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2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 108918, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Utilize a random sample to estimate the prevalence, child traits, and maternal risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a Southeastern United States county. METHODS: From all first-grade students (n = 1073) a simple random sample was drawn, and 32 % (n = 231) were consented. All 231 children were examined for dysmorphology and growth, 84 were tested and rated on neurobehavior, and 72 mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Significant differences (α = .05) between the physical traits of children diagnosed with FASD and the entire sample were height, weight, head circumference, body mass index, and total dysmorphology scores, and all three cardinal features of fetal alcohol syndrome: palpebral fissure length, smooth philtrum, and narrow vermilion. Intellectual function and inhibition were not significantly different between FASD and typically-functioning children, but two executive function measures and one visual/spatial measure approached significance (α = .10). Three behavioral measures were significantly worse for the FASD group: parent-rated problems of communication, daily living, and socialization. Significant maternal risk factors reported were postpartum depression, frequency of drinking, and recovery from problem drinking. The prevalence of FASD was 71.4 per 1,000 or 7.1 %. This rate falls clearly within the prevalence range identified in eight larger samples of other communities in the Collaboration on FASD Prevalence (CoFASP) study in four regions of the United States. CONCLUSION: Careful and detailed clinical evaluation of children from small random samples can be useful for estimating the prevalence and traits of FASD in a community.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1436-1449, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216551

RESUMO

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(9): 2801-2808, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938618

RESUMO

In this review, we explore evidence that hypoxia in the developing human fetus can lead not only to the more commonly accepted disruptive-type defects, but also patterns of anomalies that suggest that hypoxia can exert a more classic teratogenic effect, using the brain as one example. We review neuropathology in the context of intrauterine hypoxia, particularly as it relates to carbon monoxide poisoning, in utero strokes, and homozygous alpha-thalassemia. In general, the associated brain injuries resemble those seen with other causes of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Fetal strokes during development usually lead to loss of brain tissue in areas that do not follow a typical embryologic pattern, and therefore are considered disruptions. However, there is also evidence that fetal brain ischemia can cause more classically recognized patterns of abnormal embryonic neuronal migration and organization such as polymicrogyria, cortical dysplasia, or dysgenesis, including select types of focal cortical dysplasia. This study summarizes available literature and evidence to raise clinicians' awareness regarding the association between hypoxia and congenital anomalies, including brain malformations.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 8-15, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417889

RESUMO

The delineation of disease entities is complex, yet recent advances in the molecular characterization of diseases provide opportunities to designate diseases in a biologically valid manner. Here, we have formalized an approach to the delineation of Mendelian genetic disorders that encompasses two distinct but inter-related concepts: (1) the gene that is mutated and (2) the phenotypic descriptor, preferably a recognizably distinct phenotype. We assert that only by a combinatorial or dyadic approach taking both of these attributes into account can a unitary, distinct genetic disorder be designated. We propose that all Mendelian disorders should be designated as "GENE-related phenotype descriptor" (e.g., "CFTR-related cystic fibrosis"). This approach to delineating and naming disorders reconciles the complexity of gene-to-phenotype relationships in a simple and clear manner yet communicates the complexity and nuance of these relationships.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433062

RESUMO

The 41st Annual David W. Smith Workshop on Malformation and Morphogenesis was scheduled to take place in Skamania, Washington, on September 11-16, 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated recommendations to avoid travel and congregation in large groups, this meeting took place differently from its original plan. Rather than bringing trainees, clinicians and researchers with an interest in congenital malformations and their underlying morphogenesis together for several days in a workshop with submitted presentations and research lectures, this meeting took place virtually. A 1 day online meeting was organized in order to allow trainees to present their work. This Conference Report includes the highest scoring abstracts submitted by trainees and presented at the 2020 virtual David W. Smith Workshop.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2646-2661, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924308

RESUMO

Several recurrent malformation associations affecting the development of the embryo have been described in which a genetic etiology has not been found, including LBWC, MURCS, OAVS, OEIS, POC, VACTERL, referred to here as "recurrent constellations of embryonic malformations" (RCEM). All are characterized by an excess of reported monozygotic discordant twins and lack of familial recurrence. We performed a comprehensive review of published twin data across all six phenotypes to allow a more robust assessment of the association with twinning and potential embryologic timing of a disruptive event. We recorded the type of twinning, any overlapping features of another RCEM, maternal characteristics, and the use of ART. Statistically significant associations included an excess of monozygotic twins and 80% discordance rate for the phenotype across all twins. There was an 18.5% rate of ART and no consistently reported maternal adverse events during pregnancy. We found 24 instances of co-occurrence of two RCEM, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across all RCEM phenotypes. We hypothesize the following timing for RCEM phenotypes from the earliest perturbation in development to the latest: LBWC, POC, OEIS, VACTERL, OAVS, then MURCS. The RCEM group of conditions should be considered a spectrum that could be studied as a group.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/classificação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/complicações , Anormalidades Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Anus Imperfurado/complicações , Extrofia Vesical/complicações , Cloaca/anormalidades , Anormalidades Congênitas , Atresia Esofágica/complicações , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Hérnia Umbilical/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Recidiva , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/complicações , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2243-2252, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677343

