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1.
Nature ; 582(7811): 240-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499647

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 240 loci that are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D)1,2; however, most of these loci have been identified in analyses of individuals with European ancestry. Here, to examine T2D risk in East Asian individuals, we carried out a meta-analysis of GWAS data from 77,418 individuals with T2D and 356,122 healthy control individuals. In the main analysis, we identified 301 distinct association signals at 183 loci, and across T2D association models with and without consideration of body mass index and sex, we identified 61 loci that are newly implicated in predisposition to T2D. Common variants associated with T2D in both East Asian and European populations exhibited strongly correlated effect sizes. Previously undescribed associations include signals in or near GDAP1, PTF1A, SIX3, ALDH2, a microRNA cluster, and genes that affect the differentiation of muscle and adipose cells3. At another locus, expression quantitative trait loci at two overlapping T2D signals affect two genes-NKX6-3 and ANK1-in different tissues4-6. Association studies in diverse populations identify additional loci and elucidate disease-associated genes, biology, and pathways.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Alelos , Anquirinas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
2.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(1): 88-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065539

RESUMO

Inflammation is associated with increased risk for chronic degenerative diseases, as well as age-related functional declines across many systems and tissues. Current understandings of inflammation, aging, and human health are based on studies conducted almost exclusively in high-income nations that rely primarily on baseline measures of chronic inflammation. This analysis investigates the inflammatory response to vaccination as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older women in the Philippines, a lower-middle income nation with rising rates of overweight/obesity and relatively high burdens of infectious disease. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at baseline and 72 h following influenza vaccination in 530 women (mean age = 55.2 years). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) - an indicator of peripheral arterial disease and broader CVD risk - was measured approximately three years later. The magnitude of CRP response to vaccination was positively associated with ABI, indicating that a larger inflammatory response predicts lower CVD risk. Baseline CRP was negatively associated with CRP response to vaccination, and was not associated with ABI independently of CRP response. These results suggest that research across ecological settings, and with more dynamic measures of inflammatory response and regulation, may yield important insights into the associations among inflammation, aging, and disease.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Influenza/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(1): 146-153, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand how an increase in abdominal adiposity relative to overall adiposity is associated with blood pressure (BP) change. METHODS: A sex-stratified mixed linear model was used to examine the association (95% CI) between annual changes in waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, estimated from two to eight repeated measures across the 1993-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey, among 5,742 men and 5,972 women (18-66 years) with no history of antihypertension medication use. RESULTS: The association between annual WC change and BP change remained statistically significant but was attenuated after controlling for annual BMI change, regardless of baseline abdominal obesity or overweight status. Each 10-cm annual WC gain in men and women was associated with a 0.98-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.61-1.35) and a 0.97-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.62-1.32) annual increase in systolic blood pressure and a 1.13-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.87-1.38) and a 0.74-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.51-0.97) annual increase in diastolic blood pressure, respectively, independent of annual BMI change. CONCLUSIONS: WC gain may elevate BP even in the absence of BMI gain. BP management that addresses only BMI gain could overlook individuals at risk of elevated BP who have increased WC but not BMI.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012703, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657282

RESUMO

Background Evidence shows that dietary factors play an important role in blood pressure. However, there is no clear understanding of whether hypertension diagnosis is associated with dietary modifications. The aim of this study is to estimate the longitudinal association between hypertension diagnosis and subsequent changes (within 2-4 years) in dietary sodium, potassium, and sodium-potassium (Na/K) ratio. Methods and Results We included adults (18-75 years, n=16 264) from up to 9 waves (1991-2015) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Diet data were collected using three 24-hour dietary recalls and a household food inventory. We used fixed-effects models to estimate the association between newly self-reported diagnosed hypertension and subsequent within-individual changes in sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio. We also examined changes among couples and at the household level. Results suggest that on average, men who were diagnosed with hypertension decreased their sodium intake by 251 mg/d and their Na/K ratio by 0.19 within 2 to 4 years after diagnosis (P<0.005). Among spouse pairs, sodium intake and Na/K ratio of women decreased when their husbands were diagnosed (P<0.05). Household average sodium density and Na/K ratio decreased, and household average potassium density increased after a man was diagnosed. In contrast, changes were not statistically significant when women were diagnosed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that hypertension diagnosis for a man may result in modest dietary improvements for him, his wife, and other household members. Yet, diagnosis for a woman does not seem to result in dietary changes for her or her household members.

