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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811951

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction remains a major health issue. To date, no reliable biomarker is available to predict reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF). We aimed to identify novel circulating biomarkers for reduced left ventricular function using untargeted serum metabolomics in two independent patient cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography and non-targeted serum metabolomics were conducted in two patient cohorts with varying left ventricular function: (1) 25 patients with type 2 diabetes with established cardiovascular disease or high cardiovascular risk (LV-EF range 20-66%) (discovery cohort) and (2) 37 patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction (LV-EF range 25-60%) (validation cohort). In the discovery cohort, untargeted metabolomics revealed seven metabolites performing better than N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in the prediction of impaired left ventricular function shown by LV-EF. For only one of the metabolites, acisoga, the predictive value for LV-EF could be confirmed in the validation cohort (r = -0.37, P = 0.02). In the discovery cohort, acisoga did not only correlate with LV-EF (r = -60, P = 0.0016), but also with global circumferential strain (r = 0.67, P = 0.0003) and global longitudinal strain (r = 0.68, P = 0.0002). Similar results could be detected in the discovery cohort in a 6 month follow-up proofing stability of these results over time. With an area under the curve of 0.86 in the receiver operating characteristic analysis, acisoga discriminated between patients with normal EF and LV-EF < 40%. Multivariate analysis exposed acisoga as independent marker for impairment of LV-EF (Beta = -0.71, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: We found the polyamine metabolite acisoga to be elevated in patients with impaired LV-EF in two independent cohorts. Our analyses suggest that acisoga may be a valuable biomarker to detect patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 722656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557163

RESUMO

Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) cause catecholamine excess leading to a characteristic clinical phenotype. Intra-individual changes at metabolome level have been described after surgical PPGL removal. The value of metabolomics for the diagnosis of PPGL has not been studied yet. Objective: Evaluation of quantitative metabolomics as a diagnostic tool for PPGL. Design: Targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of plasma specimens and statistical modeling using ML-based feature selection approaches in a clinically well characterized cohort study. Patients: Prospectively enrolled patients (n=36, 17 female) from the Prospective Monoamine-producing Tumor Study (PMT) with hormonally active PPGL and 36 matched controls in whom PPGL was rigorously excluded. Results: Among 188 measured metabolites, only without considering false discovery rate, 4 exhibited statistically significant differences between patients with PPGL and controls (histidine p=0.004, threonine p=0.008, lyso PC a C28:0 p=0.044, sum of hexoses p=0.018). Weak, but significant correlations for histidine, threonine and lyso PC a C28:0 with total urine catecholamine levels were identified. Only the sum of hexoses (reflecting glucose) showed significant correlations with plasma metanephrines.By using ML-based feature selection approaches, we identified diagnostic signatures which all exhibited low accuracy and sensitivity. The best predictive value (sensitivity 87.5%, accuracy 67.3%) was obtained by using Gradient Boosting Machine Modelling. Conclusions: The diabetogenic effect of catecholamine excess dominates the plasma metabolome in PPGL patients. While curative surgery for PPGL led to normalization of catecholamine-induced alterations of metabolomics in individual patients, plasma metabolomics are not useful for diagnostic purposes, most likely due to inter-individual variability.

3.
Endocrine ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (PPGL) result in chronic catecholamine excess and serious health complications. A recent study obtained a metabolic signature in plasma from PPGL patients; however, its targeted nature may have generated an incomplete picture and a broader approach could provide additional insights. We aimed to characterize the plasma metabolome of PPGL patients before and after surgery, using an untargeted approach, and to broaden the scope of the investigated metabolic impact of these tumors. DESIGN: A cohort of 36 PPGL patients was investigated. Blood plasma samples were collected before and after surgical tumor removal, in association with clinical and tumor characteristics. METHODS: Plasma samples were analyzed using untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics. The data were evaluated using a combination of uni- and multi-variate statistical methods. RESULTS: Before surgery, patients with a nonadrenergic tumor could be distinguished from those with an adrenergic tumor based on their metabolic profiles. Tyrosine levels were significantly higher in patients with high compared to those with low BMI. Comparing subgroups of pre-operative samples with their post-operative counterparts, we found a metabolic signature that included ketone bodies, glucose, organic acids, methanol, dimethyl sulfone and amino acids. Three signals with unclear identities were found to be affected. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the pathways of glucose and ketone body homeostasis are affected in PPGL patients. BMI-related metabolite levels were also found to be altered, potentially linking muscle atrophy to PPGL. At baseline, patient metabolomes could be discriminated based on their catecholamine phenotype.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579160

