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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information is needed on the safety of adalimumab when used in pregnancy for the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 2004 and 2016, the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Research Center at the University of California San Diego conducted a prospective controlled observational cohort study in 602 pregnant women who had or had not taken adalimumab. Women in the adalimumab-exposed cohort had received at least one dose of the drug in the first trimester for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's Disease (N = 257). Women in the disease comparison cohort had not used adalimumab in pregnancy (N = 120). Women in the healthy comparison cohort had no rheumatic or inflammatory bowel diseases (N = 225). Women and their infants were followed to one year postpartum with maternal interviews, medical records abstraction, and physical examinations. Study outcomes were major structural birth defects, minor defects, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, pre and post-natal growth deficiency, serious or opportunistic infections and malignancies. 42/602 (7.0%) of pregnancies were lost-to-follow-up. 22/221 (10.0%) in the adalimumab-exposed cohort had a live born infant with a major birth defect compared to 8/106 (7.5%) in the diseased unexposed cohort (adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 2.73). Women in the adalimumab-exposed cohort were more likely to deliver preterm compared to the healthy cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.59, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.50), but not compared to the diseased unexposed cohort (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 7.20). No significant increased risks were noted with adalimumab exposure for any other study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab exposure in pregnancy compared to diseased unexposed pregnancies was not associated with an increased risk for any of the adverse outcomes examined. Women with rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's Disease were at increased risk of preterm delivery, irrespective of adalimumab exposure.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 35-44, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554721

RESUMO

Baratela-Scott syndrome (BSS) is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, and skeletal dysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in XYLT1. We report clinical and molecular investigation of 10 families (12 individuals) with BSS. Standard sequencing methods identified biallelic pathogenic variants in XYLT1 in only two families. Of the remaining cohort, two probands had no variants and six probands had only a single variant, including four with a heterozygous 3.1 Mb 16p13 deletion encompassing XYLT1 and two with a heterozygous truncating variant. Bisulfite sequencing revealed aberrant hypermethylation in exon 1 of XYLT1, always in trans with the sequence variant or deletion when present; both alleles were methylated in those with no identified variant. Expression of the methylated XYLT1 allele was severely reduced in fibroblasts from two probands. Southern blot studies combined with repeat expansion analysis of genome sequence data showed that the hypermethylation is associated with expansion of a GGC repeat in the XYLT1 promoter region that is not present in the reference genome, confirming that BSS is a trinucleotide repeat expansion disorder. The hypermethylated allele accounts for 50% of disease alleles in our cohort and is not present in 130 control subjects. Our study highlights the importance of investigating non-sequence-based alterations, including epigenetic changes, to identify the missing heritability in genetic disorders.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a clinically recognisable syndrome in which 70% of patients have a pathogenic variant in KMT2D or KDM6A. Understanding the function of these genes opens the door to targeted therapies. The purpose of this report is to propose diagnostic criteria for KS, particularly when molecular genetic testing is equivocal. METHODS: An international group of experts created consensus diagnostic criteria for KS. Systematic PubMed searches returned 70 peer-reviewed publications in which at least one individual with molecularly confirmed KS was reported. The clinical features of individuals with known mutations were reviewed. RESULTS: The authors propose that a definitive diagnosis can be made in an individual of any age with a history of infantile hypotonia, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, and one or both of the following major criteria: (1) a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in KMT2D or KDM6A; and (2) typical dysmorphic features (defined below) at some point of life. Typical dysmorphic features include long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid and two or more of the following: (1) arched and broad eyebrows with the lateral third displaying notching or sparseness; (2) short columella with depressed nasal tip; (3) large, prominent or cupped ears; and (4) persistent fingertip pads. Further criteria for a probable and possible diagnosis, including a table of suggestive clinical features, are presented. CONCLUSION: As targeted therapies for KS are being developed, it is important to be able to make the correct diagnosis, either with or without molecular genetic confirmation.

