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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1624-1636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636452

RESUMO

Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 21213-21218, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575746

RESUMO

The gap between predicted brain age using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chronological age may serve as a biomarker for early-stage neurodegeneration. However, owing to the lack of large longitudinal studies, it has been challenging to validate this link. We aimed to investigate the utility of such a gap as a risk biomarker for incident dementia using a deep learning approach for predicting brain age based on MRI-derived gray matter (GM). We built a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to predict brain age trained on 3,688 dementia-free participants of the Rotterdam Study (mean age 66 ± 11 y, 55% women). Logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazards were used to assess the association of the age gap with incident dementia, adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume, GM volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensities, years of education, and APOE ε4 allele carriership. Additionally, we computed the attention maps, which shows which regions are important for age prediction. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models showed that the age gap was significantly related to incident dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11 and 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.05-1.16; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, and 95% CI = 1.06-1.15, respectively). Attention maps indicated that GM density around the amygdala and hippocampi primarily drove the age estimation. We showed that the gap between predicted and chronological brain age is a biomarker, complimentary to those that are known, associated with risk of dementia, and could possibly be used for early-stage dementia risk screening.

3.
Headache ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of migraine genetic variants with cerebral blood flow (CBF). BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common disorder with many genetic and non-genetic factors affecting its occurrence. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease remain unclear, but are known to involve hemodynamic and vascular disruptions. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 44 genetic variants in 38 genetic loci that affect the risk of migraine, which provide the opportunity to further disentangle these mechanisms. METHODS: We included 4665 participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age 65.0 ± 10.9 years, 55.6% women). Cross-sectional area (mm2 ), flow velocity (mm/s), and blood flow (mL/min) were measured in both carotids and the basilar artery using 2-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed 43 previously identified migraine variants separately and calculated a genetic risk score (GRS). To assess the association with CBF, we used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and total brain volume. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on the associations with CBF measures and tissue enrichment. RESULTS: The rs67338227 risk allele was associated with higher flow velocity and smaller cross-sectional area in the carotids (Pminimum  = 3.7 × 10-8 ). Other variants were related to CBF with opposite directions of effect, but not significantly after multiple testing adjustments (P < 1.4 × 10-4 ). The migraine GRS was not associated with CBF after multiple testing corrections. Migraine risk variants were found to be enriched for flow in the basilar artery (λ = 2.39). CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that genetic migraine risk is complexly associated with alterations in cerebral hemodynamics.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(1): 141-152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognized that the complex functions of human cognition are not accurately represented by arbitrarily-defined anatomical brain regions. Given the considerable functional specialization within such regions, more fine-grained studies of brain structure could capture such localized associations. However, such analyses/studies in a large community-dwelling population are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To perform a fine-mapping of cognitive ability to cortical and subcortical grey matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: In 3,813 stroke-free and non-demented persons from the Rotterdam Study (mean age 69.1 (±8.8) years; 55.8% women) with cognitive assessments and brain MRI, we performed voxel-based morphometry and subcortical shape analysis on global cognition and separate tests that tapped into memory, information processing speed, fine motor speed, and executive function domains. RESULTS: We found that the different cognitive tests significantly associated with grey matter density in differential but also overlapping brain regions, primarily in the left hemisphere. Clusters of significantly associated voxels with global cognition were located within multiple anatomic regions: left amygdala, hippocampus, parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, insula and posterior temporal lobe. Subcortical shape analysis revealed associations primarily within the head and tail of the caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral part of the thalamus, and nucleus accumbens, more equally distributed among the left and right hemisphere. Within the caudate nucleus both positive (head) as well as negative (tail) associations were observed with global cognition. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population-based sample, we mapped cognitive performance to cortical and subcortical grey matter density using a hypothesis-free approach with high-dimensional neuroimaging. Leveraging the power of our large sample size, we confirmed well-known associations as well as identified novel brain regions related to cognition.

7.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240317

RESUMO

Exposures to life stressors accumulate across the lifespan, with possible impact on brain health. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms mediating age-related changes in brain structure. We use a lifespan sample of participants (n = 21 251; 4-97 years) to investigate the relationship between the thickness of cerebral cortex and the expression of the glucocorticoid- and the mineralocorticoid-receptor genes (NR3C1 and NR3C2, respectively), obtained from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. In all participants, cortical thickness correlated negatively with the expression of both NR3C1 and NR3C2 across 34 cortical regions. The magnitude of this correlation varied across the lifespan. From childhood through early adulthood, the profile similarity (between NR3C1/NR3C2 expression and thickness) increased with age. Conversely, both profile similarities decreased with age in late life. These variations do not reflect age-related changes in NR3C1 and NR3C2 expression, as observed in 5 databases of gene expression in the human cerebral cortex (502 donors). Based on the co-expression of NR3C1 (and NR3C2) with genes specific to neural cell types, we determine the potential involvement of microglia, astrocytes, and CA1 pyramidal cells in mediating the relationship between corticosteroid exposure and cortical thickness. Therefore, corticosteroids may influence brain structure to a variable degree throughout life.