RESUMO

Protein imbalance during pregnancy affects women in underdeveloped and developing countries and is associated with compromised offspring growth and an increased risk of metabolic diseases in later life. We studied in a porcine model the glucose and urea metabolism, and circulatory hormone and metabolite profile of offspring exposed during gestation, to maternal isoenergetic low-high (LP-HC), high-low (HP-LC) or adequate (AP) protein-carbohydrate ratio diets. At birth, LP-HC were lighter and the plasma acetylcarnitine to free carnitine ratios at 1 day of life was lower compared to AP offspring. Plasma urea concentrations were lower in 1 day old LP-HC offspring than HP-LC. In the juvenile period, increased insulin concentrations were observed in LP-HC and HP-LC offspring compared to AP, as was body weight from HP-LC compared to LP-HC. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were lower in 80 than 1 day old HP-LC offspring, and glucagon concentrations lower in 80 than 1 day old AP and HP-LC offspring. Plasma urea and the ratio of glucagon to insulin were lower in all 80 than 1 day old offspring. Aminoacyl-tRNA, arginine and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism, histidine and beta-alanine metabolism differed between 1 and 80 day old AP and HP-LC offspring. Maternal protein imbalance throughout pregnancy did not result in significant consequences in offspring metabolism compared to AP, indicating enormous plasticity by the placenta and developing offspring.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Metaboloma , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Carnitina/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Masculino , Gravidez , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ureia/sangue , Ureia/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360722

RESUMO

Biological aging research is expected to reveal modifiable molecular mechanisms that can be harnessed to slow or possibly reverse unhealthy trajectories. However, there is first an urgent need to define consensus molecular markers of healthy and unhealthy aging. Established aging hallmarks are all linked to metabolism, and a 'rewired' metabolic circuitry has been shown to accelerate or delay biological aging. To identify metabolic signatures distinguishing healthy from unhealthy aging trajectories, we performed nontargeted metabolomics on skeletal muscles from 2-month-old and 21-month-old mice, and after dietary and lifestyle interventions known to impact biological aging. We hypothesized that common metabolic signatures would highlight specific pathways and processes promoting healthy aging, while revealing the molecular underpinnings of unhealthy aging. Here, we report 50 metabolites that commonly distinguished aging trajectories in all cohorts, including 18 commonly reduced under unhealthy aging and 32 increased. We stratified these metabolites according to known relationships with various aging hallmarks and found the greatest associations with oxidative stress and nutrient sensing. Collectively, our data suggest interventions aimed at maintaining skeletal muscle arginine and lysine may be useful therapeutic strategies to minimize biological aging and maintain skeletal muscle health, function, and regenerative capacity in old age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
7.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101295, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Technological advances have brought a steady increase in the availability of various types of omics data, from genomics to metabolomics. Integrating these multi-omics data is a chance and challenge for systems biology; yet, tools to fully tap their potential remain scarce. METHODS: We present here a fully unsupervised and versatile correlation-based method - termed Correlation guided Network Integration (CoNI) - to integrate multi-omics data into a hypergraph structure that allows for the identification of effective modulators of metabolism. Our approach yields single transcripts of potential relevance that map to specific, densely connected, metabolic subgraphs or pathways. RESULTS: By applying our method on transcriptomics and metabolomics data from murine livers under standard Chow or high-fat diet, we identified eleven genes with potential regulatory effects on hepatic metabolism. Five candidates, including the hepatokine INHBE, were validated in human liver biopsies to correlate with diabetes-related traits such as overweight, hepatic fat content, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). CONCLUSION: Our method's successful application to an independent omics dataset confirmed that the novel CoNI framework is a transferable, entirely data-driven, flexible, and versatile tool for multiple omics data integration and interpretation.

