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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013020, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different bone-modifying agents like bisphosphonates and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-inhibitors are used as supportive treatment in men with prostate cancer and bone metastases to prevent skeletal-related events (SREs). SREs such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, surgery and radiotherapy to the bone, and hypercalcemia lead to morbidity, a poor performance status, and impaired quality of life. Efficacy and acceptability of the bone-targeted therapy is therefore of high relevance. Until now recommendations in guidelines on which bone-modifying agents should be used are rare and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bisphosphonates and RANKL-inhibitors as supportive treatment for prostate cancer patients with bone metastases and to generate a clinically meaningful treatment ranking according to their safety and efficacy using network meta-analysis. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies by electronically searching the bibliographic databases Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase until 23 March 2020. We searched the Cochrane Library and various trial registries and screened abstracts of conference proceedings and reference lists of identified trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials comparing different bisphosphonates and RANKL-inihibitors with each other or against no further treatment or placebo for men with prostate cancer and bone metastases. We included men with castration-restrictive and castration-sensitive prostate cancer and conducted subgroup analyses according to this criteria. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We defined proportion of participants with pain response and the adverse events renal impairment and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) as the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were SREs in total and each separately (see above), mortality, quality of life, and further adverse events such as grade 3 to 4 adverse events, hypocalcemia, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. We conducted network meta-analysis and generated treatment rankings for all outcomes, except quality of life due to insufficient reporting on this outcome. We compiled ranking plots to compare single outcomes of efficacy against outcomes of acceptability of the bone-modifying agents. We assessed the certainty of the evidence for the main outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-five trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Twenty-one trials could be considered in the quantitative analysis, of which six bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid, risedronate, pamidronate, alendronate, etidronate, or clodronate) were compared with each other, the RANKL-inhibitor denosumab, or no treatment/placebo. By conducting network meta-analysis we were able to compare all of these reported agents directly and/or indirectly within the network for each outcome. In the abstract only the comparisons of zoledronic acid and denosumab against the main comparator (no treatment/placebo) are described for outcomes that were predefined as most relevant and that also appear in the 'Summary of findings' table. Other results, as well as results of subgroup analyses regarding castration status of participants, are displayed in the Results section of the full text. Treatment with zoledronic acid probably neither reduces nor increases the proportion of participants with pain response when compared to no treatment/placebo (risk ratio (RR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 2.32; per 1000 participants 121 more (19 less to 349 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 4 trials including 1013 participants). For this outcome none of the trials reported results for the comparison with denosumab. The adverse event renal impairment probably occurs more often when treated with zoledronic acid compared to treatment/placebo (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.45; per 1000 participants 78 more (10 more to 180 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 6 trials including 1769 participants). Results for denosumab could not be included for this outcome, since zero events cannot be considered in the network meta-analysis, therefore it does not appear in the ranking. Treatment with denosumab results in increased occurrence of the adverse event ONJ (RR 3.45, 95% CI 1.06 to 11.24; per 1000 participants 30 more (1 more to 125 more); high-certainty evidence; 4 trials, 3006 participants) compared to no treatment/placebo. When comparing zoledronic acid to no treatment/placebo, the confidence intervals include the possibility of benefit or harm, therefore treatment with zoledronic acid probably neither reduces nor increases ONJ (RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.73 to 4.87; per 1000 participants 11 more (3 less to 47 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 4 trials including 3006 participants). Compared to no treatment/placebo, treatment with zoledronic acid (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.97) and denosumab (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96) may result in a reduction of the total number of SREs (per 1000 participants 75 fewer (131 fewer to 14 fewer) and 131 fewer (215 fewer to 19 fewer); both low-certainty evidence; 12 trials, 5240 participants). Treatment with zoledronic acid and denosumab likely neither reduces nor increases mortality when compared to no treatment/placebo (zoledronic acid RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01; per 1000 participants 48 fewer (97 fewer to 5 more); denosumab RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.11; per 1000 participants 34 fewer (111 fewer to 54 more); both moderate-certainty evidence; 13 trials, 5494 participants). Due to insufficient reporting, no network meta-analysis was possible for the outcome quality of life. One study with 1904 participants comparing zoledronic acid and denosumab showed that more zoledronic acid-treated participants than denosumab-treated participants experienced a greater than or equal to five-point decrease in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General total scores over a range of 18 months (average relative difference = 6.8%, range -9.4% to 14.6%) or worsening of cancer-related quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When considering bone-modifying agents as supportive treatment, one has to balance between efficacy and acceptability. Results suggest that Zoledronic acid likely increases both the proportion of participants with pain response, and the proportion of participants experiencing adverse events However, more trials with head-to-head comparisons including all potential agents are needed to draw the whole picture and proof the results of this analysis.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076524

