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1.
Nutr Health ; : 260106020916972, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thirst is a sensation normally aroused by a lack of water and associated with a desire to drink more fluid. AIM: The aims of this brief review are twofold: (a) to summarize the thirst mechanism in how it is initiated and diminished, and (b) to describe techniques to assess human thirst accurately in a variety of situations. DISCUSSION: Thirst is maintained via a feedback-controlled mechanism, regulated by central and peripheral factors, as well as social and psychological cues. Most studies of thirst have focused on the initiation of water intake and the neural mechanisms responsible for this vital behavior. Less attention has been paid to the stimuli and mechanisms that terminate a bout of drinking and limit fluid ingestion, such as oropharyngeal and gastric signals, coupled with osmotic sensations. Thirst perception is typically assessed by subjective ratings using a variety of questionnaires, rankings, or visual analog scales. However, the appropriate perceptual tool may not always be used for the correct assessment of thirst perception. CONCLUSIONS: In considering the many factors involved in thirst arousal and inhibition, similar questions need to be considered for the correct assessment of this ingestive behavior.

2.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(5): 683-686, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329074

RESUMO

Background: Proper hydration is vital for both exercise and general health. Although various methods for hydration assessment exist, many are not valid for either use or never tested. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the uChek© smart phone application can be used to diagnose underhydration based on elevated urine specific gravity (USG) assessed by refractometry. Methods: One hundred forty-seven (n = 147) fresh human urine samples from young and middle-age adults were analyzed for USG with a refractometer and the uChek© application by reading the Siemens Multistix 10G urine reagent strip. Results: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the two methods of assessment. Overall diagnostic ability of the uChek© to identify underhydration was fair (area under the curve 79%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify underhydration was poor (60%) as well as the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration (53%). Conclusion: The uChek© application does not accurately detect underhydration.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1344-1352, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in humans show increased concentrations of copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP), to be associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute and independent effect of osmotically stimulated AVP, measured via the surrogate marker copeptin, on glucose regulation in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty subjects (30 females) participated in this crossover design study. On 2 trial days, separated by ≥7 d (males) or 1 menstrual cycle (females), subjects were infused for 120 min with either 0.9% NaCl [isotonic (ISO)] or 3.0% NaCl [hypertonic (HYPER)]. Postinfusion, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g) was administered. RESULTS: During HYPER, plasma osmolality and copeptin increased (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during the entire 6-h protocol, whereas renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hormones were within the lower normal physiological range at the beginning of the protocol and declined following infusion. Fasting plasma glucose did not differ between trials (P > 0.05) at baseline and during the 120 min of infusion. During the OGTT the incremental AUC for glucose from postinfusion baseline (positive integer) was greater during HYPER (401.5 ± 190.5 mmol/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (354.0 ± 205.8 mmol/L·min; P < 0.05). The positive integer of the AUC for insulin during OGTT did not differ between trials (HYPER 55,850 ± 36,488 pmol/L·min compared with ISO 57,205 ± 31,119 pmol/L·min). Baseline values of serum glucagon were not different between the 2 trials; however, the AUC of glucagon during the OGTT was also significantly greater in HYPER (19,303 ± 3939 ng/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (18,600 ± 3755 ng/L·min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that acute osmotic stimulation of copeptin induced greater hyperglycemic responses during the oral glucose challenge, possibly due to greater glucagon concentrations.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02761434.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Plasma/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381592

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of storage temperature, duration, and storage vessel seal on 24 h urinary hydration markers. Twenty-one males (n = 8) and females (n = 13) (mean±SD; age, 24±5 y; body mass, 68.9±24.2 kg; height, 160.2±32.1 cm) without a history of renal disease or currently taking any medications or supplements known to affect the accuracy of urinary hydration markers were enrolled in this study. Participants provided a 24 h urine sample in a clean container with each urine sample being separate into four separate containers, two in each of the following temperatures: 7°C and 22°C. One specimen container at each temperature was either sealed using the manufacturers cap (single sealed) or the manufacturers cap plus laboratory wrapping film (double sealed). Each sample was analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10 days. Urine samples were assessed for urine osmolality (UOSMO), urine specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCOL). UOSMO was stable at 7°C for two days (mean difference [95% CI]; +1 mmol·kg-1 [0+3], p>0.05) and three days (+1 mmol·kg-1 [0, +3], p>0.05) for single sealed and double sealed containers, respectively. USG measures were stable for singled sealed and double sealed for up to ten days when stored at 22°C. UCOL measures were maintained for up to three days in all storage methods (p>0.05). In conclusion, if immediate analysis is unavailable, such as in the case of field based or longitudinal research, it is recommended that 24 h urine samples are stored in a refrigerated environment and hydration markers (UOSMO and UCOL) be assessed within 48 h.