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe a range of physical, behavioral, and neurologic deficits in individuals exposed to alcohol prenatally. Reduced palpebral fissure length is one of the cardinal facial features of FASD. However, other ocular measurements have not been studied extensively in FASD. Using the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiologic Research (FASER) database, we investigated how inner canthal distance (ICD), interpupillary distance (IPD), and outer canthal distance (OCD) centiles differed between FASD and non-FASD individuals. We compared ocular measurement centiles in children with FASD to non-FASD individuals and observed reductions in all three centiles for ICD, IPD, and OCD. However, when our non-FASD children who had various forms of growth deficiency (microcephaly, short-stature, or underweight) were compared to controls, we did not observe a similar reduction in ocular measurements. This suggests that reductions in ocular measurements are a direct effect of alcohol on ocular development independent of its effect on growth parameters, which is consistent with animal models showing a negative effect of alcohol on developing neural crest cells. Interpupillary distance centile appeared to be the most significantly reduced ocular measure we evaluated, suggesting it may be a useful measure to be considered in the diagnosis of FASD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Crista Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/patologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Microcefalia/induzido quimicamente , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Crista Neural/patologia , Gravidez
9.
Endocrine ; 70(1): 170-177, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643049

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aim to report outcomes and safety with hormonal suppression to facilitate gonadal preservation in a select group of patients with 46,XY differences in sex development (DSD) who are raised and identify as female yet have diagnoses with potential for androgenization at puberty. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the past 10 years of DSD patients treated by a multidisciplinary program. Inclusion criteria were 46,XY DSD, female sex of rearing, risk of androgenization at puberty, and plan for hormonal suppression at puberty. Patients on hormonal suppression had at least 6 months of follow-up from initiation. We excluded those with complete gonadal dysgenesis or complete androgen insensitivity. RESULTS: Four patients met inclusion criteria. Initial evaluation by DSD team was at a mean age of 6.6 years (3 weeks-16 years). All patients were evaluated in a coordinated multidisciplinary clinic. The diagnoses are listed in Table 1. Mean follow-up was 5.7 years (1.2-10.9 years). One patient presented as an infant, and is being monitored until Tanner stage 2 and/or serum hormonal evidence to initiate hormonal suppression. Three patients have been receiving hormonal suppression for 1.4 years (1.1-1.9 years) without side effects or complication. Three patients were initiated with estrogen replacement to promote desired breast development. At last follow-up, all patients had retained their gonads, all have female gender identity with no reported gender dysphoria, and no progression of androgenization. CONCLUSIONS: In our initial experience, gonadal preservation with hormonal suppression is a tool in multidisciplinary management of select DSD patients with female gender identity with conditions associated with androgenization at puberty. Patients' growth, bone health, and overall psychosocial well-being will need to be monitored closely.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Puberdade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(7): 1576-1591, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500973

RESUMO

More than 50 individuals with activating variants in the receptor tyrosine kinase PDGFRB have been reported, separated based on clinical features into solitary myofibromas, infantile myofibromatosis, Penttinen syndrome with premature aging and osteopenia, Kosaki overgrowth syndrome, and fusiform aneurysms. Despite their descriptions as distinct clinical entities, review of previous reports demonstrates substantial phenotypic overlap. We present a case series of 12 patients with activating variants in PDGFRB and review of the literature. We describe five patients with PDGFRB activating variants whose clinical features overlap multiple diagnostic entities. Seven additional patients from a large family had variable expressivity and late-onset disease, including adult onset features and two individuals with sudden death. Three patients were treated with imatinib and had robust and rapid response, including the first two reported infants with multicentric myofibromas treated with imatinib monotherapy and one with a recurrent p.Val665Ala (Penttinen) variant. Along with previously reported individuals, our cohort suggests infants and young children had few abnormal features, while older individuals had multiple additional features, several of which appeared to worsen with advancing age. Our analysis supports a diagnostic entity of a spectrum disorders due to activating variants in PDGFRB. Differences in reported phenotypes can be dramatic and correlate with advancing age, genotype, and to mosaicism in some individuals.


