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1.
Tumori ; : 3008916221099558, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674125

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: US National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE®) is a library of 78 symptom terms and 124 items enabling patient reporting of symptomatic adverse events in cancer trials. This multicenter study used mixed methods to develop an Italian language version of this widely accepted measure, and describe the content validity and reliability in a diverse sample of Italian-speaking patients. METHODS: All PRO-CTCAE items were translated in accordance with international guidelines. Subsequently, the content validity of the PRO-CTCAE-Italian was explored and iteratively refined through cognitive debriefing interviews. Participants (n=96; 52% male; median age 64 years; 26% older adults; 18% lower educational attainment) completed a PRO-CTCAE survey and participated in a semi-structured interview to determine if the translation captured the concepts of the original English language PRO-CTCAE, and to evaluate comprehension, clarity and ease of judgement. Test-retest reliability of the finalized measure was explored in a second sample (n=135). RESULTS: Four rounds of cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted. The majority of PRO-CTCAE symptom terms, attributes and associated response choices were well-understood, and respondents found the items easy to judge. To improve comprehension and clarity, the symptom terms for nausea and pain were rephrased and retested in subsequent interview rounds. Test-retest reliability was excellent for 41/49 items (84%); the median intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 (range 0.64-0.94). DISCUSSION: Results support the semantic, conceptual and pragmatic equivalence of PRO-CTCAE-Italian to the original English version, and provide preliminary descriptive evidence of content validity and reliability.

2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 186, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) changed the therapeutic landscape of patients with lung cancer. However, only a subset of them derived clinical benefit and evidenced the need to identify reliable predictive biomarkers. Liquid biopsy is the non-invasive and repeatable analysis of biological material in body fluids and a promising tool for cancer biomarkers discovery. In particular, there is growing evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in tumor progression and in tumor-immune interactions. Thus, we evaluated whether extracellular vesicle PD-L1 expression could be used as a biomarker for prediction of durable treatment response and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing treatment with ICIs. METHODS: Dynamic changes in EV PD-L1 were analyzed in plasma samples collected before and at 9 ± 1 weeks during treatment in a retrospective and a prospective independent cohorts of 33 and 39 patients, respectively. RESULTS: As a result, an increase in EV PD-L1 was observed in non-responders in comparison to responders and was an independent biomarker for shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. To the contrary, tissue PD-L1 expression, the commonly used biomarker, was not predictive neither for durable response nor survival. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that EV PD-L1 dynamics could be used to stratify patients with advanced NSCLC who would experience durable benefit from ICIs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454806

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. During the past three decades, several improvements in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer have been achieved with the introduction of optimized adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine treatment. However, estimating the risk of relapse of breast cancer on an individual basis is still challenging. The IRIDE (hIGh Risk DEfinition in breast cancer) working group was established with the aim of reviewing evidence from the literature to synthesize the current relevant features that predict hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancer relapse. A panel of experts in breast cancer was involved in identifying clinical, pathological, morphological, and genetic factors. A RAND consensus method was used to define the relevance of each risk factor. Among the 21 features included, 12 were considered relevant risk factors for relapse. For each of these, we provided a consensus statement and relevant comments on the supporting scientific evidence. This work may guide clinicians in the practical management of hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancers.

4.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 9, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062993