8.
Diabetes ; 70(9): 2092-2106, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233929

RESUMO

Differences in glucose metabolism among categories of prediabetes have not been systematically investigated. In this longitudinal study, participants (N = 2,111) underwent a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and 48 months. HbA1c was also measured. We classified participants as having isolated prediabetes defect (impaired fasting glucose [IFG], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], or HbA1c indicative of prediabetes [IA1c]), two defects (IFG+IGT, IFG+IA1c, or IGT+IA1c), or all defects (IFG+IGT+IA1c). ß-Cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity were assessed from OGTT. At baseline, in pooling of participants with isolated defects, they showed impairment in both BCF and insulin sensitivity compared with healthy control subjects. Pooled groups with two or three defects showed progressive further deterioration. Among groups with isolated defect, those with IGT showed lower insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion at reference glucose (ISRr), and insulin secretion potentiation (P < 0.002). Conversely, those with IA1c showed higher insulin sensitivity and ISRr (P < 0.0001). Among groups with two defects, we similarly found differences in both BCF and insulin sensitivity. At 48 months, we found higher type 2 diabetes incidence for progressively increasing number of prediabetes defects (odds ratio >2, P < 0.008). In conclusion, the prediabetes groups showed differences in type/degree of glucometabolic impairment. Compared with the pooled group with isolated defects, those with double or triple defect showed progressive differences in diabetes incidence.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
9.
Physiol Rep ; 9(12): e14885, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152092

RESUMO

Human metabolism is highly variable. At one end of the spectrum, defects of enzymes, transporters, and metabolic regulation result in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or inborn errors of metabolism. At the other end of the spectrum, favorable genetics and years of training combine to result in physiologically extreme forms of metabolism in athletes. Here, we investigated how the highly glycolytic metabolism of sprinters, highly oxidative metabolism of endurance athletes, and highly anabolic metabolism of natural bodybuilders affect their serum metabolome at rest and after a bout of exercise to exhaustion. We used targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to measure the serum concentrations of 151 metabolites and 43 metabolite ratios or sums in 15 competitive male athletes (6 endurance athletes, 5 sprinters, and 4 natural bodybuilders) and 4 untrained control subjects at fasted rest and 5 minutes after a maximum graded bicycle test to exhaustion. The analysis of all 194 metabolite concentrations, ratios and sums revealed that natural bodybuilders and endurance athletes had overall different metabolite profiles, whereas sprinters and untrained controls were more similar. Specifically, natural bodybuilders had 1.5 to 1.8-fold higher concentrations of specific phosphatidylcholines and lower levels of branched chain amino acids than all other subjects. Endurance athletes had 1.4-fold higher levels of a metabolite ratio showing the activity of carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase I and 1.4-fold lower levels of various alkyl-acyl-phosphatidylcholines. When we compared the effect of exercise between groups, endurance athletes showed 1.3-fold higher increases of hexose and of tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1). In summary, physiologically extreme metabolic capacities of endurance athletes and natural bodybuilders are associated with unique blood metabolite concentrations, ratios, and sums at rest and after exercise. Our results suggest that long-term specific training, along with genetics and other athlete-specific factors systematically change metabolite concentrations at rest and after exercise.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 121, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The difference between an individual's chronological and DNA methylation predicted age (DNAmAge), termed DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAA), can capture life-long environmental exposures and age-related physiological changes reflected in methylation status. Several studies have linked DNAmAA to morbidity and mortality, yet its relationship with kidney function has not been assessed. We evaluated the associations between seven DNAm aging and lifespan predictors (as well as GrimAge components) and five kidney traits (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [uACR], serum urate, microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in up to 9688 European, African American and Hispanic/Latino individuals from seven population-based studies. RESULTS: We identified 23 significant associations in our large trans-ethnic meta-analysis (p < 1.43E-03 and consistent direction of effect across studies). Age acceleration measured by the Extrinsic and PhenoAge estimators, as well as Zhang's 10-CpG epigenetic mortality risk score (MRS), were associated with all parameters of poor kidney health (lower eGFR, prevalent CKD, higher uACR, microalbuminuria and higher serum urate). Six of these associations were independently observed in European and African American populations. MRS in particular was consistently associated with eGFR (ß = - 0.12, 95% CI = [- 0.16, - 0.08] change in log-transformed eGFR per unit increase in MRS, p = 4.39E-08), prevalent CKD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 [1.47, 2.16], p = 2.71E-09) and higher serum urate levels (ß = 0.12 [0.07, 0.16], p = 2.08E-06). The "first-generation" clocks (Hannum, Horvath) and GrimAge showed different patterns of association with the kidney traits. Three of the DNAm-estimated components of GrimAge, namely adrenomedullin, plasminogen-activation inhibition 1 and pack years, were positively associated with higher uACR, serum urate and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: DNAmAge acceleration and DNAm mortality predictors estimated in whole blood were associated with multiple kidney traits, including eGFR and CKD, in this multi-ethnic study. Epigenetic biomarkers which reflect the systemic effects of age-related mechanisms such as immunosenescence, inflammaging and oxidative stress may have important mechanistic or prognostic roles in kidney disease. Our study highlights new findings linking kidney disease to biological aging, and opportunities warranting future investigation into DNA methylation biomarkers for prognostic or risk stratification in kidney disease.