Assuntos
Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucoencefalopatias/etiologia , Miofibromatose/congênito , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneurisma/genética , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Masculino , Miofibromatose/tratamento farmacológico , Miofibromatose/etiologia , Miofibromatose/genética , Linhagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
11.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of rapid exome sequencing (rES) in critically ill children with likely genetic disease using a standardized process at a single institution. To provide evidence that rES with should become standard of care for this patient population. STUDY DESIGN: We implemented a process to provide clinical-grade rES to eligible children at a single institution. Eligibility included (a) recommendation of rES by a consulting geneticist, (b) monogenic disorder suspected, (c) rapid diagnosis predicted to affect inpatient management, (d) pretest counseling provided by an appropriate provider, and (e) unanimous approval by a committee of 4 geneticists. Trio exome sequencing was sent to a reference laboratory that provided verbal report within 7-10 days. Clinical outcomes related to rES were prospectively collected. Input from geneticists, genetic counselors, pathologists, neonatologists, and critical care pediatricians was collected to identify changes in management related to rES. RESULTS: There were 54 patients who were eligible for rES over a 34-month study period. Of these patients, 46 underwent rES, 24 of whom (52%) had at least 1 change in management related to rES. In 20 patients (43%), a molecular diagnosis was achieved, demonstrating that nondiagnostic exomes could change medical management in some cases. Overall, 84% of patients were under 1 month old at rES request and the mean turnaround time was 9 days. CONCLUSIONS: rES testing has a significant impact on the management of critically ill children with suspected monogenic disease and should be considered standard of care for tertiary institutions who can provide coordinated genetics expertise.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 151, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS; OMIM #235730) is a genetic condition caused by heterozygous mutations or deletions of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by moderate-severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, Hirschsprung disease and multiple organ malformations of which congenital heart defects and urogenital anomalies are the most frequent ones. To date, a clear description of the physical development of MWS patients does not exist. The aim of this study is to provide up-to-date growth charts specific for infants and children with MWS. Charts for males and females aged from 0 to 16 years were generated using a total of 2865 measurements from 99 MWS patients of different ancestries. All data were collected through extensive collaborations with the Italian MWS association (AIMW) and the MWS Foundation. The GAMLSS package for the R statistical computing software was used to model the growth charts. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference were compared to those from standard international growth charts for healthy children. RESULTS: In newborns, weight and length were distributed as in the general population, while head circumference was slightly smaller, with an average below the 30th centile. Up to the age of 7 years, weight and height distribution was shifted to slightly lower values than in the general population; after that, the difference increased further, with 50% of the affected children below the 5th centile of the general population. BMI distribution was similar to that of non-affected children until the age of 7 years, at which point values in MWS children increased with a less steep slope, particularly in males. Microcephaly was sometimes present at birth, but in most cases it developed gradually during infancy; many children had a small head circumference, between the 3rd and the 10th centile, rather than being truly microcephalic (at least 2 SD below the mean). Most patients were of slender build. CONCLUSIONS: These charts contribute to the understanding of the natural history of MWS and should assist pediatricians and other caregivers in providing optimal care to MWS individuals who show problems related to physical growth. This is the first study on growth in patients with MWS.


Assuntos
Doença de Hirschsprung , Deficiência Intelectual , Microcefalia , Criança , Facies , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Itália , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Repressoras , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 900-918, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document prevalence and traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and maternal risk factors in a Rocky Mountain city. METHODS: Variations on active case ascertainment methods were used in 2 first-grade cohorts in all city schools. The consent rate was 59.2%. Children were assessed for physical growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior and their mothers interviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight children were diagnosed with FASD and compared with 278 typically developing controls. Total dysmorphology scores summarized well the key physical indicators of FASD and defined specific diagnostic groups. On average, children with FASD performed significantly poorer than controls on intellectual, adaptive, learning, attention, and behavioral tasks. More mothers of children with FASD reported drinking prior to pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters, and had partners with drinking problems than mothers of controls; however, reports of comorbid alcohol use and 6 other drugs were similar for mothers of children with FASD and mothers of controls. Mothers of children with FASD were significantly younger at pregnancy, had lower average weight before pregnancy and less education, initiated prenatal clinic visits later, and reported more health problems (e.g., stomach ulcers and accidents). Children with FASD had significantly lower birth weight and more problems at birth, and were less likely to be living with biological mother and father. Controlling for other drug and tobacco use, a FASD diagnosis is 6.7 times (OR = 6.720, 95% CI = 1.6 to 28.0) more likely among children of women reporting prepregnancy drinking of 3 drinks per drinking day (DDD) and 7.6 times (OR = 7.590, 95% CI = 2.0 to 31.5) more likely at 5 DDD. Prevalence of FAS was 2.9-5.8 per 1,000 children, and total FASD was 34.9 to 82.5 per 1,000 children or 3.5 to 8.3% at this site. CONCLUSION: This site had the second highest prevalence of FASD of the 4 Collaboration on FASD Prevalence sites and clearly identifiable child and maternal risk traits.

