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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 21, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414383

RESUMO

There has been a substantial amount of research reporting the neuroanatomical associations of psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the neuroimaging correlates of subclinical psychotic symptoms, so-called "psychotic-like experiences" (PLEs), within large healthy populations. PLEs are relatively common in the general population (7-13%), can be distressing and negatively affect health. This study therefore examined gray and white matter associations of four different PLEs (auditory or visual PLEs, and delusional ideas about conspiracies or communications) in subjects of the UK Biobank study with neuroimaging data (N = 21,390, mean age = 63 years). We tested for associations between any PLE (N = 768) and individual PLEs with gray and white matter brain structures, controlling for sex, age, intracranial volume, scanning site, and position in the scanner. Individuals that reported having experienced auditory hallucinations (N = 272) were found to have smaller volumes of the caudate, putamen, and accumbens (ß = -0.115-0.134, pcorrected = 0.048-0.036), and reduced temporal lobe volume (ß = -0.017, pcorrected = 0.047) compared to those that did not. People who indicated that they had ever believed in unreal conspiracies (N = 111) had a larger volume of the left amygdala (ß = 0.023, pcorrected = 0.038). Individuals that reported a history of visual PLEs (N = 435) were found to have reduced white matter microstructure of the forceps major (ß = -0.029, pcorrected = 0.009), an effect that was more marked in participants who reported PLEs as distressing. These associations were not accounted for by diagnoses of psychotic or depressive illness, nor the known risk factors for psychotic symptoms of childhood adversity or cannabis use. These findings suggest altered regional gray matter volumes and white matter microstructure in association with PLEs in the general population. They further suggest that these alterations may appear more frequently with the presentation of different psychotic symptoms in the absence of clinically diagnosed psychotic disorders.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.

4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221487

RESUMO

Inflammatory processes are implicated in the aetiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, the relationship between peripheral inflammation, brain structure and depression remains unclear, partly due to complexities around the use of acute/phasic inflammatory biomarkers. Here, we report the first large-scale study of both serological and methylomic signatures of CRP (considered to represent acute and chronic measures of inflammation respectively) and their associations with depression status/symptoms, and structural neuroimaging phenotypes (T1 and diffusion MRI) in a large community-based sample (Generation Scotland; NMDD cases = 271, Ncontrols = 609). Serum CRP was associated with overall MDD severity, and specifically with current somatic symptoms- general interest (ß = 0.145, PFDR = 6 × 10-4) and energy levels (ß = 0.101, PFDR = 0.027), along with reduced entorhinal cortex thickness (ß = -0.095, PFDR = 0.037). DNAm CRP was significantly associated with reduced global grey matter/cortical volume and widespread reductions in integrity of 16/24 white matter tracts (with greatest regional effects in the external and internal capsules, ßFA= -0.12 to -0.14). In general, the methylation-based measures showed stronger associations with imaging metrics than serum-based CRP measures (ßaverage = -0.15 versus ßaverage = 0.01 respectively). These findings provide evidence for central effects of peripheral inflammation from both serological and epigenetic markers of inflammation, including in brain regions previously implicated in depression. This suggests that these imaging measures may be involved in the relationship between peripheral inflammation and somatic/depressive symptoms. Notably, greater effects on brain morphology were seen for methylation-based rather than serum-based measures of inflammation, indicating the importance of such measures for future studies.

5.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 3922-3937, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558996

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the subject of many neuroimaging case-control classification studies. Although some studies report accuracies ≥80%, most have investigated relatively small samples of clinically-ascertained, currently symptomatic cases, and did not attempt replication in larger samples. We here first aimed to replicate previously reported classification accuracies in a small, well-phenotyped community-based group of current MDD cases with clinical interview-based diagnoses (from STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally cohort, 'STRADL'). We performed a set of exploratory predictive classification analyses with measures related to brain morphometry and white matter integrity. We applied three classifier types-SVM, penalised logistic regression or decision tree-either with or without optimisation, and with or without feature selection. We then determined whether similar accuracies could be replicated in a larger independent population-based sample with self-reported current depression (UK Biobank cohort). Additional analyses extended to lifetime MDD diagnoses-remitted MDD in STRADL, and lifetime-experienced MDD in UK Biobank. The highest cross-validation accuracy (75%) was achieved in the initial current MDD sample with a decision tree classifier and cortical surface area features. The most frequently selected decision tree split variables included surface areas of bilateral caudal anterior cingulate, left lingual gyrus, left superior frontal, right precentral and paracentral regions. High accuracy was not achieved in the larger samples with self-reported current depression (53.73%), with remitted MDD (57.48%), or with lifetime-experienced MDD (52.68-60.29%). Our results indicate that high predictive classification accuracies may not immediately translate to larger samples with broader criteria for depression, and may not be robust across different classification approaches.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398718