Assuntos
Desidratação/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Temperatura , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(5): 686-695, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659665

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of mild hypohydration on exercise performance with subjects blinded to their hydration status. Eleven male cyclists (weight 75.8 ± 6.4 kg, VO2peak : 64.9 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min, body fat: 12.0 ± 5.8%, Powermax : 409 ± 40 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, consisting of 20-minute steady-state cycling (50% peak power output), each followed by a 5-km time trial at 3% grade. Following a familiarization trial, subjects completed the experimental trials, in counter-balanced fashion, on two separate occasions in dry heat (30°C, 30% rh) either hypohydrated (HYP) or euhydrated (EUH). In both trials, subjects ingested 25 mL of water every 5 minutes during the steady-state and every 1 km of the 5-km time trials. In the EUH trial, sweat losses were fully replaced via intravenous infusion of isotonic saline, while in the HYP trial, a sham IV was instrumented. Following the exercise protocol, the subjects' bodyweight was changed by -0.1 ± 0.1% and -1.8 ± 0.2% for the EUH and HYP trial, respectively (P < 0.05). During the second and third time trials, subjects averaged higher power output (309 ± 5 and 306 ± 5 W) and faster cycling speed (27.5 ± 3.0 and 27.2 ± 3.1 km/h) in the EUH trial compared to the HYP trial (Power: 287 ± 4 and 276 ± 5 W, Speed: 26.2 ± 2.9 and 25.5 ± 3.3 km/h, all P < 0.05). Core temperature (Tre ) was higher in the HYP trial throughout the third steady-state and 5-km time trial (P < 0.05). These data suggest that mild hypohydration, even when subjects were unaware of their hydration state, impaired cycle ergometry performance in the heat probably due to greater thermoregulatory strain.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Peso Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Ergometria , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção , Gravidade Específica , Sudorese , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): 506-508, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic ability of urine reagent strips to identify hypohydration based on urine specific gravity (USG). DESIGN: This study examined the agreement of USG between strips and refractometry with Bland-Altman, whereas the diagnostic ability of the strips to assess hypohydration was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. SETTING: Arkansas high school football preseason practice. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fourteen fresh urine samples were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine specific gravity was assessed by both reagent strips and refractometry. Cutoffs of >1.020 and >1.025 were used for identifying hypohydration. RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the 2 methods. Overall diagnostic ability of the urine strip to identify hypohydration was fair (area under the curve 72%-78%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify hypohydration was poor (63%-71%), and the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration was poor to fair (68%-83%). CONCLUSION: The urine strip method is not valid for assessing hypohydration.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Fitas Reagentes/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Refratometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravidade Específica , Luta Romana/fisiologia
7.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(1): 135-145, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591957

RESUMO

Context: In subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT), glucose concentrations >155 mg/dL 1 hour after 75 g of oral glucose predict increased risk of progression to diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that the mechanism underlying this abnormality is increased gut absorption of glucose. Objective: We sought to determine the rate of systemic appearance of meal-derived glucose in subjects classified by their 1-hour glucose after a 75-g oral glucose challenge. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Participating subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose challenge and a labeled mixed meal test. Setting: An inpatient clinical research unit at an academic medical center. Participants: Thirty-six subjects with NFG/NGT participated in this study. Interventions: Subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Subsequently, they underwent a labeled mixed meal to measure fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism. Main Outcome Measures: We examined ß-cell function and the rate of meal appearance (Meal R a) in NFG/NGT subjects. Subsequently, we examined the relationship of peak postchallenge glucose with Meal R a and indices of ß-cell function. Results: Peak glucose concentrations correlated inversely with ß-cell function. No relationship of Meal R a with peak postchallenge glucose concentrations was observed. Conclusion: In subjects with NFG/NGT, elevated 1-hour peak postchallenge glucose concentrations reflect impaired ß-cell function rather than increased systemic meal appearance.