12.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21572, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826782

RESUMO

High uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression is a characteristic of differentiated brown adipocytes and is linked to adipogenic differentiation. Paracrine fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) strongly induces Ucp1 transcription in white adipocytes independent of adipogenesis. Here, we report that FGF8b and other paracrine FGFs act on brown and white preadipocytes to upregulate Ucp1 expression via a FGFR1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 axis, independent of adipogenesis. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an upregulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis and glycolysis upon Fgf8b treatment of preadipocytes. Oxylipin measurement by LC-MS/MS in FGF8b conditioned media identified prostaglandin E2 as a putative mediator of FGF8b induced Ucp1 transcription. RNA interference and pharmacological inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 biosynthetic pathway confirmed that PGE2 is causally involved in the control over Ucp1 transcription. Importantly, impairment of or failure to induce glycolytic flux blunted the induction of Ucp1, even in the presence of PGE2 . Lastly, a screening of transcription factors identified Nrf1 and Hes1 as required regulators of FGF8b induced Ucp1 expression. Thus, we conclude that paracrine FGFs co-regulate prostaglandin and glucose metabolism to induce Ucp1 expression in a Nrf1/Hes1-dependent manner in preadipocytes, revealing a novel regulatory network in control of Ucp1 expression in a formerly unrecognized cell type.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise , Proteína Desacopladora 1/fisiologia , Adipócitos Marrons/citologia , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Adipogenia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758075

RESUMO

Citrate is important for lipid synthesis and epigenetic regulation in addition to ATP production. We have previously reported that cancer cells import extracellular citrate via the pmCiC transporter to support their metabolism. Here, we show for the first time that citrate is supplied to cancer by cancer-associated stroma (CAS) and also that citrate synthesis and release is one of the latter's major metabolic tasks. Citrate release from CAS is controlled by cancer cells through cross-cellular communication. The availability of citrate from CAS regulated the cytokine profile, metabolism and features of cellular invasion. Moreover, citrate released by CAS is involved in inducing cancer progression especially enhancing invasiveness and organ colonisation. In line with the in vitro observations, we show that depriving cancer cells of citrate using gluconate, a specific inhibitor of pmCiC, significantly reduced the growth and metastatic spread of human pancreatic cancer cells in vivo and muted stromal activation and angiogenesis. We conclude that citrate is supplied to tumour cells by CAS and citrate uptake plays a significant role in cancer metastatic progression.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
14.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 210: 105874, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722706

RESUMO

The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a versatile model for biomedical research and is largely similar to mammals in terms of organ development, anatomy, physiology, and hormonal signaling mechanisms. Steroid hormones control a variety of processes and their levels are regulated by hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). The subfamily of 20ß-HSD type 2 enzymes currently comprises eight members from teleost fish and mammals. Here, we report the identification of three 20ß-HSD type 2 genes in X. tropicalis and X. laevis and the functional characterization of the two homeologs from X. laevis. X. laevis Hsd20b2.L and Hsd20b2.S showed high sequence identity with known 20ß-HSD type 2 enzymes and mapped to the two subgenomes of the allotetraploid frog genome. Both homeologs are expressed during embryonic development and in adult tissues, with strongest signals in liver, kidney, intestine, and skin. After recombinant expression in human cell lines, both enzymes co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum and catalyzed the conversion of cortisone to 20ß-dihydrocortisone. Both Hsd20b2.L and Hsd20b2.S catalyzed the 20ß-reduction of further C21 steroids (17α-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone), while only Hsd20b2.S was able to convert corticosterone and cortisol to their 20ß-reduced metabolites. Estrone was only a poor and androstenedione no substrate for both enzymes. Our results demonstrate multispecificity of 20ß-HSD type 2 enzymes from X. laevis similar to other teleost 20ß-HSD type 2 enzymes. X. laevis 20ß-HSD type 2 enzymes are probably involved in steroid catabolism and in the generation of pheromones for intraspecies communication. A role in oocyte maturation is unlikely.