5.
J Perinatol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) utilizes circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to screen for fetal genetic abnormalities. NIPS is the first widely-available prenatal screen to assess genotypic sex. Most pediatricians have limited familiarity with NIPS technology and potential etiologies of discordant results. Increased familiarity may provide diagnostic insight and improve clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed all patients with discordant genotypic fetal sex assessed by cfDNA and neonatal phenotypic sex referred to our medical center. RESULT: Four infants with discordant cfDNA result and phenotypic sex were identified. Etiologies include vanishing twin syndrome, difference of sexual development, sex chromosome aneuploidy and maternal chimerism. CONCLUSIONS: We present four cases illustrating potential etiologies of discordant cfDNA result and postnatal phenotypic sex. Unanticipated cfDNA results offer the perinatologist a unique opportunity for early diagnosis and targeted treatment of various conditions, many of which may not have otherwise been detected in the perinatal period.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Defects in the cohesin pathway are associated with cohesinopathies, notably Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We aimed to delineate pathogenic variants in known and candidate cohesinopathy genes from a clinical exome perspective. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients referred for clinical exome sequencing (CES, N = 10,698). Patients with causative variants in novel or recently described cohesinopathy genes were enrolled for phenotypic characterization. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variants (SNVs/indels) were identified in established disease genes including NIPBL (N = 5), SMC1A (N = 14), SMC3 (N = 4), RAD21 (N = 2), and HDAC8 (N = 8). The phenotypes in this genetically defined cohort skew towards the mild end of CdLS spectrum as compared with phenotype-driven cohorts. Candidate or recently reported cohesinopathy genes were supported by de novo SNVs/indels in STAG1 (N = 3), STAG2 (N = 5), PDS5A (N = 1), and WAPL (N = 1), and one inherited SNV in PDS5A. We also identified copy-number deletions affecting STAG1 (two de novo, one of unknown inheritance) and STAG2 (one of unknown inheritance). Patients with STAG1 and STAG2 variants presented with overlapping features yet without characteristic facial features of CdLS. CONCLUSION: CES effectively identified disease-causing alleles at the mild end of the cohensinopathy spectrum and enabled characterization of candidate disease genes.

7.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 695-696, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565422
8.
JAMA ; 319(5): 474-482, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411031

RESUMO

Importance: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates based on larger, diverse US population samples. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, including fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, in 4 regions of the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Active case ascertainment methods using a cross-sectional design were used to assess children for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders between 2010 and 2016. Children were systematically assessed in the 4 domains that contribute to the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum: dysmorphic features, physical growth, neurobehavioral development, and prenatal alcohol exposure. The settings were 4 communities in the Rocky Mountain, Midwestern, Southeastern, and Pacific Southwestern regions of the United States. First-grade children and their parents or guardians were enrolled. Exposures: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the 4 communities was the main outcome. Conservative estimates for the prevalence of the disorder and 95% CIs were calculated using the eligible first-grade population as the denominator. Weighted prevalences and 95% CIs were also estimated, accounting for the sampling schemes and using data restricted to children who received a full evaluation. Results: A total of 6639 children were selected for participation from a population of 13 146 first-graders (boys, 51.9%; mean age, 6.7 years [SD, 0.41] and white maternal race, 79.3%). A total of 222 cases of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders were identified. The conservative prevalence estimates for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ranged from 11.3 (95% CI, 7.8-15.8) to 50.0 (95% CI, 39.9-61.7) per 1000 children. The weighted prevalence estimates for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ranged from 31.1 (95% CI, 16.1-54.0) to 98.5 (95% CI, 57.5-139.5) per 1000 children. Conclusions and Relevance: Estimated prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders among first-graders in 4 US communities ranged from 1.1% to 5.0% using a conservative approach. These findings may represent more accurate US prevalence estimates than previous studies but may not be generalizable to all communities.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência , Amostragem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 965-975, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare intellectual disability/multiple congenital anomalies syndrome caused by heterozygous mutation of the ZEB2 gene. It is generally underestimated because its rarity and phenotypic variability sometimes make it difficult to recognize. Here, we aimed to better delineate the phenotype, natural history, and genotype-phenotype correlations of MWS. METHODS: In a collaborative study, we analyzed clinical data for 87 patients with molecularly confirmed diagnosis. We described the prevalence of all clinical aspects, including attainment of neurodevelopmental milestones, and compared the data with the various types of underlying ZEB2 pathogenic variations. RESULTS: All anthropometric, somatic, and behavioral features reported here outline a variable but highly consistent phenotype. By presenting the most comprehensive evaluation of MWS to date, we define its clinical evolution occurring with age and derive suggestions for patient management. Furthermore, we observe that its severity correlates with the kind of ZEB2 variation involved, ranging from ZEB2 locus deletions, associated with severe phenotypes, to rare nonmissense intragenic mutations predicted to preserve some ZEB2 protein functionality, accompanying milder clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the phenotypic spectrum of MWS and its correlation with the genotype will improve its detection rate and the prediction of its features, thus improving patient care.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 235-240, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090527