8.
Cell Rep ; 24(2): 312-319, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996093

RESUMO

The common genetic variation at rs8004664 in the FOXN3 gene is independently and significantly associated with fasting blood glucose, but not insulin, in non-diabetic humans. Recently, we reported that primary hepatocytes from rs8004664 hyperglycemia risk allele carriers have increased FOXN3 transcript and protein levels and liver-limited overexpression of human FOXN3, a transcriptional repressor that had not been implicated in metabolic regulation previously, increases fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Here, we find that injection of glucagon into mice and adult zebrafish decreases liver Foxn3 protein and transcript levels. Zebrafish foxn3 loss-of-function mutants have decreased fasting blood glucose, blood glucagon, liver gluconeogenic gene expression, and α cell mass. Conversely, liver-limited overexpression of foxn3 increases α cell mass. Supporting these genetic findings in model organisms, non-diabetic rs8004664 risk allele carriers have decreased suppression of glucagon during oral glucose tolerance testing. By reciprocally regulating each other, liver FOXN3 and glucagon control fasting glucose.


Assuntos
Jejum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicemia/metabolismo , Criança , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gluconeogênese/genética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/genética
9.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 16(8): 383-389, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993315

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia occurring as a result of impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Among the various genetic factors associated with T2DM, a common genetic variant within the transcription factor 7-like 2 locus (TCF7L2) confers the greatest genetic risk for development of the disease. However, the mechanism(s) by which TCF7L2 predisposes to diabetes remain uncertain. Here we review the current literature pertaining to the potential mechanisms by which TCF7L2 confers risk of T2DM, using genetic variation as a probe to understand the pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(8): 1697-1703, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (weight, 72 ± 9 kg; body fat, 14% ± 6%; peak oxygen uptake, 59.4 ± 6 mL·kg·min) exercised for 2 h on a cycle ergometer at 55% peak oxygen uptake, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity), with a nasogastric tube under euhydrated-non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated-non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL of water every 5 min (300 mL·h). In the EUH-NT trial, sweat losses were fully replaced by water via the nasogastric tube (calculated from the familiarization trial). After the 2 h of steady state, the subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial at 4% grade. RESULTS: Body mass loss for the EUH-NT and DEH-NT after the 2 h was -0.2% ± 0.6% and -2.2% ± 0.4%, whereas after the 5-km time trial, it was -0.7% ± 0.5% and 2.9% ± 0.4%, respectively. Thirst (35 ± 30 vs 42 ± 31 mm) and stomach fullness (46 ± 21 vs 35 ± 20 mm) did not differ at the end of the 2 h of steady state between EUH-NT and DEH-NT trials (P > 0.05). Subjects cycled faster during the 5-km time trial in the EUH-NT trial compared with the DEH-NT trial (23.2 ± 1.5 vs 22.3 ± 1.8 km·h, P < 0.05), by producing higher-power output (295 ± 29 vs 276 ± 29 W, P < 0.05). During the 5-km time trial, core temperature was higher in the DEH-NT trial (39.2°C ± 0.7°C) compared with the EUH-NT trial (38.8°C ± 0.2°C; P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that hypohydration decreased cycling performance and impaired thermoregulation independently of thirst, while the subjects were unaware of their hydration status.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sede , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Percepção , Método Simples-Cego
11.
J Sport Rehabil ; 27(5): 413-418, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605224

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat. DESIGN: Two randomized crossover trials that consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test and 1500-m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1. SETTING: Outdoors in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature: 31.5°C [1.8°C] and relative humidity: 59.0% [5.6%]). PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) individuals (aged 20-27 y). INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was performed with HEK and without HEK (control, CON) modality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, thirst sensation, and muscle pain. RESULTS: Maximum gastrointestinal temperature following exercise and performance was not different between trials (P > .05). Cooling rate was faster during T1 CON (0.053°C/min [0.049°C/min]) compared with HEK (0.043°C/min [0.032°C/min]; P = .01). Mean skin temperature was lower in HEK during T1 (P < .001) and T2 (P = .05). T2 thirst was lower in CON (P = .02). Muscle pain was lower in HEK in T2 (P = .03). Performance was not altered (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: HEK improved perception but did not enhance cooling or performance following exercise in the heat. HEK is therefore not recommended to facilitate recovery, treat hyperthermia, or improve performance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Cutânea , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
13.
Front Nutr ; 4: 40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, via coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest. METHODS: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89.5 ± 14.8 kg, height: 1.75 ± 0.08 m, and body mass index: 29.1 ± 4.4 kg m-2) ingested 200 mL of water (W), coffee with low caffeine (3 mg kg-1, LCAF), or coffee with high caffeine (6 mg kg-1, HCAF) on three respective separate occasions. All sessions were performed at 09:00 in the morning in a counterbalanced, crossover manner, at least 5 days apart. Subjects remained in the laboratory while urine samples were collected every 60 min for 3 h post ingestion. RESULTS: Absolute caffeine consumption was 269 ± 45 and 537 ± 89 mg for the LCAF and HCAF, respectively. Coffee ingestion at the HCAF trial induced greater diuresis during the 3-h period (613 ± 101 mL, P < 0.05), when compared to W (356 ± 53 mL) and LCAF (316 ± 38 mL). In addition, cumulative urinary osmotic excretion was significantly greater in the HCAF (425 ± 92 mmol, P < 0.05), as compared to the W (249 ± 36 mmol) and LCAF (177 ± 16 mmol) trials. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that caffeine intake of 6 mg kg-1 in the form of coffee can induce an acute diuretic effect, while 3 mg kg-1 do not disturb fluid balance in healthy casual coffee drinking adults at rest.