RESUMO

Family history of cancer (FHC) is a hallmark of cancer risk and an independent predictor of outcome, albeit with uncertain biologic foundations. We previously showed that FHC-high patients experienced prolonged overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. To validate our findings in patients with NSCLC, we evaluated two multicenter cohorts of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving either first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. From each cohort, 607 patients were randomly case-control matched accounting for FHC, age, performance status, and disease burden. Compared to FHC-low/negative, FHC-high patients experienced longer OS (HR 0.67 [95% CI 0.46-0.95], p = 0.0281), PFS (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.48-0.89]; p = 0.0074) and higher disease control rates (DCR, 86.4% vs 67.5%, p = 0.0096), within the pembrolizumab cohort. No significant associations were found between FHC and OS/PFS/DCR within the chemotherapy cohort. We explored the association between FHC and somatic DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations as underlying mechanism to our findings in a parallel cohort of 118 NSCLC, 16.9% of whom were FHC-high. The prevalence of ≥ 1 somatic DDR gene mutation was 20% and 24.5% (p = 0.6684) in FHC-high vs. FHC-low/negative, with no differences in tumor mutational burden (6.0 vs. 7.6 Mut/Mb, p = 0.6018) and tumor cell PD-L1 expression. FHC-high status identifies NSCLC patients with improved outcomes from pembrolizumab but not chemotherapy, independent of somatic DDR gene status. Prospective studies evaluating FHC alongside germline genetic testing are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Oncology ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, a consensus has not yet been reached about the therapy sequence after disease progression (PD) on CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer (MBC). OBJECTIVES: The present study assesses, in a real-world setting, the activity of different subsequent therapies in patients who experienced a PD on palbociclib (P) + endocrine therapy (ET), to evaluate the best therapy sequence. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective observational study. Records of consecutive HR+/HER2- MBC patients from January 2017 to May 2019 were reviewed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of progression-free survival (PFS) according to subsequent treatment lines after progression on P+ET. Toxicity data were also collected. RESULTS: The outcomes were analyzed in 89 MBC patients that had progressed on previous P+ET: 17 patients were on hormone therapy (HT) and 31 patients on chemotherapy (CT) as second-line treatments; seven patients were on HT and 34 on CT as third-line therapies. PFS of patients treated with HT as second-line therapy is significantly improved when compared with patients treated with CT (p=0.01). Considering third-line settings, the difference in PFS was not statistically different between HT and CT. A better outcome in terms of toxicity is observed among HT patients for both second- and third-line therapies. CONCLUSIONS: patients who were progressive on P+ET could still benefit from a subsequent ET. In patients who experienced a good efficacy from prior ET, without visceral metastatic sites, HT seems the most suitable option, when compared to CT, also in terms of safety.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13770, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215766