6.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(6): e23308, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization recommends that complementary foods that are adequate, safe, and appropriate be introduced to infants at age 6 months. Using an innovative modeling technique, we examine patterns of nutrient intake in HIV-exposed and uninfected (HEU) infants and establish their relationship with growth. METHODS: Single-day dietary recalls and anthropometrics were collected every two to 3 months from 543 infants living in Kigali, Rwanda, and attending clinics for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A common weaning food index (CWFI) was calculated in grams and nutrient density for infants to reflect the extent to which the infants consumed the weaning foods typical of this population at ages 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and 16 to 20 months. Regressions among the CWFI, length-for-age z-scores (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) were conducted to estimate the relationship between the dietary patterns and growth. RESULTS: Mean absolute intake of zinc and calcium from complementary foods was insufficient. Increasing CWFI was related to increasing cow milk consumption. The density CWFI showed a decrease in the density of iron and folate as infants consume more of the weaning foods typical of this population. Density CWFI, breastfeeding, and caloric intake act on early LAZ and WLZ and interact with one another. Among breastfed infants, those who consume little of the common weaning foods and have a high caloric intake develop deficits in LAZ and have an elevated WLZ. CONCLUSIONS: A diet that is more dominated by the typical weaning foods of this population may support a healthy growth pattern.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipídeos/análise , Obesidade/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e011368, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165668

RESUMO

Background China faces a substantial burden from cardiometabolic diseases, but longitudinal studies on a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors are limited. We examined the 6-year incidence of 8 cardiometabolic risk factors in a diverse, population-based cohort. Methods and Results In the China Health and Nutrition Survey, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were collected from 9621 adults (47.6% men) aged 18 to 99 years in 2009 who were followed into 2015. Using inverse probability weights to account for loss to follow-up, we estimated the 6-year incidence of 8 cardiometabolic risk factors and compared the incidence of each risk factor across age groups using inverse probability-weighted sex-stratified logistic regression models. Incidence was noted for the following cardiometabolic risk factors during 2009-2015: hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg; men: 29.2%; women: 24.9%), high waist circumference/height ratio (≥0.5; men: 42.4%; women: 43.8%), and high total to HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol ratio (≥5; men: 17.0%; women: 14.5%). Older men and women (aged ≥65 years) had the highest incidence of hypertension. Incidence of high waist circumference/height ratio and high LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (≥130 mg/ dL ) was highest among older (aged ≥65 years) women, whereas incidence of overweight (body mass index ≥25) and high triglycerides (≥150 mg/ dL ) was highest among younger (aged 18-35 and 35-50 years) men. Conclusions We found increases in cardiometabolic risk among Chinese adults during this recent, short, 6-year period that are higher than previous studies in China. The higher incidence of overweight and elevated dyslipidemia markers in younger versus older men portends an increasing burden of cardiometabolic diseases in China as the younger population ages.

9.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 4(1)2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023980

RESUMO

This study describes a multidimensional measure of successful aging (SA) and examines the relationship with chronic disease status and self-reported health. Using data from the 2015 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1568 Filipino women, we created a four domain measure of SA (physiological, mental health, cognitive, sociological). We explored age-stratified associations of each domain and total SA with various health behaviors, chronic disease status, and correlations with self-reported health measures. Both age groups reported aging well, but younger women had higher mean SA scores. Association patterns between domain and total SA and sociodemographic and health behaviors were similar across age groups. Physiological score was associated with hypertension for all ages, and with diabetes in younger women. Total SA was moderately correlated with self-reported health measures. Participants reported aging successfully despite chronic disease status. Future studies should use a multidimensional definition of SA which incorporates elders' perspective.

10.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(3): e23237, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in low and middle-income countries, but studies of CVD epidemiology in such settings often focus on risk factors rather than measures of disease progression. Here we use the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among older women living in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines, and relationships between ABI and CVD risk factors and body composition. METHODS: ABI was measured using the Doppler technique in 538 female participants in the 2015 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 58 years, range 47-78 years). ABI was related to a panel of CVD risk factors measured in 2005 and 2012, and to 2012 body composition measures. RESULTS: The prevalence of PAD (1.8%) was among the lowest reported in any comparably-aged sample, and only 9.9% of participants had an ABI indicating borderline PAD risk. Smoking (P < 0.011) and use of CVD medications (P < 0.0001) predicted lower ABI (indicating higher PAD risk), which was also lower in relation to 2012 systolic blood pressure (P < 0.054). ABI was unrelated to other CVD risk factors. An apparent protective relationship between body mass index (BMI) and ABI, noted in previous studies, was found to be confounded by protective relationships between ABI and fat free mass, height, and grip strength (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PAD is low in Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey participants, and ABI was related to few CVD risk factors. Past reports of lower PAD risk in relation to BMI may reflect confounding by lean mass, which has protective relationships with ABI.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(3): e12776, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609287