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic debilitating disorder with limited treatment options and poorly defined pathophysiology. There are substantial genetic and epigenetic components; however, the underlying mechanisms contributing to AUD remain largely unknown. We conducted the largest DNA methylation epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) analyses currently available for AUD (total N = 625) and employed a top hit replication (N = 4798) using a cross-tissue/cross-phenotypic approach with the goal of identifying novel epigenetic targets relevant to AUD. Results show that a network of differentially methylated regions in glucocorticoid signaling and inflammation-related genes were associated with alcohol use behaviors. A top probe consistently associated across all cohorts was located in the long non-coding RNA growth arrest specific five gene (GAS5) (p < 10-24). GAS5 has been implicated in regulating transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor and has multiple functions related to apoptosis, immune function and various cancers. Endophenotypic analyses using peripheral cortisol levels and neuroimaging paradigms showed that methylomic variation in GAS5 network-related probes were associated with stress phenotypes. Postmortem brain analyses documented increased GAS5 expression in the amygdala of individuals with AUD. Our data suggest that alcohol use is associated with differential methylation in the glucocorticoid system that might influence stress and inflammatory reactivity and subsequently risk for AUD.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 163, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448866

RESUMO

Depression is a common and clinically heterogeneous mental health disorder that is frequently comorbid with other diseases and conditions. Stratification of depression may align sub-diagnoses more closely with their underling aetiology and provide more tractable targets for research and effective treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether genetic data could be used to identify subgroups within people with depression using the UK Biobank. Examination of cross-locus correlations were used to test for evidence of subgroups using genetic data from seven other complex traits and disorders that were genetically correlated with depression and had sufficient power (>0.6) for detection. We found no evidence for subgroups within depression for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anorexia nervosa, inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. This suggests that for these traits, genetic correlations with depression were driven by pleiotropic genetic variants carried by everyone rather than by a specific subgroup.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2301, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385265

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of worldwide disability but there remains considerable uncertainty regarding its neural and behavioural associations. Here, using non-overlapping Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) datasets as a reference, we estimate polygenic risk scores for depression (depression-PRS) in a discovery (N = 10,674) and replication (N = 11,214) imaging sample from UK Biobank. We report 77 traits that are significantly associated with depression-PRS, in both discovery and replication analyses. Mendelian Randomisation analysis supports a potential causal effect of liability to depression on brain white matter microstructure (ß: 0.125 to 0.868, pFDR < 0.043). Several behavioural traits are also associated with depression-PRS (ß: 0.014 to 0.180, pFDR: 0.049 to 1.28 × 10-14) and we find a significant and positive interaction between depression-PRS and adverse environmental exposures on mental health outcomes. This study reveals replicable associations between depression-PRS and white matter microstructure. Our results indicate that white matter microstructure differences may be a causal consequence of liability to depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(8): 1396-1404, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common types of musculoskeletal conditions include pain in the neck and shoulder areas. This study seeks to identify the genetic variants associated with neck or shoulder pain based on a genome-wide association approach using 203 309 subjects from the UK Biobank cohort and look for replication evidence from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and TwinsUK. METHODS: A genome-wide association study was performed adjusting for age, sex, BMI and nine population principal components. Significant and independent genetic variants were then sent to GS:SFHS and TwinsUK for replication. RESULTS: We identified three genetic loci that were associated with neck or shoulder pain in the UK Biobank samples. The most significant locus was in an intergenic region in chromosome 17, rs12453010, having P = 1.66 × 10-11. The second most significant locus was located in the FOXP2 gene in chromosome 7 with P = 2.38 × 10-10 for rs34291892. The third locus was located in the LINC01572 gene in chromosome 16 with P = 4.50 × 10-8 for rs62053992. In the replication stage, among four significant and independent genetic variants, rs2049604 in the FOXP2 gene and rs62053992 in the LINC01572 gene were weakly replicated in GS:SFHS (P = 0.0240 and P = 0.0202, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified three loci associated with neck or shoulder pain in the UK Biobank cohort, two of which were weakly supported in a replication cohort. Further evidence is needed to confirm their roles in neck or shoulder pain.