RESUMO

In metastatic breast cancer (mBC), the change of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary and metastatic lesions is widely recognized, however clinical implications are unknown. Our study address the question if relevant differences exist between subjects who preserve the HER2 status and those who gain the HER2 positivity when relapsed. Data of patients affected by HER2-positive mBC, treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in a real-world setting at 45 Italian cancer centers were retrospectively collected and analyzed. From 2003 to 2017, 491 HER2-positive mBC patients were included. Of these, 102 (20.7%) had been initially diagnosed as HER2-negative early BC. Estrogen and/or progesterone receptor were more expressed in patients with HER2-discordance compared to patients with HER2-concordant status (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.006, respectively). HER2-discordant tumors were characterized also by a lower rate of brain metastases (p = 0.01) and a longer disease free interval (p < 0.0001). Median overall survival was longer, although not statistically significant, in the subgroup of patients with HER2-discordant cancer with respect to patients with HER2-concordant status (140 vs 78 months, p = 0.07). Our findings suggest that patients with HER2-positive mBC with discordant HER2 status in early BC may have different clinical, biological and prognostic behavior compared to HER2-concordant patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
8.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 24-35, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing with first-line immunotherapy, followed by second-line chemotherapy, is still a viable option for NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. METHODS: We evaluated post-progression treatment pathways in a large real-world cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% treated with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. RESULTS: Overall, 974 patients were included. With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95%CI: 21.6-38.2), the median overall survival (OS) of the entire population was 15.8 months (95%CI: 13.5-17.5; 548 events). At the data cutoff, among the 678 patients who experienced disease progression, 379 (55.9%) had not received any further treatment, and 359 patients (52.9%) had died. Patients who did not receive post-progression therapies were older (p = 0.0011), with a worse ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and were on corticosteroids prior to pembrolizumab (p = 0.0024). At disease progression, 198 patients (29.2%) received a switched approach and 101 (14.9%) received pembrolizumab ByPD either alone (64 [9.4%]) or in combination with local ablative treatments (37 [5.5%]) (LATs). After a random-case control matching according to ECOG-PS, CNS metastases, bone metastases, and (previous) best response to pembrolizumab, patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD plus LATs were confirmed to have a significantly longer post-progression OS compared to patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD alone 13.9 months versus 7.8 months (p = 0.0179) 241 patients (35.5%) among the 678 who had experienced PD, received a second-line systemic treatment (regardless of previous treatment beyond PD). As compared to first-line treatment commencement, patients' features at the moment of second-line initiation showed a significantly higher proportion of patients aged under 70 years (p = 0.0244), with a poorer ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and having CNS (p = 0.0001), bone (p = 0.0266) and liver metastases (p = 0.0148). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world scenario NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% treated with first-line single-agent pembrolizumab achieve worse outcomes as compared to the Keynote-024 trial. Poor post-progression outcomes are major determinants of the global results that should be considered when counselling patients for first-line treatment choices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044692, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Temporary ileostomy is a valuable aid in reducing the severity of complications related to rectal cancer surgery. However, it is still unclear what is the best timing of its closure in relation to the feasibility of an adjuvant treatment, especially considering patient-reported outcomes and health system costs. The aim of the study is to compare the results of an early versus late closure strategy in patients with indication to adjuvant chemotherapy after resection for rectal cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective multicentre randomised trial, sponsored by Rete Oncologica Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta (Oncology Network of Piedmont and Aosta Valley-Italy). Patients undergone to rectal cancer surgery with temporary ileostomy, aged >18 years, without evidence of anastomotic leak and with indication to adjuvant chemotherapy will be enrolled in 28 Network centres. An early closure strategy (between 30 and 40 days from rectal surgery) will be compared with a late one (after the end of adjuvant therapy). Primary endpoint will be the compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy with and without ileostomy. Complications associated with stoma closure as well as quality of life, costs and oncological outcomes will be assessed as secondary endpoints. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial will engage the Network professional teams in a common effort to improve the treatment of rectal cancer by ensuring the best results in relation to the most correct use of resources. It will take into consideration both the patients' point of view (patient-reported outcome) and the health system perspective (costs analysis). The study has been approved by the Ethical Review Board of Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital in Turin (Italy). The results of the study will be disseminated by the Network website, medical conferences and peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04372992.


Assuntos
Ileostomia , Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Itália , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Cancer Res ; 81(3): 724-731, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148663

RESUMO

Radiomics is defined as the use of automated or semi-automated post-processing and analysis of multiple features derived from imaging exams. Extracted features might generate models able to predict the molecular profile of solid tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive algorithm to define the mutational status of EGFR in treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CT scans from 109 treatment-naïve patients with NSCLC (21 EGFR-mutant and 88 EGFR-wild type) underwent radiomics analysis to develop a machine learning model able to recognize EGFR-mutant from EGFR-WT patients via CT scans. A "test-retest" approach was used to identify stable radiomics features. The accuracy of the model was tested on an external validation set from another institution and on a dataset from the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). The machine learning model that considered both radiomic and clinical features (gender and smoking status) reached a diagnostic accuracy of 88.1% in our dataset with an AUC at the ROC curve of 0.85, whereas the accuracy values in the datasets from TCIA and the external institution were 76.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Furthermore, 17 distinct radiomics features detected at baseline CT scan were associated with subsequent development of T790M during treatment with an EGFR inhibitor. In conclusion, our machine learning model was able to identify EGFR-mutant patients in multiple validation sets with globally good accuracy, especially after data optimization. More comprehensive training sets might result in further improvement of radiomics-based algorithms. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that data normalization and "test-retest" methods might improve the performance of machine learning models on radiomics images and increase their reliability when used on external validation datasets.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 142: 18-28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant medications are known to impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed weighing the role of different concomitant baseline medications to create a drug-based prognostic score. METHODS: We evaluated concomitant baseline medications at immunotherapy initiation for their impact on objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a single-institution cohort of patients with advanced cancer treated with ICIs (training cohort, N = 217), and a drug-based prognostic score with the drugs resulting significantly impacting the OS was computed. Secondly, we externally validated the score in a large multicenter external cohort (n = 1012). RESULTS: In the training cohort (n = 217), the median age was 69 years (range: 32-89), and the primary tumours were non-small-cell lung cancer (70%), melanoma (14.7%), renal cell carcinoma (9.2%) and others (6%). Among baseline medications, corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-3.30), systemic antibiotics (HR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.31-3.25) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13-2.18) were significantly associated with OS. The prognostic score was calculated using these three drug classes, defining good, intermediate and poor prognosis patients. Within the training cohort, OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0297) were significantly distinguished by the score stratification. The prognostic value of the score was also demonstrated in terms of OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0006) within the external cohort. CONCLUSION: Cumulative exposure to corticosteroids, antibiotics and PPIs (three likely microbiota-modulating drugs) leads to progressively worse outcomes after ICI therapy. We propose a simple score that can help stratifying patients in routine practice and clinical trials of ICIs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(3): 433-440, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201731