Assuntos
Cortisona Redutase/genética , Cortisona Redutase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/genética , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Cortisona/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Xenopus laevis/embriologia
15.
Curr Mol Med ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653247

RESUMO

Brain tissue is known to have elevated citrate levels necessary to regulate ion chelation, neuron excitability, and the supply of necessary energy substrates to neurons. Importantly, citrate also acts as a central substrate in cancer metabolism. Recent studies have shown that extracellular citrate levels in the brain undergo significant changes during tumor development, and may play a dual role in tumor progression, as well as cancer cell aggressiveness. In the present article, we review available literature describing changes of citrate levels in brain tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as intracellular alterations during tumor development before and after metastatic progression. Based on the available literature and our recent findings, we hypothesize that changes in extracellular citrate levels may be related to the increased consumption of this metabolite by cancer cells; interestingly, cancer-associated cells, including reactive astrocytes, might be a source of citrate. Extracellular citrate uptake mechanisms, as well as potential citrate synthesis and releasing by surrounding stroma, could provide novel targets for anti-cancer treatments of primary brain tumors and brain metastases.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relationships between endogenous female sex hormones and glycemic traits remain understudied, especially in men. We examined whether endogenous 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol (E2), and free estradiol (fE2) were associated with glycemic traits and glycemic deterioration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 921 mainly middle-aged and elderly men and 390 perimenopausal/postmenopausal women from the German population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort study were followed up for a median of 6.4 years. Sex hormones were measured at baseline using mass spectrometry. We calculated regression coefficients (ß) and ORs with 95% CIs using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models for Z-standardized hormones and glycemic traits or glycemic deterioration (ie, worsening of categorized glucose tolerance status), respectively. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis (n=1222 men and n=594 women), in men, 17-OHP was inversely associated with 2h-glucose (2hG) (ß=-0.067, 95% CI -0.120 to -0.013) and fasting insulin (ß=-0.074, 95% CI -0.118 to -0.030), and positively associated with Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) (ß=0.061, 95% CI 0.018 to 0.105). Progesterone was inversely associated with fasting insulin (ß=-0.047, 95% CI -0.088 to -0.006) and positively associated with QUICKI (ß=0.041, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.082). E2 was inversely associated with fasting insulin (ß=-0.068, 95% CI -0.116 to -0.020) and positively associated with QUICKI (ß=0.059, 95% CI 0.012 to 0.107). fE2 was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (ß=0.079, 95% CI 0.027 to 0.132). In women, 17-OHP was positively associated with fasting glucose (FG) (ß=0.068, 95% CI 0.014 to 0.123). fE2 was positively associated with FG (ß=0.080, 95% CI 0.020 to 0.141) and HbA1c (ß=0.121, 95% CI 0.062 to 0.180). In the sensitivity analyses restricted to postmenopausal women, we observed a positive association between 17-OHP and glycemic deterioration (OR=1.518, 95% CI 1.033 to 2.264). CONCLUSIONS: Inter-relations exist between female sex hormones and glucose-related traits among perimenopausal/postmenopausal women and insulin-related traits among men. Endogenous progestogens and estrogens appear to be involved in glucose homeostasis not only in women but in men as well. Further well-powered studies assessing causal associations between endogenous female sex hormones and glycemic traits are warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Progestinas , Idoso , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546276

RESUMO

Biological exploration of early biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in (pre)diabetic individuals is crucial for personalized management of diabetes. Here, we evaluated two candidate biomarkers of incident CKD (sphingomyelin (SM) C18:1 and phosphatidylcholine diacyl (PC aa) C38:0) concerning kidney function in hyperglycemic participants of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) cohort, and in two biofluids and six organs of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and wild type controls. Higher serum concentrations of SM C18:1 and PC aa C38:0 in hyperglycemic individuals were found to be associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher odds of CKD. In db/db mice, both metabolites had a significantly lower concentration in urine and adipose tissue, but higher in the lungs. Additionally, db/db mice had significantly higher SM C18:1 levels in plasma and liver, and PC aa C38:0 in adrenal glands. This cross-sectional human study confirms that SM C18:1 and PC aa C38:0 associate with kidney dysfunction in pre(diabetic) individuals, and the animal study suggests a potential implication of liver, lungs, adrenal glands, and visceral fat in their systemic regulation. Our results support further validation of the two phospholipids as early biomarkers of renal disease in patients with (pre)diabetes.