14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 939-959, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detail the characteristic traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and maternal risk factors in a southeastern U.S. County. METHODS: Independent samples were drawn from 2 different cohorts of first-grade students. All consented children (49.8%) were measured for height, weight, and head circumference, and those ≤ 25th centile entered the study along with a random sample drawn from all enrolled students. Study children were examined for physical growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior, and their mothers were interviewed. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores discriminated well the physical traits of children across the FASD continuum: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = 15.8, partial FAS (PFAS) = 10.8, alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder (ARND) = 5.2, and typically developing controls = 4.4. Additionally, a neurobehavioral battery distinguished children with each FASD diagnosis from controls. Behavioral problems qualified more children for FASD diagnoses than cognitive traits. Significant proximal maternal risk variables were as follows: reports of prepregnancy drinking, drinking in any trimester, and comorbid use of other drugs in lifetime and during pregnancy, especially alcohol and marijuana (14.9% among mothers of children with FASD vs. 0.4% for controls). Distal maternal risks included reports of other health problems (e.g., depression), living unmarried with a partner during pregnancy, and a lower level of spirituality. Controlling for other drug use during pregnancy, having a child diagnosed with a FASD was 17.5 times greater for women who reported usual consumption of 3 drinks per drinking day prior to pregnancy than for nondrinking mothers (p < 0.001, 95% CI = 5.1 to 59.9). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of FASD by race, Hispanic ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The prevalence of FASD was not lower than 17.3 per 1,000, and weighted estimated prevalence was 49.0 per 1,000 or 4.9%. CONCLUSION: This site had the second lowest rate in the CoFASP study, yet children with FASD are prevalent.

15.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 919-938, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their mothers in a Midwestern city. METHODS: Case-control samples were drawn from 2 separate first-grade cohorts (combined N = 4,047) in every city school using different methods. In Cohort Sample 1, all consented small children (≤25th centile on height, weight, and/or head circumference) entered the study along with a random sample from all enrolled students. Cohort Sample 2 was drawn totally at random. Child growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior were assessed using the Collaboration on FASD Prevalence (CoFASP) criteria, and mothers were interviewed. RESULTS: For the samples combined, 891 children received dysmorphology examinations, and 692 were case-conferenced for final diagnosis. Forty-four children met criteria for FASD. Total dysmorphology scores differentiated diagnostic groups: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 16.7; partial FAS, 11.8; alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), 6.1; and typically developing controls, 4.2. Neurobehavioral tests distinguished children with FASD from controls, more for behavioral problems than cognitive delay. Children with ARND demonstrated the poorest neurobehavioral indicators. An adjusted regression model of usual prepregnancy drinking indicated that maternal reports of 3 drinks per drinking day (DDD) were significantly associated with a FASD diagnosis (p = 0.020, OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 1.44 to 70.54), as were 5 or more DDD (p < 0.001, OR = 26.47, 95% CI = 4.65 to 150.62). Other significant maternal risk factors included the following: self-reported drinking in any trimester; smoking and cocaine use during pregnancy; later pregnancy recognition and later and less prenatal care; lower maternal weight, body mass index (BMI), and head circumference; and unmarried status. There was no significant difference in FASD prevalence by race, Hispanic ethnicity, or socioeconomic status at this site, where the prevalence of FASD was 14.4 to 41.2 per 1,000 (1.4 to 4.1%). CONCLUSION: This city displayed the lowest prevalence of FASD of the 4 CoFASP sites. Nevertheless, FASD were common, and affected children demonstrated a common, recognizable, and measurable array of traits.

