, fruits and vegetables, grains, meats/meats alternatives, protein, total fat, calcium, iron, magnesium, vitamins A and C, and folate. Conclusions: Results hold practical relevance for selecting nutritional targets in programs, particularly for nutrient-rich foods with iron and folate, which are more important for women's health.

10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 30(6): 561-571, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221978

RESUMO

Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have risen dramatically in Asia, but few cohort studies track age and secular trends in these conditions. We use Cebu (The Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition survey data to document 1998 to 2015 prevalence and co-occurrence of body mass index (BMI; >25 kg/m2), high waist circumference (WC; >80 cm), elevated blood pressure (EBP; systolic ⩾130 or diastolic ⩾85 mm Hg), and type 2 diabetes among ~2000 women aged 29 to 62 years in 1998; and identify their relationship to community, household, and individual factors using longitudinal logistic regression. Prevalence (1998-2015) rates were 35% to 49%, BMI >25 kg/m2; 32% to 58% high WC; 21% to 59% EBP; and 2% to 14% diabetes. Only 20% of women had none of these conditions in 2015. Diabetes was strongly driven by age and secular trends in high WC related to higher socioeconomic status and urbanization. Hypertension increased with age in lower socioeconomic status rural and more affluent urban women. Results underscore the continuing need for public health measures to prevent obesity and to identify and treat hypertension and diabetes.

11.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627126

RESUMO

Obesity continues to be a problem in the United States. Of particular concern is the epidemic of early childhood obesity. A significant predictor of child diet is maternal diet, but little is known about this relationship during infancy. This study examined the association between maternal and infant consumption of key food groups from 6 to 18 months using data from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Study, a prospective cohort of 217 non-Hispanic black, low-income, first-time mothers. Using data from 24-hr dietary recalls collected during in-home visits at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, we assessed longitudinal associations between mother and child intake of both energy-dense, nutrient-poor (obesogenic) food groups and fibre-, nutrient-rich food groups using random intercept logistic regression. Both mothers and their infants had high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts, and sweets and low intake of vegetables and whole grains. Infant consumption of key food groups was strongly associated with maternal consumption, suggesting the need for focused interventions to target maternal diet as a pathway to decreasing risk for the establishment of poor dietary patterns early in life.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Família , Métodos de Alimentação/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/etnologia , Saúde da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(2): e12503, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851037

RESUMO

We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post-partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant-pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post-partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80-90% of copper and zinc and <50% of iron concentrations met the current adequate intake for infants at 2 weeks and only 1-19% at 24 weeks. Pregnancy haemoglobin was negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = -.18, p < .02 for both). The associations of the milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11-.47, p < .05 for all); none were found with infant biomarkers. At 2 weeks, moderately anaemic women produced milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation.

13.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1722-1730, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083407

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used an exome array to examine protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci that reached chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After a meta-analysis including >300,000 European samples, we identified an additional nine novel loci. Sixteen genes were identified by protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, and thus are likely to be functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Extremo Oriente , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise
14.
J Nutr ; 147(11): 2102-2108, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978676

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about the impact of Chinese diet quality changes on diabetes-related markers.Objective: The present study examined the association of changes in overall diet quality with various biomarkers of diabetes among adults in China.Methods: The current analysis used longitudinal diet data from 1991 to 2006 and fasting blood samples from 2009 for 4734 adults aged 18-65 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 consecutive 24-h recalls and household food weighing. The tailored Alternative Healthy Eating Index (tAHEI) was adapted from the 2010 Harvard Alternative Healthy Eating Index to measure overall diet quality. We categorized baseline tAHEI scores into tertiles and annual changes in the scores into 5 levels (high decrease, low decrease, maintain, low increase, and high increase). We performed mixed-effects regressions to assess the associations between baseline scores and changes in the tAHEI scores and diabetes or insulin markers.Results: Adults with high baseline tAHEI scores tended to be male, older, of lower socioeconomic status, and with higher physical activity levels. After adjustment for all of the covariates, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were 5.1% (95% CI: -0.100, -0.002) and 5.7% (95% CI: -0.113, -0.001) lower, respectively, for adults with high compared with low baseline tAHEI scores and 8.6% (95% CI: -0.155, -0.017) and 9.8% (95% CI: -0.177, -0.018) lower, respectively, for adults with a high increase in score compared with the "maintain" category. Null associations were observed between baseline scores and changes in the scores and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetes prevalence.Conclusions: Baseline and changes in diet quality were independently associated with lower HOMA-IR and plasma insulin but not with fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in Chinese adults. Prospective studies on overall diet quality in relation to diabetes markers and risk of diabetes are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Dieta Saudável , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epidemiology ; 28 Suppl 1: S19-S34, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environmental health of children is one of the great global health concerns. Exposures in utero and throughout development can have major consequences on later health. However, environmental risks or disease burdens vary from region to region. Birth cohort studies are ideal for investigating different environmental risks. METHODS: The principal investigators of three birth cohorts in Asia including the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS), the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study (MOCEH), and the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children' Health (Hokkaido Study) coestablished the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia (BiCCA) in 2011. Through a series of five PI meetings, the enrolment criteria, aim of the consortium, and a first-phase inventory were confirmed. RESULTS: To date, 23 birth cohorts have been established in 10 Asian countries, consisting of approximately 70,000 study subjects in the BiCCA. This article provides the study framework, environmental exposure and health outcome assessments, as well as maternal and infant characteristics of the participating cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The BiCCA provides a unique and reliable source of birth cohort information in Asian countries. Further scientific cooperation is ongoing to identify specific regional environmental threats and improve the health of children in Asia.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ ; 358: j3677, 2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819030