RESUMO

Global incidences of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are rising due to an association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Although there is an improved overall survival of HPV-related OPSCC; up to 25% of the patients develop recurrent or distant metastatic disease with a fatal outcomes. Biomarkers to monitor this disease are not established. This meta-analysis reviews the role of cell-free HPV DNA in liquid biopsy (LB) as a biomarker for HPV-related OPSCC. Pubmed, Livivo, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to August, 2020. All studies were analyzed by Meta-DiSc 1.4 and Stata 16.0 statistical software. In total, 16 studies were considered for systematic review, whereas 11 studies met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of cfHPV-DNA at first diagnosis and during follow-up was 0.81 (95% CI; 0.78-0.84) and 0.73 (95% CI; 0.57-0.86), while pooled specificity was 0.98 (95% CI; 0.96-0.99) and 1 (95% CI; 0.99-1). The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) at first diagnosis was 200.60 (95% CI; 93.31-431.22) and 300.31 (95% CI; 60.94-1479.88) during follow-up. The area under the curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) was 0.99 at first diagnosis and 1.00 during follow-up, respectively. In conclusion, cfHPV-DNA presents a potential biomarker with high specificity in patients with HPV-related OPSCC.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867046

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has been established as successful modality in cancer treatment. Combination concepts are used to optimize treatment outcome, but may also induce higher toxicity rates than monotherapy. Several rationales support the combination of radiotherapy (RT) with ICI as radioimmunotherapy (RIT), but it is still unknown in which clinical situation RIT would be most beneficial. Therefore, we have conducted a retrospective matched-pair analysis of 201 patients with advanced-stage cancers and formed two groups treated with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors only (PD1i) or in combination with local RT (RIT) at our center between 2013 and 2017. We collected baseline characteristics, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status, mutational status, PD-1 inhibitor and RT treatment details, and side effects according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.5.0. Patients received pembrolizumab (n = 93) or nivolumab (n = 108), 153 with additional RT. For overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), there was no significant difference between both groups. After propensity score matching (PSM), we analyzed 96 patients, 67 with additional and 29 without RT. We matched for different covariates that could have a possible influence on the treatment outcome. The RIT group displayed a trend towards a longer OS until the PD1i group reached a survival plateau. PD-L1-positive patients, smokers, patients with a BMI ≤ 25, and patients without malignant melanoma showed a longer OS when treated with RIT. Our data show that some subgroups may benefit more from RIT than others. Suitable biomarkers as well as the optimal timing and dosage must be established in order to achieve the best effect on cancer treatment outcome.

5.
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed ; 105(3): 130-135, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615846

RESUMO

A 5-year-old child presents to a paediatric clinic with their parents because of concerns about snoring, which is loud, every night and associated with respiratory pauses. This has been present for 6 months. Can clinical evaluation diagnose sleep-disordered breathing in children or are further investigations required? Should further investigations include oximetry or polysomnography? If a polysomnogram is performed, how are the results interpreted? In this paper we describe the indications for polysomnography, outline the parameters measured and decode a clinical polysomnography report.