RESUMO

Background: New trends are emerging in clinical research, such as patient empowerment and an active role in influencing health and research ethics. Patients' involvement is considered pivotal by stakeholders and institutions because they can channel the voice of those they represent, empowering their starring role in the different research activities.Objectives: To obtain an overview of the real involvement of Italian patient associations in clinical research.Methods: In January 2019, the Working Group 'Clinical Research Coordinators' of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology spread an online questionnaire consisting of 16 questions on the active involvement of patient associations in clinical research.Results: The involvement in clinical research working groups, in the organization and implementation of specific activities and training initiatives is very limited (21.7% in both cases), as well as the active involvement in the conduct and/or definition of clinical trials (0.3%). Moreover, few associations (15.2%) have joined projects on patient involvement in clinical research in collaboration with other associations.Discussion: Although the current involvement of the associations may have been somewhat underestimated, there is no doubt that much more can be done in terms of training and identification of common objectives between patients and professionals.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Oncologia/organização & administração , Participação do Paciente , Sociedades/organização & administração , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 279, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2-targeting agents have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of HER2+ advanced breast cancer (ABC). Within a short time frame, the rapid introduction of new therapeutics has led to the approval of pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab and a taxane in first-line, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in second-line. Thereby, evidence of T-DM1 efficacy following trastuzumab/pertuzumab combination is limited, with data from some retrospective reports suggesting lower activity. The purpose of the present study is to investigate T-DM1 efficacy in pertuzumab-pretreated and pertuzumab naïve HER2 positive ABC patients. We also aimed to provide evidence on the exposure to different drugs sequences including pertuzumab and T-DM1 in HER2 positive cell lines. METHODS: The biology of HER2 was investigated in vitro through sequential exposure of resistant HER2 + breast cancer cell lines to trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and their combination. In vitro experiments were paralleled by the analysis of data from 555 HER2 + ABC patients treated with T-DM1 and evaluation of T-DM1 efficacy in the 371 patients who received it in second line. Survival estimates were graphically displayed in Kaplan Meier curves, compared by log rank test and, when possibile, confirmed in multivariate models. RESULTS: We herein show evidence of lower activity of T-DM1 in two HER2+ breast cancer cell lines resistant to trastuzumab+pertuzumab, as compared to trastuzumab-resistant cells. Lower T-DM1 efficacy was associated with a marked reduction of HER2 expression on the cell membrane and its nuclear translocation. HER2 downregulation at the membrane level was confirmed in biopsies of four trastuzumab/pertuzumab-pretreated patients. Among the 371 patients treated with second-line T-DM1, median overall survival (mOS) from diagnosis of advanced disease and median progression-free survival to second-line treatment (mPFS2) were 52 and 6 months in 177 patients who received trastuzumab/pertuzumab in first-line, and 74 and 10 months in 194 pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.0006 and 0.03 for OS and PFS2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab reduces the amount of available plasma membrane HER2 receptor, limiting the binding of T-DM1 in cancer cells. This may help interpret the less favorable outcomes of second-line T-DM1 in trastuzumab/pertuzumab pre-treated patients compared to their pertuzumab-naïve counterpart.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/deficiência , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant medications, such as steroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and antibiotics, might affect clinical outcomes with immune checkpoint inhibitors. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational retrospective study aimed at evaluating the impact of concomitant medications on clinical outcomes, by weighing their associations with baseline clinical characteristics (including performance status, burden of disease and body mass index) and the underlying causes for their prescription. This analysis included consecutive stage IV patients with cancer, who underwent treatment with single agent antiprogrammed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) with standard doses and schedules at the medical oncology departments of 20 Italian institutions. Each medication taken at the immunotherapy initiation was screened and collected into key categories as follows: corticosteroids, antibiotics, gastric acid suppressants (including proton pump inhibitors - PPIs), statins and other lipid-lowering agents, aspirin, anticoagulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ACE inhibitors/Angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium antagonists, ß-blockers, metformin and other oral antidiabetics, opioids. RESULTS: From June 2014 to March 2020, 1012 patients were included in the analysis. Primary tumors were: non-small cell lung cancer (52.2%), melanoma (26%), renal cell carcinoma (18.3%) and others (3.6%). Baseline statins (HR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.25), p=0.0064), aspirin (HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.08, p=0.0267) and ß-blockers (HR 1.76 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.69), p=0.0080) were confirmed to be independently related to an increased objective response rate. Patients receiving cancer-related steroids (HR 1.72 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.07), p<0.0001), prophylactic systemic antibiotics (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.78), p=0.0030), prophylactic gastric acid suppressants (HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.53), p=0.0021), PPIs (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48), p=0.0050), anticoagulants (HR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.77), p=0.0007) and opioids (HR 1.71 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.28), p=0.0002) were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression. Patients receiving cancer-related steroids (HR 2.16 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.65), p<0.0001), prophylactic systemic antibiotics (HR 1.93 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.98), p=0.0030), prophylactic gastric acid suppressants (HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.57), p=0.0091), PPI (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.52), p=0.0172), anticoagulants (HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), p=0.0024) and opioids (HR 1.53 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.11), p=0.0098) were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of death. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the association between baseline steroids administered for cancer-related indication, systemic antibiotics, PPIs and worse clinical outcomes with PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors, which can be assumed to have immune-modulating detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 230-239, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) patient-reported outcomes (PROs) data from pivotal first-line trials in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are poor. The Valentino study showed that de-escalation to single-agent panitumumab after 4-month induction with panitumumab-FOLFOX is inferior to panitumumab-5-FU/LV in patients with RAS wild-type mCRC, although slightly reducing toxicity. We report QoL, a secondary end-point. METHODS: PROs were assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 (QLQ-C30), EORTC QLQ-CR29, EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaires, at baseline and every 8 weeks until disease progression. First two evaluations correspond to induction treatment (identical in both arms), while subsequent to maintenance. To describe QoL changes over time, mean changes from baseline at each time point were calculated in overall population. To compare maintenance between two arms, mean changes and proportion of improved/stable/worse patients versus baseline were compared for each item. RESULTS: In arm A/B, 91.5%/92.0% of enrolled patients completed questionnaires at baseline. No significant differences in the two arms were reported in compliance, baseline scores and mean changes versus baseline for the three questionnaires during maintenance (24/32/40 weeks). Overall, mean changes versus baseline showed an early deterioration during induction with partial recovering during maintenance for global QoL, functional scales and several symptoms/items of QLQ-C30 (fatigue, nausea/vomiting, appetite loss, diarrhoea) and QLQ-CR29 (body image, dry mouth, hair loss, taste, faecal incontinence, sore skin), and EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. CONCLUSION: In patients with RAS wild-type mCRC, induction with oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy plus anti-EGFRs induces a transient significant QoL deterioration. After induction phase, treatment deintensification determines an overall recovery of health-related QoL, besides the expected prevention of oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Genes ras , Mutação , Panitumumabe/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Itália , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Panitumumabe/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 19-28, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on spectrum and grade of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in long-term responders to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study to characterized irAEs occurring after a 12-months minimum treatment period with PD-(L)1 ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. IrAEs were categorized into 'early' (≤12 months) and 'late' (>12 months). RESULTS: From September 2013 to October 2019, 436 consecutive patients were evaluated. Two hundred twenty-three experienced any grade early-irAEs (51.1%), whereas 132 experienced any grade late-irAEs (30.3%) (p < 0.0001). Among the latter, 29 (22%) experienced a recurrence of an early-irAEs, whereas 103 (78%) experienced de novo late-irAEs involving different system/organ. Among patients with late-irAEs, 21 experienced GIII/GIV irAEs (4.8%). Median time to onset of early-irAEs was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.2), whereas the median time to onset of late-irAEs was 16.6 months (95% CI: 15.8-17.6). Cumulative time-adjusted risk of disease progression according to both the early-irAEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.30-1.29], p = 0.204) and late-irAEs occurrence revealed no statistically significant differences (HR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.37-1.56], p = 0.452). In addition, the time-adjusted cumulative risk of death in accordance with both early-irAEs (HR = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.34-1.86], p = 0.598) and late-irAEs (HR = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.49-1.74], p = 0.811) did not show statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: Although less frequent than early-irAEs, late-irAEs are quite common in long responders to PD-(L)1 ICIs and are different in terms of spectrum and grade. Time-adjusted analysis revealed that the cumulative risk of disease progression and death were not significantly reduced in patients who experienced late-irAEs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Br J Cancer ; 123(3): 403-409, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-inflammatory biomarkers (IIBs) showed a prognostic relevance in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We aimed at evaluating the prognostic power of a new comprehensive biomarker, the Pan-Immune-Inflammation Value (PIV), in patients with mCRC receiving first-line therapy. METHODS: In the present pooled-analysis, we included patients enrolled in the Valentino and TRIBE trials. PIV was calculated as: (neutrophil count × platelet count × monocyte count)/lymphocyte count. A cut-off was determined using the maximally selected rank statistics method. Generalised boosted regression (GBR), the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox hazards regression models were used for survival analyses. RESULTS: A total of 438 patients were included. Overall, 208 patients (47%) had a low-baseline PIV and 230 (53%) had a high-baseline PIV. Patients with high PIV experienced a worse PFS (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.36-2.03, P < 0.001) and worse OS (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.57-2.57; P < 0.001) compared to patients with low PIV. PIV outperformed the other IIBs in the GBR model and in the multivariable models. CONCLUSION: PIV is a strong predictor of survival outcomes with better performance than other well-known IIBs in patients with mCRC treated with first-line therapy. PIV should be prospectively validated to better stratify mCRC patients undergoing first-line therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1244: 69-92, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301011

RESUMO

Over the last decade, we have witnessed a paradigm shift in cancer treatment, with the advent of novel therapeutic approaches that target or manipulate the immune system, also known as immunotherapy. Blocking immune checkpoints has emerged as an effective strategy with unprecedented results in several solid tumors, including lung cancer. Since 2012 when PD(L)-1 inhibitors showed first clinical signals of activity in lung cancer, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has emerged as a novel effective therapeutic strategy in different settings, determining a dramatic change in the therapeutic landscape of both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and, more recently, small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Although the benefit from this novel therapeutic approach is undeniable, several open questions still remain unanswered. Herein, we summarize the major breakthroughs in the immunotherapy journey in lung cancer and how it is changing our clinical practice.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/imunologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia
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