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome (OMIM# 601338) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by episodic, fever-induced ataxic encephalopathy in childhood with residual symptoms. All identified patients have the same heterozygous missense variant c.2452G>A (p.Glu818Lys) in the ATP1A3 gene, encoding Na+ /K+ ATPase α3. We describe a large CAPOS pedigree with three generations of affected members, the first ascertained in the United States. Deafness, optic atrophy, and pes cavus were present in all three members of the family evaluated. In addition, one of the affected individuals experienced markedly worsening features during her three pregnancies and in the immediate postpartum period, a potential element of the natural history of CAPOS previously unreported. We conclude that the triggering factors and clinical spectrum of pathogenic ATP1A3 variants may be broader than previously described. Targeted sequencing of ATP1A3 should be considered in any patient presenting with cerebellar ataxia triggered by febrile illness, or pregnancy and delivery, especially in the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy, pes cavus, or early childhood history of acute encephalopathic ataxia. Prophylactic administration of acetazolamide or flunarizine may prevent acute episodes of ataxia or mitigate neurologic symptoms, although their efficacies have not been well studied.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Fenótipo , Complicações na Gravidez , Reflexo Anormal/genética , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Gravidez , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
11.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(2): 249-252, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577349

RESUMO

Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), as defined by the 2006 Consensus Statement, are "congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical." They represent a spectrum of chronic medical conditions collectively affecting about 1% of the population and are associated with increased risk of infertility, cancer, and psychosocial distress. Clinical management in DSD is subject to multiple controversies about gender assignment, the timing and appropriateness of genital surgery and the approach to disclosure. There is dissent within and between stakeholders (healthcare providers, advocacy groups, families) regarding what constitutes optimal care. This special issue investigates the progress made as well as the uncertainties remaining a decade after the consensus statement and the gaps to be filled by future research and improved clinical practice. It discusses the increasing intricacy of genetic variant interpretation in the era of next-generation sequencing and the associated complexity of phenotypic variability. The issue tackles ethical dilemmas and the complicated decision-making process of assignment of sex of rearing at birth in cases of 5-alpha reductase type 2 deficiency, surveys delivery of clinical services in the United States, discusses challenges of interdisciplinary care and of educating patients and parents about DSD,and reviews the factors predisposing to gonadal tumor and their consequences on clinical management.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Humanos
12.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(2): 260-267, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544750

RESUMO

Sex assignment at birth remains one of the most clinically challenging and controversial topics in 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD). This is particularly challenging in deficiency of 5-alpha reductase type 2 given that external genitalia are typically undervirilized at birth but typically virilize at puberty to a variable degree. Historically, most individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency were raised females. However, reports that over half of patients who underwent a virilizing puberty adopted an adult male gender identity have challenged this practice. Consensus guidelines on assignment of sex of rearing at birth are equivocal or favor male assignment in the most virilized cases. While a male sex of rearing assignment may avoid lifelong hormonal therapy and/or allow the potential for fertility, female sex assignment may be more consistent with external anatomy in the most severely undervirilized cases. Herein, we describe five patients with 46,XY DSD due 5-alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency, all with a severe phenotype. An inter-disciplinary DSD medical team at one of two academic centers evaluated each patient. This case series illustrates the complicated decision-making process of assignment of sex of rearing at birth in 5-alpha reductase type 2 deficiency and the challenges that arise when the interests of the child, parental wishes, recommendations of the medical team, and state law collide.