6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow-based hematological malignancy accounting for approximately two per cent of cancers. First-line treatment for transplant-ineligible individuals consists of multiple drug combinations of bortezomib (V), lenalidomide (R), or thalidomide (T). However, access to these medicines is restricted in many countries worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of multiple drug combinations of V, R, and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma and to inform an application for the inclusion of these medicines into the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of essential medicines. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL and MEDLINE, conference proceedings and study registries on 14 February 2019 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing multiple drug combinations of V, R and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing combination therapies of V, R, and T, plus melphalan and prednisone (MP) or dexamethasone (D) for first-line treatment of adults with transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. We excluded trials including adults with relapsed or refractory disease, trials comparing drug therapies to other types of therapy and trials including second-generation novel agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included trials. As effect measures we used hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events. An HR or RR < 1 indicates an advantage for the intervention compared to the main comparator MP. Where available, we extracted quality of life (QoL) data (scores of standardised questionnaires). Results quoted are from network meta-analysis (NMA) unless stated. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 studies (148 references) comprising 11,403 participants and 21 treatment regimens. Treatments were differentiated between restricted treatment duration (treatment with a pre-specified amount of cycles) and continuous therapy (treatment administered until disease progression, the person becomes intolerant to the drug, or treatment given for a prolonged period). Continuous therapies are indicated with a "c". Risk of bias was generally high across studies due to the open-label study design. Overall survival (OS) Evidence suggests that treatment with RD (HR 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.99), median OS 55.2 months (35.2 to 87.0)); TMP (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.97), median OS: 46.4 months (35.9 to 60.0)); and VRDc (HR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.92), median OS 71.0 months (37.8 to 133.8)) probably increases survival compared to median reported OS of 34.8 months with MP (moderate certainty). Treatment with VMP may result in a large increase in OS, compared to MP (HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.07), median OS 49.7 months (32.5 to 77.3)), low certainty). Progression-free survival (PFS) Treatment withRD (HR 0.65 (95% CI0.44 to 0.96), median PFS: 24.9 months (16.9 to 36.8)); TMP (HR 0.63 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), median PFS:25.7 months (20.8 to 32.4)); VMP (HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.90), median PFS: 28.9 months (18.0 to 46.3)); and VRDc (HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.58), median PFS: 47.6 months (27.9 to 81.0)) may result in a large increase in PFS (low certainty) compared to MP (median reported PFS: 16.2 months). Adverse events The risk of polyneuropathies may be lower with RD compared to treatment with MP (RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.99), risk for RD: 0.5% (0.1 to 1.8), mean reported risk for MP: 0.9% (10 of 1074 patients affected), low certainty). However, the CIs are also compatible with no difference or an increase in neuropathies. Treatment with TMP (RR 4.44 (95% CI1.77 to 11.11), risk: 4.0% (1.6 to 10.0)) and VMP (RR 88.22 (95% CI 5.36 to 1451.11), risk: 79.4% (4.8 to 1306.0)) probably results in a large increase in polyneuropathies compared to MP (moderate certainty). No study reported the amount of participants with grade ≥ 3 polyneuropathies for treatment with VRDc. VMP probably increases the proportion of participants with serious adverse events (SAEs) compared to MP (RR 1.28 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54), risk for VMP: 46.2% (38.3 to 55.6), mean risk for MP: 36.1% (177 of 490 patients affected), moderate certainty). RD, TMP, and VRDc were not connected to MP in the network and the risk of SAEs could not be compared. Treatment with RD (RR 4.18 (95% CI 2.13 to 8.20), NMA-risk: 38.5% (19.6 to 75.4)); and TMP (RR 4.10 (95% CI 2.40 to 7.01), risk: 37.7% (22.1 to 64.5)) results in a large increase of withdrawals from the trial due to adverse events (high certainty) compared to MP (mean reported risk: 9.2% (77 of 837 patients withdrew)). The risk is probably slightly increased with VMP (RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.81), risk: 9.75% (5.8 to 16.7), moderate certainty), while it is much increased with VRDc (RR 8.92 (95% CI 3.82 to 20.84), risk: 82.1% (35.1 to 191.7), high certainty) compared to MP. Quality of life QoL was reported in four studies for seven different treatment regimens (MP, MPc, RD, RMP, RMPc, TMP, TMPc) and was measured with four different tools. Assessment and reporting differed between studies and could not be meta-analysed. However, all studies reported an improvement of QoL after initiation of anti-myeloma treatment for all assessed treatment regimens. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on our four pre-selected comparisons of interest, continuous treatment with VRD had the largest survival benefit compared with MP, while RD and TMP also probably considerably increase survival. However, treatment combinations of V, R, and T also substantially increase the incidence of AEs, and lead to a higher risk of treatment discontinuation. Their effectiveness and safety profiles may best be analysed in further randomised head-to-head trials. Further trials should focus on consistent reporting of safety outcomes and should use a standardised instrument to evaluate QoL to ensure comparability of treatment-combinations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
7.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(7): 1512-1521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386775