8.
Nature ; 569(7756): 336, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089227
9.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 16(5): 1508-1514, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135366

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) link full genome data to a handful of traits. However, in neuroimaging studies, there is an almost unlimited number of traits that can be extracted for full image-wide big data analyses. Large populations are needed to achieve the necessary power to detect statistically significant effects, emphasizing the need to pool data across multiple studies. Neuroimaging consortia, e.g., ENIGMA and CHARGE, are now analyzing MRI data from over 30,000 individuals. Distributed processing protocols extract harmonized features at each site, and pool together only the cohort statistics using meta analysis to avoid data sharing. To date, such MRI projects have focused on single measures such as hippocampal volume, yet voxelwise analyses (e.g., tensor-based morphometry; TBM) may help better localize statistical effects. This can lead to $10^{13}$1013 tests for GWAS and become underpowered. We developed an analytical framework for multi-site TBM by performing multi-channel registration to cohort-specific templates. Our results highlight the reliability of the method and the added power over alternative options while preserving single site specificity and opening the doors for well-powered image-wide genome-wide discoveries.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(5): 1440-1456, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830859

RESUMO

Cognition in adults shows variation due to developmental and degenerative components. A recent genome-wide association study identified genetic variants for general cognitive function in 148 independent loci. Here, we aimed to elucidate possible developmental and neurodegenerative pathways underlying these genetic variants by relating them to functional, clinical and neuroimaging outcomes. This study was conducted within the population-based Rotterdam Study (N=11,496, mean age 65.3±9.9 years, 58.0% female). We used lead variants for general cognitive function to construct a polygenic score (PGS), and additionally excluded developmental variants at multiple significance thresholds. A higher PGS was related to more years of education (ß=0.29, p=4.3x10-7) and a larger intracranial volume (ß=0.05, p=7.5x10-4). To a smaller extent, the PGS was associated with less cognitive decline (ßΔG-factor=0.03, p=1.3x10-3), which became non-significant after adjusting for education (p=1.6x10-2). No associations were found with daily functioning, dementia, parkinsonism, stroke or microstructural white matter integrity. Excluding developmental variants attenuated nearly all associations. In conclusion, this study suggests that the genetic variants identified for general cognitive function are acting mainly through the developmental pathway of cognition. Therefore, cognition, assessed cross-sectionally, seems to have limited value as a biomarker for neurodegeneration.

11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(4): 1535-1547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909233

RESUMO

Pre-synaptic secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from noradrenergic neurons may protect the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain from amyloid pathology. While the BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) is associated with faster cognitive decline and increased hippocampal atrophy, a replicable genetic association of BDNF with AD risk has yet to be demonstrated. This could be due to masking by underlying epistatic interactions between BDNF and other loci that encode proteins involved in moderating BDNF secretion (DBH and Sortilin). We performed a multi-cohort case-control association study of the BDNF, DBH, and SORT1 loci comprising 5,682 controls and 2,454 AD patients from Northern Europe (87% of samples) and Spain (13%). The BDNF locus was associated with increased AD risk (odds ratios; OR = 1.1-1.2, p = 0.005-0.3), an effect size that was consistent in the Northern European (OR = 1.1-1.2, p = 0.002-0.8) but not the smaller Spanish (OR = 0.8-1.6, p = 0.4-1.0) subset. A synergistic interaction between BDNF and sex (synergy factor; SF = 1.3-1.5 p = 0.002-0.02) translated to a greater risk of AD associated with BDNF in women (OR = 1.2-1.3, p = 0.007-0.00008) than men (OR = 0.9-1.0, p = 0.3-0.6). While the DBH polymorphism (rs1611115) was also associated with increased AD risk (OR = 1.1, p = 0.04) the synergistic interaction (SF = 2.2, p = 0.007) between BDNF (rs6265) and DBH (rs1611115) contributed greater AD risk than either gene alone, an effect that was greater in women (SF = 2.4, p = 0.04) than men (SF = 2.0, p = 0.2). These data support a complex genetic interaction at loci encoding proteins implicated in the DBH-BDNF inflammatory pathway that modifies AD risk, particularly in women.