Assuntos
3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/deficiência , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Hipospadia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipospadia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498341

RESUMO

Background: Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods: Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 691-700, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and congenital malformations, including Hirschsprung disease, genital and eye anomalies, and congenital heart defects, caused by haploinsufficiency of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white matter abnormalities (reduction of thickness 40.7%, localized signal alterations 22.2%). Other consistent findings were large basal ganglia, cortical, and cerebellar malformations. Most features were underrepresented in the literature. We also found ZEB2 variations leading to synthesis of a defective protein to be favorable for psychomotor development and some epilepsy features but also associated with corpus callosum agenesis. CONCLUSION: This study delineated the spectrum of brain anomalies in MWS and provided new insights into the role of ZEB2 in neurodevelopment.Genet Med advance online publication 10 November 2016.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/patologia , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Haploinsuficiência , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Fenótipo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(1): 245-249, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734605

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare, highly malignant, embryonal tumors most often occurring in children under age 3 years. Most are due to a somatic change in tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 followed by a second-hit, typically loss of heterozygosity, best detected on immunohistochemical staining. Despite the noteworthy genetic homogeneity of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, relatively little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms that lead to biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1. Herein, we describe a patient with constitutional ring chromosome 22, Phelan-McDermid syndrome and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the brain. During mitosis, sister chromatids of a ring chromosome may form interlocking and dicentric rings, resulting in chromosomal loss, complex karyotypes, and ongoing somatic variation. We hypothesized that the inherent instability of the patient's ring chromosome could lead to mosaic monosomy chromosome 22, resulting in allelic inactivation of the tumor-suppressor gene SMARCB1 and AT/RT if a second-hit occurred. Utilizing high-density microarray technology to analyze peripheral blood and tumor tissue, we confirmed this oncogenic mechanism, previously undescribed in patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. Our data demonstrate chromosomal loss as a consequence of ring chromosome instability serving as the first hit in oncogenesis. This rare but possibly under-recognized mechanism is important to note in children with ATRT and syndromic features. Further investigation is warranted to assess if this oncogenic mechanism has management and/or prognostic implications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/diagnóstico , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Teratoma/diagnóstico , Teratoma/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Terapia Combinada , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fenótipo , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Cromossomos em Anel , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/metabolismo , Teratoma/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Pediatrics ; 138(2)2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464676

RESUMO

The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure constitute a continuum of disabilities (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders [FASD]). In 1996, the Institute of Medicine established diagnostic categories delineating the spectrum but not specifying clinical criteria by which diagnoses could be assigned. In 2005, the authors published practical guidelines operationalizing the Institute of Medicine categories, allowing for standardization of FASD diagnoses in clinical settings. The purpose of the current report is to present updated diagnostic guidelines based on a thorough review of the literature and the authors' combined expertise based on the evaluation of >10 000 children for potential FASD in clinical settings and in epidemiologic studies in conjunction with National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-funded studies, the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, and the Collaboration on FASD Prevalence. The guidelines were formulated through conference calls and meetings held at National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism offices in Rockville, MD. Specific areas addressed include the following: precise definition of documented prenatal alcohol exposure; neurobehavioral criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder; revised diagnostic criteria for alcohol-related birth defects; an updated comprehensive research dysmorphology scoring system; and a new lip/philtrum guide for the white population, incorporating a 45-degree view. The guidelines reflect consensus among a large and experienced cadre of FASD investigators in the fields of dysmorphology, epidemiology, neurology, psychology, developmental/behavioral pediatrics, and educational diagnostics. Their improved clarity and specificity will guide clinicians in accurate diagnosis of infants and children prenatally exposed to alcohol.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pediatria , Exame Físico , Papel do Médico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Genet Med ; 18(11): 1075-1084, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171546