RESUMO

AIM: To explore how nurse managers perceive and experience their role in supporting the well-being of intensive care nurses. BACKGROUND: While it is known that nurse manager behaviours affect nurse well-being, literature indicates that intensive care nurses may not receive the support they require. Understanding how nurse managers see their role in supporting nurse well-being is crucial to offer recommendations for improvement. METHODS: Qualitative multiple case study design. Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with nurse managers from Australian intensive care unit settings. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nurse manages felt unsure about what their supportive role involved, lacked training on how to support nurse well-being and called for organisational backup to carry out their role effectively. The study also provided insight into the strategies that enabled nurse managers to support nurse well-being. CONCLUSION: There is currently no consensus on the role of the nurse manager in supporting nurse well-being resulting in inconsistencies and wide practice variations. Furthermore, nurse managers need support and training if they are required to support nurse well-being. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: A clear definition of the nurse manager supportive role describing the purpose and core functions involved in this role must be developed to support nurse well-being.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras Administradoras/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Austrália do Sul
8.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2725, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920790

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder characterized by problems in accurate or fluent reading. A deficiency in phonological processing is thought to underpin the reading difficulties of individuals with developmental dyslexia and a variety of explanations have been proposed including deficits in phonological awareness and verbal memory. Recent investigations have begun to suggest that developmental deficits in the acquisition of reading may also co-occur with visual processing deficits, which are particularly salient for visually complex stimuli, yet these deficits have received relatively little attention from researchers. To further explore the nature of phonological and visual processing in developmental dyslexia, we administered a series of non-reading tasks tapping both domains. Unsurprisingly, individuals with developmental dyslexia performed worse than typically developing readers in phonological tasks. More intriguingly, they also struggled with visual tasks, specifically when discriminating between novel visual patterns, and in visuo-spatial working memory, which requires greater attentional control. These findings highlight that individuals with developmental dyslexia present not only with phonological impairments but also difficulties in processing visual materials. This aspect has received limited attention in previous literature and represents an aspect of novelty of this study. The dual phonological and visual impairments suggest that developmental dyslexia is a complex disorder characterized by deficits in different cognitive mechanisms that underpin reading.

9.
Aust Crit Care ; 32(4): 319-329, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of patients requiring admission into intensive care units (ICUs) is increasing worldwide. Concurrently, recruitment and retention of the ICU nursing workforce is becoming a major challenge due to the high intensity environment, heavy workloads, and decreasing nurse wellbeing. Nurse unit managers play a vital role in promoting and supporting ICU nurse wellbeing, yet little is known about perceptions and experiences of this role. OBJECTIVES: To examine the perceived and experienced role of the nurse unit manager in supporting the wellbeing of ICU nurses. REVIEW METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using Whittemore and Knafl's five stage approach: (i) problem identification, (ii) literature search, (iii) quality appraisal, (iv) data analysis, and (v) presentation of findings. DATA SOURCES: The following databases were searched for literature published between January 2007 and December 2017: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Informit, Joanna Briggs Institute Library of Systematic Review, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and Wiley online library digital databases. Variations and synonyms of key words included: nurse unit manager, ICU, compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, job satisfaction, bullying, wellbeing, and work environment. RESULTS: Rigour and trustworthiness of the included studies were assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program qualitative research checklist,71 a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Program Cohort study checklist for quantitative research,72 and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool for mixed-method studies.73 The critical review guidelines by Shenton74 and Polit and Beck75 were also used to make judgements about the worth of the evidence. All of the 11 qualitative studies provided moderate to strong evidence. The overall quality of the quantitative studies was lower, with three of seven studies providing only adequate evidence. The majority of the 19 included studies represented the voices of ICU nurses. Three major themes emerged from the analysis; '1) building professional relationships', '2) leading the way' and '3) satisfying the needs of ICU nurses'. CONCLUSION: Nurse unit manager behaviours clearly affect the wellbeing of ICU nurses. However, the role of supporting ICU nurses is complex and challenging. More research is needed to investigate the needs of ICU nurses and the facilitators and barriers nurse unit managers face when supporting the wellbeing of nurses in their unit.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Relações Interpessoais , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Humanos , Liderança
11.
Nurs Ethics ; 25(7): 880-896, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Evolving technology and scientific advancement have increased the chances of survival of the extremely premature baby; however, such survival can be associated with some severe long-term morbidities. RESEARCH QUESTION:: The research investigates the caregiving and ethical dilemmas faced by neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies (defined as ≤24 weeks' gestation). This article explores the issues arising for neonatal nurses when they considered the philosophical question of 'what if it was me and my baby', or what they believed they would do in the hypothetical situation of going into premature labour and delivering an extremely premature baby. PARTICIPANTS:: Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS:: Relevant ethical approvals have been obtained by the researchers. FINDINGS:: A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'imagined futures' was generated which comprised three sub-themes: 'choice is important', 'not subjecting their own baby to treatment' and 'nurses and outcome predictions'. The results offer an important and unique understanding into the perceptions of nursing staff who care for extremely premature babies and their family, see them go home and witness their evolving outcomes. The results show that previous clinical and personal experiences led the nurses in the study to choose to have the belief that if in a similar situation, they would choose not to have their own baby resuscitated and subjected to the very treatment that they provide to other babies. CONCLUSION:: The theme 'imagined futures' offers an overall understanding of how neonatal nurses imagine what the life of the extremely premature baby and his or her family will be like after discharge from neonatal intensive care. The nurses' past experience has led them to believe that they would not want this life for themselves and their baby, if they were to deliver at 24 weeks' gestation or less.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Enfermagem Neonatal/ética , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/enfermagem , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
N Engl J Med ; 377(4): 329-337, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely premature. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal follow-up of all survivors of extremely preterm birth who were born in Victoria, Australia, in three periods - the years 1991 and 1992 (225 infants), 1997 (151 infants), and 2005 (170 infants). Perinatal data were collected prospectively, including data on the duration and type of assisted ventilation provided, the duration of oxygen therapy, and oxygen requirements at 36 weeks of age. Expiratory airflow was measured at 8 years of age, and values were converted to z scores for age, height, ethnic group, and sex. RESULTS: The duration of assisted ventilation rose substantially over time, with a large increase in the duration of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Despite the increase in the use of less invasive ventilation over time, the duration of oxygen therapy and the rate of oxygen dependence at 36 weeks rose, and airflows at 8 years of age were worse in 2005 than in earlier periods. For instance, for 2005 versus 1991-1992, the mean difference in the z scores for the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was -0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.07 to -0.44; P<0.001), and for 2005 versus 1997 the mean difference was -0.53 (95% CI, -0.86 to -0.19; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial increases in the use of less invasive ventilation after birth, there was no significant decline in oxygen dependence at 36 weeks and no significant improvement in lung function in childhood over time. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program.).