12.
Neurology ; 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. RESULTS: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits (p value for BI, p [BI] = 9.38 × 10-25; p [SSBI] = 5.23 × 10-14 for hypertension), smoking (p [BI] = 4.4 × 10-10; p [SSBI] = 1.2 × 10-4), diabetes (p [BI] = 1.7 × 10-8; p [SSBI] = 2.8 × 10-3), previous cardiovascular disease (p [BI] = 1.0 × 10-18; p [SSBI] = 2.3 × 10-7), stroke (p [BI] = 3.9 × 10-69; p [SSBI] = 3.2 × 10-24), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden (p [BI] = 1.43 × 10-157; p [SSBI] = 3.16 × 10-106), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI (p ≤ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI.

13.
Neurology ; 91(9): e832-e842, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of enlarged perivascular spaces (ePVS) with cognition in elderly without dementia. METHODS: We included 5 studies from the Uniform Neuro-Imaging of Virchow-Robin Space Enlargement (UNIVRSE) consortium, namely the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study, Study of Health in Pomerania, Rotterdam Study, Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study, and Risk Index for Subclinical Brain Lesions in Hong Kong study. ePVS were counted in 4 regions (mesencephalon, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and centrum semiovale) with harmonized rating across studies. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and general fluid cognitive ability factor (G-factor) were used to assess cognitive function. For each study, a linear regression model was performed to estimate the effect of ePVS on MMSE and G-factor. Estimates were pooled across studies with the use of inverse variance meta-analysis with fixed- or random-effect models when appropriate. RESULTS: The final sample size consisted of 3,575 persons (age range 63.4-73.2 years, 50.6% women). Total ePVS counts were not significantly associated with MMSE score (mean difference per ePVS score increase 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.007 to 0.008, p = 0.885) or G-factor (mean difference per ePVS score increase 0.002, 95% CI -0.001 to 0.006, p = 0.148) in age-, sex-, and education-adjusted models. Adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers did not change the results. Repeating the analyses with region-specific ePVS rendered similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that ePVS counts were not associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general population. Future studies with longitudinal designs are warranted to examine whether ePVS contribute to cognitive decline.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049742

RESUMO

Although several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated the genetics of pulmonary ventilatory function, little is known about the genetic factors that influence gas exchange. The aim of the study was to investigate the heritability of, and genetic variants associated with the diffusing capacity of the lung.GWAS was performed on diffusing capacity of the lung measured by carbon monoxide uptake (DLCO) and per alveolar volume (VA) using the single-breath technique, in 8372 individuals from two population-based cohort studies, the Rotterdam Study and the Framingham Heart Study. Heritability was estimated in related (n=6246) and unrelated (n=3286) individuals.Heritability of DLCO and DLCO/VA ranged between 23% and 28% in unrelated individuals and between 45% and 49% in related individuals. Meta-analysis identified a genetic variant in ADGRG6 that is significantly associated with DLCO/VA Gene expression analysis of ADGRG6 in human lung tissue revealed a decreased expression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and subjects with decreased DLCO/VADLCO and DLCO/VA are heritable traits, with a considerable proportion of variance explained by genetics. A functional variant in ADGRG6 gene region was significantly associated with DLCO/VA Pulmonary ADGRG6 expression was decreased in patients with COPD.

16.
Stroke ; 49(8): 1812-1819, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002152

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain magnetic resonance imaging are typical signs of cerebral small vessel disease and may indicate various preclinical, age-related neurological disorders, such as stroke. Though WMH are highly heritable, known common variants explain a small proportion of the WMH variance. The contribution of low-frequency/rare coding variants to WMH burden has not been explored. Methods- In the discovery sample we recruited 20 719 stroke/dementia-free adults from 13 population-based cohort studies within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, among which 17 790 were of European ancestry and 2929 of African ancestry. We genotyped these participants at ≈250 000 mostly exonic variants with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip arrays. We performed ethnicity-specific linear regression on rank-normalized WMH in each study separately, which were then combined in meta-analyses to test for association with single variants and genes aggregating the effects of putatively functional low-frequency/rare variants. We then sought replication of the top findings in 1192 adults (European ancestry) with whole exome/genome sequencing data from 2 independent studies. Results- At 17q25, we confirmed the association of multiple common variants in TRIM65, FBF1, and ACOX1 ( P<6×10-7). We also identified a novel association with 2 low-frequency nonsynonymous variants in MRPL38 (lead, rs34136221; PEA=4.5×10-8) partially independent of known common signal ( PEA(conditional)=1.4×10-3). We further identified a locus at 2q33 containing common variants in NBEAL1, CARF, and WDR12 (lead, rs2351524; Pall=1.9×10-10). Although our novel findings were not replicated because of limited power and possible differences in study design, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication samples yielded stronger association for the 2 low-frequency MRPL38 variants ( Prs34136221=2.8×10-8). Conclusions- Both common and low-frequency/rare functional variants influence WMH. Larger replication and experimental follow-up are essential to confirm our findings and uncover the biological causal mechanisms of age-related WMH.