RESUMO

The introduction of diagnostic clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) is changing the scope of practice for clinical geneticists. Many large institutions are making a significant investment in infrastructure and technology, allowing clinicians to access CGES, especially as health-care coverage begins to extend to clinically indicated genomic sequencing-based tests. Translating and realizing the comprehensive clinical benefits of genomic medicine remain a key challenge for the current and future care of patients. With the increasing application of CGES, it is necessary for geneticists and other health-care providers to understand its benefits and limitations in order to interpret the clinical relevance of genomic variants identified in the context of health and disease. New, collaborative working relationships with specialists across diverse disciplines (e.g., clinicians, laboratorians, bioinformaticians) will undoubtedly be key attributes of the future practice of clinical genetics and may serve as an example for other specialties in medicine. These new skills and relationships will also inform the development of the future model of clinical genetics training curricula. To address the evolving role of the clinical geneticist in the rapidly changing climate of genomic medicine, two Clinical Genetics Think Tank meetings were held that brought together physicians, laboratorians, scientists, genetic counselors, trainees, and patients with experience in clinical genetics, genetic diagnostics, and genetics education. This article provides recommendations that will guide the integration of genomics into clinical practice.Genet Med 18 11, 1075-1084.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/tendências , Genética Médica/tendências , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(7): 1665-726, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27119594

RESUMO

The 36th Annual David W Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis was held on August 14-19, 2015 at the Harbourtowne Conference Center in St. Michaels Maryland. The Workshop, which honors the legacy of David W Smith, brought together over 120 clinicians and researchers interested in congenital malformations and their underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis. As is the tradition of the meeting, the Workshop highlighted five themes besides mechanisms of morphogenesis: Rasopathies, Eye Malformations, Therapeutics, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Disorders of Sex Development. This Conference Report includes the abstracts presented at the 2015 Workshop. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(11): 2691-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26086840

RESUMO

Linkeropathies are a group of syndromes characterized by short stature, radio-ulnar synostosis, decreased bone density, congenital contractures and dislocations, joint laxity, broad digits, brachycephaly, small mouth, prominent eyes, short or webbed neck, congenital heart defects and mild developmental delay. Linkeropathies are due to enzymatic defects in the synthesis of the common linker region that joins the core proteins to their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The enzyme glucuronyltransferase 1, encoded by B3GAT3, adds the last four saccharides comprising the linker region. Mutations in B3GAT3 have been reported in two unrelated families with the same homozygous mutation (c.830G>A, p.Arg277Gln). We report on a patient with a novel homozygous B3GAT3 (c.667G>A, p.Gly223Ser) mutation and a history of multiple fractures, blue sclerae, and glaucoma. Our patient was a 12-month-old boy born to consanguineous parents and, like previously reported patients, he had bilateral radio-ulnar synostosis, severe osteopenia, an increased gap between first and second toes, bilateral club feet, and atrial and ventricular septal defects. He had the additional features of bilateral glaucoma, hypertelorism, upturned nose with anteverted nares, a small chest, a diaphragmatic hernia, multiple fractures, arachnodactyly, overlapping fingers with ulnar deviation, lymphedema, hypotonia, hearing loss, and perinatal cerebral infarction with bilateral supra- and infratentorial subdural hematomas. We highlight the extended phenotypic range of B3GAT3 mutations and a provide comparative overview of the phenotypic features of the linkeropathies associated with mutations in XYLT1, B4GALT7, B3GALT6, and B3GAT3.


Assuntos
Fraturas Múltiplas/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Mutação/genética , Fraturas Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Genéticos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Radiografia , Síndrome
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