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Capacidade Vital , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nurs Ethics ; 24(7): 802-820, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to save the life of an extremely premature baby has increased substantially over the last decade. This survival, however, can be associated with unfavourable outcomes for both baby and family. Questions are now being asked about quality of life for survivors of extreme prematurity. Quality of life is rightly deemed to be an important consideration in high technology neonatal care; yet, it is notoriously difficult to determine or predict. How does one define and operationalise what is considered to be in the best interest of a surviving extremely premature baby, especially when the full extent of the outcomes might not be known for several years? RESEARCH QUESTION: The research investigates the caregiving dilemmas often faced by neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies. This article explores the issues arising for neonatal nurses when they considered the philosophical and ethical questions about quality of life in babies ≤24 weeks gestation. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. Ethical considerations: Ethical processes and procedures have been adhered to by the researchers. FINDINGS: A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'difficult choices' was generated which comprised three sub-themes: 'damaged through survival', 'the importance of the brain' and 'families are important'. The results show that neonatal nurses believed that quality of life was an important consideration; yet they experienced significant inner conflict and uncertainty when asked to define or suggest specific elements of quality of life, or to suggest how it might be determined. It was even more difficult for the nurses to say when an extremely premature baby's life possessed quality. Their previous clinical and personal experiences led the nurses to believe that the quality of the family's life was important, and possibly more so than the quality of life of the surviving baby. This finding contrasts markedly with much of the existing literature in this field. CONCLUSION: Quality of life for extremely premature babies was an important consideration for neonatal nurses; however, they experienced difficulty deciding how to operationalise such considerations in their everyday clinical practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Enfermagem Neonatal , New South Wales , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
14.
Thorax ; 72(8): 712-719, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of airway obstruction into late adolescence of extremely preterm (gestational age <28 weeks) or extremely low-birthweight (birth weight <1000 g) survivors in the era after surfactant was introduced is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in spirometry from 8 to 18 years of age of a geographical cohort of preterm survivors with normal birth weight controls, and to determine higher risk groups within the preterm cohort. METHODS: Of 297 extremely preterm/low-birthweight survivors born in 1991-1992 in the state of Victoria, Australia, 81% and 70% had spirometry at 8 and 18 years of age, respectively. Corresponding rates among 260 normal birth weight controls were 80% and 58%, respectively. Data were analysed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: The preterm group had substantial impairments in airflow at both ages compared with controls (eg, mean differences in z-score for FEV1; 8 years -1.02, 95% CI -1.21 to -0.82; 18 years -0.92, 95% CI -1.14 to -0.71). The preterm group had a greater increase in small airway obstruction between 8 and 18 years compared with controls. Within the preterm group, those who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the newborn period and those who were smokers at 18 years had airway obstruction that increased over time compared with those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm survivors born in the surfactant era had significant impairments in airflow through childhood into late adolescence that increased over time compared with controls. At-risk preterm participants include those who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and smokers at 18 years.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 11(1): 122-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rearrangements of RET are rare oncogenic events in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the characterization of Asian patients suggests a predominance of nonsmokers of young age in this genetically defined lung cancer subgroup, little is known about the characteristics of non-Asian patients. We present the results of an analysis of a European cohort of patients with RET rearranged NSCLC. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with KRAS/EGFR/ALK wildtype lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for RET fusions. Tumor specimens were molecularly profiled and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were collected. RESULTS: Rearrangements of RET were identified in 22 patients, with a prevalence of 2.2% in the KRAS/EGFR/ALK wildtype subgroup. Co-occurring genetic aberrations were detected in 10 patients, and the majority had mutations in TP53. The median age at diagnosis was 62 years (range, 39-80 years; mean ± SD, 61 ± 11.7 years) with a higher proportion of men (59% versus 41%). There was only a slight predominance of nonsmokers (54.5%) compared to current or former smokers (45.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RET rearranged adenocarcinomas represent a rare and heterogeneous NSCLC subgroup. In some contrast to published data, we see a high prevalence of current and former smokers in our white RET cohort. The significance of co-occurring aberrations, so far, is unclear.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Nurs Ethics ; 23(2): 176-90, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25488761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved techniques and life sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care unit have resulted in an increased probability of survival for extremely premature babies. The by-product of the aggressive treatment is iatrogenic pain, and this infliction of pain can be a cause of suffering and distress for both baby and nurse. RESEARCH QUESTION: The research sought to explore the caregiving dilemmas of neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies. This article aims to explore the issues arising for neonatal nurses when they inflict iatrogenic pain on the most vulnerable of human beings - babies ≤24 weeks gestation. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: Ethical processes and procedures set out by the ethics committee have been adhered to by the researchers. FINDINGS: A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'inflicting pain' comprised three sub-themes: 'when caring and torture are the same thing', 'why are we doing this!' and 'comfort for baby and nurse'. The results show that the neonatal nurses were passionate about the need for appropriate pain relief for extremely premature babies. CONCLUSION: The neonatal nurses experienced a profound sense of distress manifested as existential suffering when they inflicted pain on extremely premature babies. Inflicting pain rather than relieving it can leave the nurses questioning their role as compassionate healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doença Iatrogênica , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Austrália , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Enfermagem Neonatal/ética , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 193(1): 60-7, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26359952