17.
Neuroimage ; 178: 129-135, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hippocampal volume has been consistently linked to cognitive function and dementia. Yet, given its complex and parcellated internal structure, the role of subregions of the hippocampus in cognition and risk of dementia remains relatively underexplored. We studied subregions of the hippocampus in a large population-based cohort to further understand their role in cognitive impairment and dementia risk. METHODS: We studied 5035 dementia- and stroke-free persons from the Rotterdam Study, aged over 45 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) between 2005 and 2015. Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus and 12 of its subregions was performed using the FreeSurfer software (version 6.0). A cognitive test battery was performed, and participants were followed up for the development of dementia until 2015. Associations of hippocampal subregion volumes with cognition and incident dementia were examined using linear and Cox regression models, respectively. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, and total hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Mean age was 64.3 years (SD 10.6) with 56% women. Smaller volumes of the hippocampal fimbria, presubiculum and subiculum showed the strongest associations with poor performance on several cognitive domains, including executive function but not memory. During a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, 76 persons developed dementia. Smaller subiculum volume was associated with risk of dementia adjusted for total volume (hazard ratio per SD decrease in volume: 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.35; 2.26). CONCLUSIONS: In a community-dwelling non-demented population, we describe patterns of association between hippocampal subregions with cognition and risk of dementia. Specifically, the subiculum was associated with both poorer cognition and higher risk of dementia.

18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(s1): S145-S159, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843240

RESUMO

The most commonly encountered opening sentence in scientific publications about dementia undoubtedly relates to the overwhelming burden of disease. Finding an effective preventive or therapeutic intervention against dementia has been considered the most important unmet need in contemporary medicine. While efforts on tackling this devastating disease have increased exponentially, it is difficult to imagine that in the 1980s and early-1990s, the disease did not feature prominently on any public health report. Yet, it was already then that epidemiologists recognized the growing societal burden of dementia and rationalized that dementia is not necessarily part of aging. Indeed, the conviction that dementia is pathologically distinct from aging led to various efforts in search of unravelling its risk factors and understanding its pre-clinical phase. Among the early pioneers, the population-based Rotterdam Study was initiated in 1990 clearly aiming on chronic diseases including dementia, and among this Alzheimer's disease, as one of its focus points. Ever since, the Rotterdam Study has been an important cornerstone in increasing our knowledge about dementia from an epidemiological perspective. Here, we summarize the main findings originating from this study, and put these into perspective with previous and current work in the field. With an expanding scope of the Rotterdam Study over the years, we discuss findings on occurrence, modifiable risk factors, imaging, and its genetic underpinnings. Importantly, we conclude with recommendations- or, perhaps better stated, a wish list- for future research which may help us reach our finish line: finding an effective preventive or therapeutic intervention against dementia.

19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(7): 848-857, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exploring the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) implicated pathways in the predementia phase may provide new insight for preventive and clinical trials targeting disease specific pathways. METHODS: We constructed weighted Genetic risk scores, first based on 20 genome-wide significant AD risk variants and second clustering these variants within pathways. Risk scores were investigated for their association with AD, mild cognitive impairment, and brain magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes including white matter lesions, hippocampal volume, and brain volume. RESULTS: The risk score capturing endocytosis pathway was significantly associated with mild cognitive impairment (P = 1.44 × 10-4). Immune response (P = .016) and clathrin/AP2 adaptor complex pathway (P = 3.55 × 10-3) excluding apolipoprotein E also showed modest association with white matter lesions but did not sustain Bonferroni correction (P = 9.09 × 10-4). DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that the clinical spectrum of early AD pathology is explained by different biological pathways, in particular, the endocytosis, clathrin/AP2 adaptor complex, and immune response pathways, that are independent of apolipoprotein E (APOE).

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 524-537, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531354

RESUMO

Stroke has multiple etiologies, but the underlying genes and pathways are largely unknown. We conducted a multiancestry genome-wide-association meta-analysis in 521,612 individuals (67,162 cases and 454,450 controls) and discovered 22 new stroke risk loci, bringing the total to 32. We further found shared genetic variation with related vascular traits, including blood pressure, cardiac traits, and venous thromboembolism, at individual loci (n = 18), and using genetic risk scores and linkage-disequilibrium-score regression. Several loci exhibited distinct association and pleiotropy patterns for etiological stroke subtypes. Eleven new susceptibility loci indicate mechanisms not previously implicated in stroke pathophysiology, with prioritization of risk variants and genes accomplished through bioinformatics analyses using extensive functional datasets. Stroke risk loci were significantly enriched in drug targets for antithrombotic therapy.

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