RESUMO

HIV-exposed and HIV-uninfected (HEU) infants may be at increased risk of poor health and growth outcomes. We characterized infant growth trajectories in a cohort of HEU infants to identify factors associated with healthy growth. HIV-positive women participating in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes in Kigali, Rwanda, were followed until their infants were 2 years old. Infant anthropometrics were regularly collected. Latent class analysis was used to categorize infant growth trajectories. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of infants belonging to each growth trajectory class. On average, this population of HEU infants had moderate linear growth faltering, but only modest faltering in weight, resulting in mean weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) above the World Health Organization (WHO) median. Mean WLZ was 0.53, and mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) was -1.14 over the first 2 years of life. We identified four unique WLZ trajectories and seven trajectories in LAZ. Low neonatal weight-for-age and a high rate of illness increased the likelihood that infants were in the lightest WLZ class. Shorter mothers were more likely to have infants with linear growth faltering. Female infants who were older at the end of exclusive breastfeeding were more likely to be in the second tallest LAZ class. In conclusion, the current WHO recommendations of Option B+ and extended breastfeeding may induce higher WLZ and lower LAZ early in infancy. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in growth patterns that is obscured by simply analysing average growth trends, necessitating the analysis of growth in subpopulations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Ruanda
12.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 3(4)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450359

RESUMO

As life expectancy and obesity increase in low and middle-income countries, the relationship of weight status to functional outcomes in older adults in these settings requires attention. We examined how overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and high waist circumference (WC > 80 cm) related to grip strength, timed up-and-go, and development of limitations in mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among Filipino women. We analyzed data from seven rounds of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1994, n = 2279 to 2015, n = 1568, age 49-78 years) to examine how women's reports of functional limitations related to their prior WC, and how their grip strength and timed up-and-go related to concurrently measured overweight and obesity, adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. High WC was associated with higher odds of subsequent mobility and IADL limitations. Chronic disease morbidity (sum of self-reported arthritis, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer) fully mediated the association of high WC with ADL and IADL limitations, but not physical/mobility limitations. Longer up-and-go times, and higher grip strength were related to overweight and obesity. Results emphasize the need for obesity prevention to reduce chronic diseases and maintain good functional status as women age.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5052, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487518

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N = 289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-analysis in East Asians and Europeans. We report 19 new genetic loci and ancestry-specific BP variants, conforming to a common ancestry-specific variant association model. At 10 unique loci, distinct non-rare ancestry-specific variants colocalize within the same linkage disequilibrium block despite the significantly discordant effects for the proxy shared variants between the ethnic groups. The genome-wide transethnic correlation of causal-variant effect-sizes is 0.898 and 0.851 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Some of the ancestry-specific association signals are also influenced by a selective sweep. Our results provide new evidence for the role of common ancestry-specific variants and natural selection in ethnic differences in complex traits such as BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Nutr Rev ; 76(12): 910-928, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184168

RESUMO

Context: Food insecurity matters for women's nutrition and health. Objective: This review sought to comprehensively evaluate how food insecurity relates to a full range of dietary outcomes (food groups, total energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and overall dietary quality) among adult women living in Canada and the United States. Data sources: Peer-reviewed databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) and gray literature sources from 1995 to 2016 were searched. Data extraction: Observational studies were used to calculate a percentage difference in dietary intake for food-insecure and food-secure groups. Results: Of the 24 included studies, the majority found food-insecure women had lower food group frequencies (dairy, total fruits and vegetables, total grains, and meats/meat alternatives) and intakes of macro- and micronutrients relative to food-secure women. Methodological quality varied. Among high-quality studies, food insecurity was negatively associated with dairy, fruits and vegetables, grains, meats/meats alternatives, protein, total fat, calcium, iron, magnesium, vitamins A and C, and folate. Conclusions: Results hold practical relevance for selecting nutritional targets in programs, particularly for nutrient-rich foods with iron and folate, which are more important for women's health.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Valor Nutritivo , Saúde da Mulher , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
15.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 30(6): 561-571, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221978

RESUMO

Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have risen dramatically in Asia, but few cohort studies track age and secular trends in these conditions. We use Cebu (The Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition survey data to document 1998 to 2015 prevalence and co-occurrence of body mass index (BMI; >25 kg/m2), high waist circumference (WC; >80 cm), elevated blood pressure (EBP; systolic ⩾130 or diastolic ⩾85 mm Hg), and type 2 diabetes among ~2000 women aged 29 to 62 years in 1998; and identify their relationship to community, household, and individual factors using longitudinal logistic regression. Prevalence (1998-2015) rates were 35% to 49%, BMI >25 kg/m2; 32% to 58% high WC; 21% to 59% EBP; and 2% to 14% diabetes. Only 20% of women had none of these conditions in 2015. Diabetes was strongly driven by age and secular trends in high WC related to higher socioeconomic status and urbanization. Hypertension increased with age in lower socioeconomic status rural and more affluent urban women. Results underscore the continuing need for public health measures to prevent obesity and to identify and treat hypertension and diabetes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(2): e12503, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851037