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The lung clearance index is a measure of ventilation distribution derived from the multiple-breath washout technique. It has been suggested as a surrogate for chest computed tomography to detect structural lung abnormalities in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the associations between lung clearance index and early structural lung disease are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the ability of the lung clearance index to reflect structural lung disease on the basis of chest computed tomography across the entire pediatric age range. METHODS: Lung clearance index was assessed in 42 infants (ages 0-2 yr), 39 preschool children (ages 3-6 yr), and 38 school-age children (7-16 yr) with CF before chest computed tomography and in 72 healthy control subjects. Scans were evaluated for CF-related structural lung disease using the Perth-Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for Cystic Fibrosis quantitative outcome measure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In infants with CF, lung clearance index is insensitive to structural disease (κ = -0.03 [95% confidence interval, -0.05 to 0.16]). In preschool children with CF, lung clearance index correlates with total disease extent. In school-age children, lung clearance index correlates with extent of total disease, bronchiectasis, and air trapping. In preschool and school-age children, lung clearance index has a good positive predictive value (83-86%) but a poor negative predictive value (50-55%) to detect the presence of bronchiectasis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lung clearance index may be a useful surveillance tool to monitor structural lung disease in preschool and school-age children with CF. However, lung clearance index cannot replace chest computed tomography to screen for bronchiectasis in this population.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 140: 16-37, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26218332