16.
J Pediatr Urol ; 16(2): 241-243, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265103

RESUMO

The Mirena intrauterine device (IUD) is a hormone-secreting contraceptive device. Pregnancy with the Mirena is rare and effects to the fetus are unknown. Here we present four females with genital virilization after pregnancy with persistent Mirena IUD. All patients had a 46, XX karyotype and normal hormone evaluation. All underwent exam under anesthesia, demonstrating posterior labial fusion and short urogenital sinus with normal bladder, urethra, vagina, and cervix. Three of four patients underwent flap vaginoplasty without complications and good cosmetic outcomes. This series suggests that persistent levonorgestrel-secreting IUD during pregnancy is associated with genital virilization in female fetuses.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Levanogestrel , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Virilismo
17.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise the continuum of disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Although infancy remains the most effective time for initiation of intervention services, current diagnostic schemes demonstrate the greatest confidence, accuracy, and reliability in school-aged children. Our aims for the current study were to identify growth, dysmorphology, and neurodevelopmental features in infants that were most predictive of FASD at age 5, thereby improving the timeliness of diagnoses. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant South African women attending primary health care clinics or giving birth in provincial hospitals was enrolled in the project. Children were followed longitudinally from birth to 60 months to determine their physical and developmental trajectories (N = 155). Standardized protocols were used to assess growth, dysmorphology, and development at 6 weeks and at 9, 18, 42, and 60 months. A structured maternal interview, including estimation of prenatal alcohol intake, was administered at 42 or 60 months. RESULTS: Growth restriction and total dysmorphology scores differentiated among children with and without FASD as early as 9 months (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.777; P < .001; 95% confidence interval: 0.705-0.849), although children who were severely affected could be identified earlier. Assessment of developmental milestones revealed significant developmental differences emerging among children with and without FASD between 18 and 42 months. Mothers of children with FASD were significantly smaller, with lower BMIs and higher alcohol intake during pregnancy, than mothers of children without FASD. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of a combination of growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral characteristics allows for accurate identification of most children with FASD as early as 9 to 18 months.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(12): 2578-2590, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their mothers from the general population in the United States. METHODS: During the 2012 and 2013 academic years, first-grade children in a large urban Pacific Southwest city were invited to participate in a study to estimate the prevalence of FASD. Children who screened positive on weight, height, or head circumference ≤25th centile or on parental report of developmental concerns were selected for evaluation, along with a random sample of those who screened negative. These children were examined for dysmorphology and neurobehavior and their mothers or collateral sources were interviewed. Children were classified as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or No FASD. RESULTS: A total of 854 children were evaluated; 5 FAS, 44 pFAS, 44 ARND, and 761 No FASD. Children with FAS or pFAS were more likely to have dysmorphic features, and 32/49 (65.3%) of those met criteria for neurobehavioral impairment on cognitive measures with or without behavioral deficits. In contrast, 28/44 (63.6%) of children with ARND met criteria on behavioral measures alone. Mothers of FASD children were more likely to recognize pregnancy later, be unmarried, and report other substance use or psychiatric disorders, but did not differ on age, socioeconomic status, education, or parity. Mothers of FASD children reported more drinks/drinking day each trimester. The risk of FASD was elevated with increasing number of drinks/drinking day prior to pregnancy recognition, even at the level of 1 drink per day (adjusted odds ratio 3.802, 95% confidence interval 1.634, 8.374). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this general population sample in a large urban region in the United States demonstrate the variability of expression of FASD and point to risk and protective factors for mothers in this setting.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information is needed on the safety of adalimumab when used in pregnancy for the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 2004 and 2016, the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Research Center at the University of California San Diego conducted a prospective controlled observational cohort study in 602 pregnant women who had or had not taken adalimumab. Women in the adalimumab-exposed cohort had received at least one dose of the drug in the first trimester for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's Disease (N = 257). Women in the disease comparison cohort had not used adalimumab in pregnancy (N = 120). Women in the healthy comparison cohort had no rheumatic or inflammatory bowel diseases (N = 225). Women and their infants were followed to one year postpartum with maternal interviews, medical records abstraction, and physical examinations. Study outcomes were major structural birth defects, minor defects, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, pre and post-natal growth deficiency, serious or opportunistic infections and malignancies. 42/602 (7.0%) of pregnancies were lost-to-follow-up. 22/221 (10.0%) in the adalimumab-exposed cohort had a live born infant with a major birth defect compared to 8/106 (7.5%) in the diseased unexposed cohort (adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 2.73). Women in the adalimumab-exposed cohort were more likely to deliver preterm compared to the healthy cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.59, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.50), but not compared to the diseased unexposed cohort (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 7.20). No significant increased risks were noted with adalimumab exposure for any other study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab exposure in pregnancy compared to diseased unexposed pregnancies was not associated with an increased risk for any of the adverse outcomes examined. Women with rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's Disease were at increased risk of preterm delivery, irrespective of adalimumab exposure.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Angústia Psicológica , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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