14.
Mil Med ; 182(9): e1951-e1957, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The procedure of wrapping a heat casualty in ice-water soaked bed sheets to reduce core temperature has received little investigation, despite the practice and recommendation for its use in some military settings. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cooling efficacy of ice-sheet cooling (ISC) following exertional hyperthermia. METHODS: 13 (11 males, 2 females) participants (age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 176.5 ± 10.3 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 15.3 kg, body fat = 19.6 ± 8.6%, and body surface area = 1.95 ± 0.22 m2) volunteered to complete 2 randomized, crossover design trials on an outdoor recreation field (34.4 ± 1.4°C, 54.4 ± 4.1% relative humidity). Each trial consisted of exercise (self-paced 400-m warm-up, 1,609-m run, and 100-m sprints) followed by 15 minutes of either lying supine in the shade with no treatment (control [CON]) or being treated with ice-water soaked sheets wrapped around their body (ISC). Physiological (rectal temperature [Tre], heart rate, mean-weighted skin temperature) and perceptual measures (thermal sensation, rating of perceived exertion) were assessed after each exercise protocol, every 3 minutes during treatment, and every 5 minutes during recovery. FINDINGS: By design, there were no differences during exercise between ISC and CON for Tre (p = 0.16), skin temperature (p = 0.52), heart rate (p = 0.62), thermal sensation (p = 0.89), or rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.99). There were greater decreases in Tre at 3 (ISC 0.33 ± 0.26°C vs. CON 0.03 ± 0.30°C, p = 0.01) and 6 minutes (ISC 0.47 ± 0.27°C vs. CON 0.30 ± 0.19°C, p = 0.05) of treatment; however, the overall rate of cooling was not different between trials (CON 0.05 ± 0.02°C/min vs. ISC 0.06 ± 0.02°C/min, p = 0.72). Skin temperature (Tsk) was significantly reduced from 3 minutes (ISC 34.4 ± 1.7°C vs. CON 36.6 ± 0.5°C, p = 0.007) through 15 minutes (ISC 32.4 ± 1.5 vs. CON 36.1 ± 0.4°C, p < 0.001) of treatment. There was a trend for lower heart rate with ISC (p = 0.051). Thermal sensation was reduced from 3 minutes of treatment (ISC 3.5 ± 0.9 vs. CON 4.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.002) through 15 minutes (ISC 2.8 ± 1.0 vs. CON 3.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.005). DISCUSSION: ISC does not provide effective reduction in Tre following exertional hyperthermia compared to no treatment. However, perceptual benefits may warrant the use of ISC in settings where rapid reductions in core temperature are not a concern (i.e., recovery from exercise). Thus, clinicians should continue to utilize validated techniques (i.e., cold-water immersion) for the treatment of exertional heat illnesses.


Assuntos
Febre/terapia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/normas , Esforço Físico , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Camada de Gelo , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Gravidade Específica
15.
Nutr Res ; 43: 25-32, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739050

RESUMO

Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg-2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of -1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L-1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L-1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P < .001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP -12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L-1, P = .390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (-85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L-1) vs HYP (-25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L-1; P = .017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Concentração Osmolar , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(7): 1494, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622202
17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(6): 1244-1251, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079705