RESUMO

Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated.Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries.Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%.Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence of small for gestational age from 19.3% to 10.0% in these countries could reduce neonatal deaths by 9.2% (254 600 neonatal deaths; 164 800 to 449 700).Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased efforts are required to improve the quality of care for and survival of these high risk infants in low and middle income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Valores de Referência
17.
Appetite ; 117: 161-167, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651972

RESUMO

The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother-infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Consumption levels were compared to those recommended from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) for each of the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, whole grains, protein foods and dairy, as well as an estimated upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. At each time point, mothers met recommended intake levels for grains and protein foods only. In random-intercept logistic regression models, no demographic or household characteristics were associated with a likelihood of consuming recommended levels for any of the food groups according to the DGAs. Given the low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein foods and high intake of SSBs and refined grains, interventions targeting women's diet during the postpartum period are warranted.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade , Período Pós-Parto , Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , North Carolina , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Paridade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(1): 168-178, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539376

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about intergenerational differences in associations of urbanization-related lifestyle behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and their parents in rapidly urbanizing China.Objective: We tested the intergenerational differences in longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and leisure-time sports with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) among Chinese children and their parents.Design: We studied children enrolled in the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991-2009, 7 surveys) aged 7-17 y in ≥2 surveys (average follow-up: 2.3 surveys out of a possible 4 surveys with the age restriction; n = 3875, including 1175 siblings) and their parents (2947 mothers, 2632 fathers) living in the same household. We used 3 consecutive interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls to derive a 3-d average for away-from-home eating (nonconsumer, >0 and <1 meal/d, or ≥1 meals/d) and consumption of fruit or vegetable snacks (any or none) and other snacks (any or none) and a self-reported 7-d physical activity recall for screen time (≤1, >1 and ≤2, or >2 h/d) and leisure-time sports (any or none). Random-effects logistic regression was used to examine the associations of lagged (average: 3 y) behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors (WHtR, BP, HbA1c, and CRP).Results: We detected intergenerational differences in associations between lagged behaviors and risk factors (P-interaction < 0.1). Generation-specific models showed that lagged away-from-home eating of ≥1 meal/d (compared with none) was negatively associated with parents' high WHtR (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.88) but positively associated with children's high WHtR (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.12). Lagged fruit and vegetable snack consumption was negatively related to parents' (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.97) and children's (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.00) high WHtR. Lagged screen time (>2 compared with ≤1 h/d) was positively associated with parents' (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.28) and children's high WHtR (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83).Conclusion: Parent-offspring differences in associations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiometabolic risk factors provide insight into intergenerational differences in cardiometabolic risk with urbanization.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta , Exercício , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Restaurantes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Lanches , Urbanização , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(9): 1770-1784, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334899

RESUMO

Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Colesterol/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171299, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prenatal care for improving birth and subsequent child outcomes in low-income countries remains controversial, with much of the evidence to date coming from high-income countries and focused on early-life outcomes. We examined associations between prenatal care visits and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months and attained schooling in four low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We pooled data from prospective birth-cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, Philippines and South Africa. We created a prenatal care utilization index based on the number and timing of prenatal visits. Associations were examined between this index and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months, and highest attained schooling grade until adulthood. RESULTS: Among 7203 individuals in the analysis, 68.9% (Philippines) to 96.7% (South Africa) had at least one prenatal care visit, with most having at least four visits. Over 40% of Brazilians and Guatemalans had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester, but fewer Filipinos (13.9%) and South Africans (19.8%) did so. Prenatal care utilization was not significantly associated with birth weight (p>0.05 in pooled data). Each unit increase in the prenatal care utilization index was associated with 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.15) higher height-for-age z-score at 24 months and with 0.26 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.35) higher schooling grades attained. Although there was some heterogeneity and greater imprecision across sites, the results were qualitatively similar among the four different populations. CONCLUSIONS: While not related to birth weight, prenatal care utilization was associated with important outcomes later in life, specifically higher height-for-age at 24 months and higher attained school grades. These results suggest the relevance of prenatal care visits for human capital outcomes important over the lifecycle.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez
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