12.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e28, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment associated with lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) is well-supported by meta-analytic studies, but population-based estimates remain scarce. Previous UK Biobank studies have only shown limited evidence of cognitive differences related to probable MDD. Using updated cognitive and clinical assessments in UK Biobank, this study investigated population-level differences in cognitive functioning associated with lifetime MDD. METHODS: Associations between lifetime MDD and cognition (performance on six tasks and general cognitive functioning [g-factor]) were investigated in UK Biobank (N-range 7,457-14,836, age 45-81 years, 52% female), adjusting for demographics, education, and lifestyle. Lifetime MDD classifications were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Within the lifetime MDD group, we additionally investigated relationships between cognition and (a) recurrence, (b) current symptoms, (c) severity of psychosocial impairment (while symptomatic), and (d) concurrent psychotropic medication use. RESULTS: Lifetime MDD was robustly associated with a lower g-factor (ß = -0.10, PFDR = 4.7 × 10-5), with impairments in attention, processing speed, and executive functioning (ß ≥ 0.06). Clinical characteristics revealed differential profiles of cognitive impairment among case individuals; those who reported severe psychosocial impairment and use of psychotropic medication performed worse on cognitive tests. Severe psychosocial impairment and reasoning showed the strongest association (ß = -0.18, PFDR = 7.5 × 10-5). CONCLUSIONS: Findings describe small but robust associations between lifetime MDD and lower cognitive performance within a population-based sample. Overall effects were of modest effect size, suggesting limited clinical relevance. However, deficits within specific cognitive domains were more pronounced in relation to clinical characteristics, particularly severe psychosocial impairment.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203157

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol intake is associated with 5.9% of global deaths. However, this figure is especially acute in men such that 7.6% of deaths can be attributed to alcohol intake. Previous studies identified a significant interaction between genotypes of the galanin (GAL) gene with anxiety and alcohol abuse in different male populations but were unable to define a mechanism. To address these issues the current study analysed the human UK Biobank cohort and identified a significant interaction (n = 115,865; p = 0.0007) between allelic variation (GG or CA genotypes) in the highly conserved human GAL5.1 enhancer, alcohol intake (AUDIT questionnaire scores) and anxiety in men. Critically, disruption of GAL5.1 in mice using CRISPR genome editing significantly reduced GAL expression in the amygdala and hypothalamus whilst producing a corresponding reduction in ethanol intake in KO mice. Intriguingly, we also found the evidence of reduced anxiety-like behaviour in male GAL5.1KO animals mirroring that seen in humans from our UK Biobank studies. Using bioinformatic analysis and co-transfection studies we further identified the EGR1 transcription factor, that is co-expressed with GAL in amygdala and hypothalamus, as being important in the protein kinase C (PKC) supported activity of the GG genotype of GAL5.1 but less so in the CA genotype. Our unique study uses a novel combination of human association analysis, CRISPR genome editing in mice, animal behavioural analysis and cell culture studies to identify a highly conserved regulatory mechanism linking anxiety and alcohol intake that might contribute to increased susceptibility to anxiety and alcohol abuse in men.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 55, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066731

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) are genetic variants associated with gene expression. Using genome-wide genotype data, it is now possible to impute gene expression using eQTL mapping efforts. This approach can be used to analyse previously unexplored relationships between gene expression and heritable in vivo measures of human brain structural connectivity. Using large-scale eQTL mapping studies, we computed 6457 gene expression scores (eQTL scores) using genome-wide genotype data in UK Biobank, where each score represents a genetic proxy measure of gene expression. These scores were then tested for associations with two diffusion tensor imaging measures, fractional anisotropy (NFA = 14,518) and mean diffusivity (NMD = 14,485), representing white matter structural integrity. We found FDR-corrected significant associations between 8 eQTL scores and structural connectivity phenotypes, including global and regional measures (ßabsolute FA = 0.0339-0.0453; MD = 0.0308-0.0381) and individual tracts (ßabsolute FA = 0.0320-0.0561; MD = 0.0295-0.0480). The loci within these eQTL scores have been reported to regulate expression of genes involved in various brain-related processes and disorders, such as neurite outgrowth and Parkinson's disease (DCAKD, SLC35A4, SEC14L4, SRA1, NMT1, CPNE1, PLEKHM1, UBE3C). Our findings indicate that eQTL scores are associated with measures of in vivo brain connectivity and provide novel information not previously found by conventional genome-wide association studies. Although the role of expression of these genes regarding white matter microstructural integrity is not yet clear, these results suggest it may be possible, in future, to map potential trait- and disease-associated eQTL to in vivo brain connectivity and better understand the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and brain traits, and their associated imaging findings.