RESUMO

Drinking ad libitum during exercise often leads to dehydration ranging from -1% to -3% of body weight. PURPOSE: This article aimed to study the effect of a prescribed hydration protocol matching fluid losses on a simulated 30-km criterium-like cycling performance in the heat (31.6°C ± 0.5°C). METHODS: Ten elite heat-acclimatized male endurance cyclists (30 ± 5 yr, 76.5 ± 7.2 kg, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, V˙O2peak = 61.3 ± 5.2 mL·min·kg, body fat = 10.5% ± 3.3%, Powermax = 392 ± 33 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, which consisted of a 5-km cycling at 50% power max followed by a 5-km cycling all out at 3% grade (total 30 km). Participants rode the course on two separate occasions and in a counterbalanced order, during either ad libitum drinking (AD; drink water as much as they wished) or prescribed drinking (PD; drink water every 1 km to much fluid losses). To design the fluid intake during PD, participants performed a familiarization trial to calculate fluid losses. RESULTS: After the exercise protocol, the cyclist dehydrated by -0.5% ± 0.3% and -1.8% ± 0.7% of their body weight for the PD and AD trial, respectively. The mean cycling speed for the third bout of the 5-km hill cycling was greater in the PD trial (30.2 ± 2.4 km·h) compared with the AD trial (28.8 ± 2.6 km·h) by 5.1% ± 4.8% (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures immediately after the last hill climbing were greater in the AD compared with the PD trial (P < 0.05). Overall, sweat sensitivity during the three climbing bouts was lower in the AD (15.6 ± 5.7 g·W·m) compared with the PD trial (22.8 ± 3.4 g·W·m, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The data suggested that PD to match fluid losses during exercise in the heat provided a performance advantage because of lower thermoregulatory strain and greater sweating responses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Temperatura Alta , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Sudorese , Sede/fisiologia
18.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 27(1): 18-24, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616716

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22 °C, 7 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). UOsm was stable at 22 °C, for 1 day (+5-9 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05) and at 7 °C, UOsm up to 7 days (+8-8 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05). At -20 and -80 °C, UOsm decreased after 1, 2, and 7 days (9-61 mmol∙kg-1, p < .05). Vortexing the sample before analysis further decreased only UOsm in the -20 °C and -80 °C storage. USG remained stable up to 7 days when samples were stored in 22 °C or 7 °C (p > .05) but declined significantly when stored in -20 °C, and -80 °C (p < .001). UC was not stable in any of the storing conditions for 1, 2, and 7 days. In conclusion, these data indicate that urine specimens analyzed for UOsm or USG remained stable in refrigerated (7 °C) environment for up to 7 days, and in room temperature for 1 day. However, freezing (-20 and -80 °C) samples significantly decreased the values of hydration markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Desidratação/urina , Manejo de Espécimes , Urinálise , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Análise de Regressão , Gravidade Específica , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27517958

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Desjejum , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Termogênese , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/etnologia , Adulto , Regulação do Apetite/etnologia , Arkansas , Desjejum/etnologia , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , Dieta Saudável , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Oxirredução , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Athl Train ; 51(3): 252-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942657

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Exercise conducted in hot, humid environments increases the risk for exertional heat stroke (EHS). The current recommended treatment of EHS is cold-water immersion; however, limitations may require the use of alternative resources such as a cold shower (CS) or dousing with a hose to cool EHS patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cooling effectiveness of a CS after exercise-induced hyperthermia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover controlled study. SETTING: Environmental chamber (temperature = 33.4°C ± 2.1°C; relative humidity = 27.1% ± 1.4%). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants (10 male, 7 female; height = 1.75 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 70.4 ± 8.7 kg, body surface area = 1.85 ± 0.13 m(2), age range = 19-35 years) volunteered. INTERVENTION(S): On 2 occasions, participants completed matched-intensity volitional exercise on an ergometer or treadmill to elevate rectal temperature to ≥39°C or until participant fatigue prevented continuation (reaching at least 38.5°C). They were then either treated with a CS (20.8°C ± 0.80°C) or seated in the chamber (control [CON] condition) for 15 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Rectal temperature, calculated cooling rate, heart rate, and perceptual measures (thermal sensation and perceived muscle pain). RESULTS: The rectal temperature (P = .98), heart rate (P = .85), thermal sensation (P = .69), and muscle pain (P = .31) were not different during exercise for the CS and CON trials (P > .05). Overall, the cooling rate was faster during CS (0.07°C/min ± 0.03°C/min) than during CON (0.04°C/min ± 0.03°C/min; t16 = 2.77, P = .01). Heart-rate changes were greater during CS (45 ± 20 beats per minute) compared with CON (27 ± 10 beats per minute; t16 = 3.32, P = .004). Thermal sensation was reduced to a greater extent with CS than with CON (F3,45 = 41.12, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Although the CS facilitated cooling rates faster than no treatment, clinicians should continue to advocate for accepted cooling modalities and use CS only if no other validated means of cooling are available.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Água , Adulto Jovem
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