RESUMO

The extent to which phonological, visual-spatial short-term memory (STM), and nonsymbolic quantitative skills support the development of counting and calculation skills was examined in this 14-month longitudinal study of 125 children. Initial assessments were made when the children were 4 years 8 months old. Phonological awareness, visual-spatial STM, and nonsymbolic approximate discrimination predicted growth in early calculation skills.These results suggest that both the approximate number system and domain-general phonological and visual-spatial skills support early calculation. In contrast, only performance on a small nonsymbolic quantity discrimination task (where the presented quantities were always within the subitizing range) predicted growth in cardinal counting skills. These results suggest that the development of counting and the development of calculation are supported by different cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Cognição , Matemática , Conscientização , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Análise de Regressão , Processamento Espacial
19.
J Clin Nurs ; 24(13-14): 1885-94, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25939675

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to explore the ways in which neonatal nurses understand the experience of parents who have experienced infertility, conceived a baby via in vitro fertilisation and delivered an extremely premature infant. The chance of a poor long-term outcome for the baby is significant; therefore, parental anguish plays out in the neonatal intensive care. BACKGROUND: Current literature suggests that infertility is a significant issue for ageing women and many couples experience multiple cycles of invitro-fertilisation (IVF) treatment to achieve a pregnancy. Babies conceived through IVF are more likely to have genetic disorders, and be born prematurely. When the baby is born through IVF and is also born extremely prematurely, it creates a crisis situation for the parents. This paper will focus on the parental anguish of achieving a pregnancy through IVF to see the baby born extremely prematurely (defined as ≤ 24-week gestation). It will examine parental anguish from caregiver perspective of the neonatal nurse who supports the parents through this very difficult time. DESIGN: This study used interviews with neonatal nurses, and drew insights from interpretative phenomenology. METHODS: This research used a combination of a questionnaire and a series of interviews in a qualitative study informed by phenomenology. The analysis of the interview data involved the creation of key themes following extensive coding of thematic statements and the analysis of the emerging themes. RESULTS: This paper outlines the neonatal nurses' understanding of parental anguish and overwhelming sadness in parents whose baby was conceived by IVF, and was also born extremely prematurely. The theme of 'seeking parenthood' was synthesised from two sub-themes - 'longing for a baby' and 'the desperation to become parents'. CONCLUSION: This study identified that neonatal nurses bear witness to parental anguish as their hopes of taking home a live baby might not be realised. The time, effort and money required to achieve a pregnancy does not mean that the baby will be spared the outcomes of extreme prematurity and the risk factors associated with IVF. The parents may be left empty handed. Therefore, the word precious becomes a metaphor for the IVF baby as the neonatal team try desperately to give the parents their much longed baby. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Delayed child bearing has an impact on fertility, with maternal age having the most impact on the ability to conceive. Babies conceived through IVF technologies have a higher risk of genetic abnormalities and being born prematurely, and this will impact on the neonatal intensive care availability. Extreme prematurity and IVF can significantly impact on the baby's outcome. Witnessing parental anguish can be a major source of stress for the neonatal nurses. Neonatal nurses need to develop strategies not only to help the parents but also to prevent the parents' overwhelming sadness from affecting their ability to function in the neonatal intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Enfermagem Neonatal , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0121874, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25837803

RESUMO

Notwithstanding that 'public engagement' is conceptualised differently internationally and in different academic disciplines, higher education institutions largely accept the importance of public engagement with research. However, there is limited evidence on how researchers conceptualise engagement, their views on what constitutes engagement and the communities they would (or would not) like to engage with. This paper presents the results of a survey of researchers in the Open University that sought to gather data to fill these gaps. This research was part of an action research project designed to embed engagement in the routine practices of researchers at all levels. The findings indicate that researchers have a relatively narrow view of public engagement with research and the communities with which they interact. It also identified that very few strategically evaluate their public engagement activities. We conclude by discussing some of the interventions we have introduced with the aim of broadening and deepening future researcher engagement.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Universidades , Humanos , Pesquisadores/ética , Reino Unido , Universidades/ética , Recursos Humanos
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