16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

17.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(2): 329-341, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

18.
Psychol Med ; 50(10): 1653-1662, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial clinical heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggests it may group together individuals with diverse aetiologies. Identifying distinct subtypes should lead to more effective diagnosis and treatment, while providing more useful targets for further research. Genetic and clinical overlap between MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ) suggests an MDD subtype may share underlying mechanisms with SCZ. METHODS: The present study investigated whether a neurobiologically distinct subtype of MDD could be identified by SCZ polygenic risk score (PRS). We explored interactive effects between SCZ PRS and MDD case/control status on a range of cortical, subcortical and white matter metrics among 2370 male and 2574 female UK Biobank participants. RESULTS: There was a significant SCZ PRS by MDD interaction for rostral anterior cingulate cortex (RACC) thickness (ß = 0.191, q = 0.043). This was driven by a positive association between SCZ PRS and RACC thickness among MDD cases (ß = 0.098, p = 0.026), compared to a negative association among controls (ß = -0.087, p = 0.002). MDD cases with low SCZ PRS showed thinner RACC, although the opposite difference for high-SCZ-PRS cases was not significant. There were nominal interactions for other brain metrics, but none remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our significant results indicate that MDD case-control differences in RACC thickness vary as a function of SCZ PRS. Although this was not the case for most other brain measures assessed, our specific findings still provide some further evidence that MDD in the presence of high genetic risk for SCZ is subtly neurobiologically distinct from MDD in general.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 410-421, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who opt to participate in scientific studies tend to be healthier, wealthier and more educated than the broader population. Although selection bias does not always pose a problem for analysing the relationships between exposures and diseases or other outcomes, it can lead to biased effect size estimates. Biased estimates may weaken the utility of genetic findings because the goal is often to make inferences in a new sample (such as in polygenic risk score analysis). METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank, Generation Scotland and Partners Biobank and conducted phenotypic and genome-wide association analyses on two phenotypes that reflected mental health data availability: (i) whether participants were contactable by e-mail for follow-up; and (ii) whether participants responded to follow-up surveys of mental health. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, we identified nine genetic loci associated (P <5 × 10-8) with e-mail contact and 25 loci associated with mental health survey completion. Both phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with higher educational attainment and better health and negatively genetically correlated with psychological distress and schizophrenia. One single nucleotide polymorphism association replicated along with the overall direction of effect of all association results. CONCLUSIONS: Re-contact availability and follow-up participation can act as further genetic filters for data on mental health phenotypes.

20.
Sleep Breath ; 24(1): 135-142, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish if obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) predicted by the STOP-BANG questionnaire would be associated with higher rates of post-operative cardiac, respiratory or neurological complications among a selected high-risk population with established major comorbidities undergoing major surgery. We hypothesise that a cohort selected for major comorbidities will show a higher post-operative complication rate that may power any potential association with co-existent OSA and identify an important target group for OSA screening and treatment pathways in preparation for major surgery. METHODS: Patients attending a high-risk preadmission clinic prior to major surgery from May 2015 to November 2015 were prospectively screened for OSA using the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Patients with treated OSA were excluded. Patient data and complications were attained from the pre-admission clinic and subsequent inpatient medical record at discharge. RESULTS: Three-hundred-and-ten patients were included in the study (age 68.6 ± 13.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 30.6 ± 7.4 kg/m2; 52.9% female). Sixty-four patients (20.6%) experienced 82 post-operative complications. Seventy-five percent of the cohort had a STOP-BANG ≥ 3. There was no association between the STOP-BANG score (unadjusted and adjusted for comorbidity) with the development of post-operative complications. CONCLUSIONS: OSA predicted by the STOP-BANG score was not associated with higher rates of post-operative complications in patients with major comorbidities undergoing high-risk surgery. As the findings from this cohort contrast with other observational studies, more definitive studies are required to establish a causative link between OSA and post-operative complications and determine whether treating OSA reduces this complication rate.

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