RESUMO

We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post-partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant-pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post-partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80-90% of copper and zinc and <50% of iron concentrations met the current adequate intake for infants at 2 weeks and only 1-19% at 24 weeks. Pregnancy haemoglobin was negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = -.18, p < .02 for both). The associations of the milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11-.47, p < .05 for all); none were found with infant biomarkers. At 2 weeks, moderately anaemic women produced milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Ferro/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/metabolismo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/sangue , Ferro/sangue , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Malaui , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães , Adulto Jovem
17.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627126

RESUMO

Obesity continues to be a problem in the United States. Of particular concern is the epidemic of early childhood obesity. A significant predictor of child diet is maternal diet, but little is known about this relationship during infancy. This study examined the association between maternal and infant consumption of key food groups from 6 to 18 months using data from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Study, a prospective cohort of 217 non-Hispanic black, low-income, first-time mothers. Using data from 24-hr dietary recalls collected during in-home visits at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, we assessed longitudinal associations between mother and child intake of both energy-dense, nutrient-poor (obesogenic) food groups and fibre-, nutrient-rich food groups using random intercept logistic regression. Both mothers and their infants had high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts, and sweets and low intake of vegetables and whole grains. Infant consumption of key food groups was strongly associated with maternal consumption, suggesting the need for focused interventions to target maternal diet as a pathway to decreasing risk for the establishment of poor dietary patterns early in life.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Família , Métodos de Alimentação/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/etnologia , Saúde da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Nutr ; 147(11): 2102-2108, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978676

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about the impact of Chinese diet quality changes on diabetes-related markers.Objective: The present study examined the association of changes in overall diet quality with various biomarkers of diabetes among adults in China.Methods: The current analysis used longitudinal diet data from 1991 to 2006 and fasting blood samples from 2009 for 4734 adults aged 18-65 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 consecutive 24-h recalls and household food weighing. The tailored Alternative Healthy Eating Index (tAHEI) was adapted from the 2010 Harvard Alternative Healthy Eating Index to measure overall diet quality. We categorized baseline tAHEI scores into tertiles and annual changes in the scores into 5 levels (high decrease, low decrease, maintain, low increase, and high increase). We performed mixed-effects regressions to assess the associations between baseline scores and changes in the tAHEI scores and diabetes or insulin markers.Results: Adults with high baseline tAHEI scores tended to be male, older, of lower socioeconomic status, and with higher physical activity levels. After adjustment for all of the covariates, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were 5.1% (95% CI: -0.100, -0.002) and 5.7% (95% CI: -0.113, -0.001) lower, respectively, for adults with high compared with low baseline tAHEI scores and 8.6% (95% CI: -0.155, -0.017) and 9.8% (95% CI: -0.177, -0.018) lower, respectively, for adults with a high increase in score compared with the "maintain" category. Null associations were observed between baseline scores and changes in the scores and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetes prevalence.Conclusions: Baseline and changes in diet quality were independently associated with lower HOMA-IR and plasma insulin but not with fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in Chinese adults. Prospective studies on overall diet quality in relation to diabetes markers and risk of diabetes are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Epidemiology ; 28 Suppl 1: S19-S34, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environmental health of children is one of the great global health concerns. Exposures in utero and throughout development can have major consequences on later health. However, environmental risks or disease burdens vary from region to region. Birth cohort studies are ideal for investigating different environmental risks. METHODS: The principal investigators of three birth cohorts in Asia including the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS), the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study (MOCEH), and the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children' Health (Hokkaido Study) coestablished the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia (BiCCA) in 2011. Through a series of five PI meetings, the enrolment criteria, aim of the consortium, and a first-phase inventory were confirmed. RESULTS: To date, 23 birth cohorts have been established in 10 Asian countries, consisting of approximately 70,000 study subjects in the BiCCA. This article provides the study framework, environmental exposure and health outcome assessments, as well as maternal and infant characteristics of the participating cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The BiCCA provides a unique and reliable source of birth cohort information in Asian countries. Further scientific cooperation is ongoing to identify specific regional environmental threats and improve the health of children in Asia.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1722-1730, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083407

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used an exome array to examine protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci that reached chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After a meta-analysis including >300,000 European samples, we identified an additional nine novel loci. Sixteen genes were identified by protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, and thus are likely to be functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Extremo Oriente , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise
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