18.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 97(4): 529-540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464160

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The long-term effect of low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation on the lens is still a matter of debate and needs to be evaluated in more detail. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a detailed histological analysis of eyes from B6C3F1 mice cohorts after acute gamma irradiation (60Co source; 0.063 Gy/min) at young adult age of 10 weeks with doses of 0.063, 0.125, and 0.5 Gy. Sham irradiated (0 Gy) mice were used as controls. To test for genetic susceptibility heterozygous Ercc2 mutant mice were used and compared to wild-type mice of the same strain background. Mice of both sexes were included in all cohorts. Eyes were collected 4 h, 12, 18 and 24 months after irradiation. For a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, metabolomics analyses were performed in lenses and plasma samples of the same mouse cohorts at 4 and 12 h as well as 12, 18 and 24 months after irradiation. For this purpose, a targeted analysis was chosen. RESULTS: This analysis revealed histological changes particularly in the posterior part of the lens that rarely can be observed by using Scheimpflug imaging, as we reported previously. We detected a significant increase of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) 18 and 24 months after irradiation with 0.5 Gy (odds ratio 9.3; 95% confidence interval 2.1-41.3) independent of sex and genotype. Doses below 0.5 Gy (i.e. 0.063 and 0.125 Gy) did not significantly increase the frequency of PSCs at any time point. In lenses, we observed a clear effect of sex and aging but not of irradiation or genotype. While metabolomics analyses of plasma from the same mice showed only a sex effect. CONCLUSIONS: This article demonstrates a significant radiation-induced increase in the incidence of PSCs, which could not be identified using Scheimpflug imaging as the only diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Animais , Catarata/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Lesões por Radiação/genética
19.
Cell Rep ; 34(1): 108583, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406416

RESUMO

Gut microbiota have been shown to promote oogenesis and fecundity, but the mechanistic basis of remote influence on oogenesis remained unknown. Here, we report a systemic mechanism of influence mediated by bacterial-derived supply of mitochondrial coenzymes. Removal of microbiota decreased mitochondrial activity and ATP levels in the whole-body and ovary, resulting in repressed oogenesis. Similar repression was caused by RNA-based knockdown of mitochondrial function in ovarian follicle cells. Reduced mitochondrial function in germ-free (GF) females was reversed by bacterial recolonization or supplementation of riboflavin, a precursor of FAD and FMN. Metabolomics analysis of GF females revealed a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and FAD levels and an increase in metabolites that are degraded by FAD-dependent enzymes (e.g., amino and fatty acids). Riboflavin supplementation opposed this effect, elevating mitochondrial function, ATP, and oogenesis. These findings uncover a bacterial-mitochondrial axis of influence, linking gut bacteria with systemic regulation of host energy and reproduction.

20.
Diabetologia ; 64(3): 512-520, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275161

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Many individuals who develop type 2 diabetes also display increased glucagon levels (hyperglucagonaemia), which we have previously found to be associated with the metabolic syndrome. The concept of a liver-alpha cell axis provides a possible link between hyperglucagonaemia and elevated liver fat content, a typical finding in the metabolic syndrome. However, this association has only been studied in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hence, we searched for a link between the liver and the alpha cells in individuals with non-steatotic levels of liver fat content. We hypothesised that the glucagon-alanine index, an indicator of the functional integrity of the liver-alpha cell axis, would associate with liver fat and insulin resistance in our cohort of women with low levels of liver fat. METHODS: We analysed data from 79 individuals participating in the Prediction, Prevention and Subclassification of Type 2 Diabetes (PPSDiab) study, a prospective observational study of young women at low to high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Liver fat content was determined by MRI. Insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR. We conducted Spearman correlation analyses of liver fat content and HOMA-IR with the glucagon-alanine index (the product of fasting plasma levels of glucagon and alanine). The prediction of the glucagon-alanine index by liver fat or HOMA-IR was tested in multivariate linear regression analyses in the whole cohort as well as after stratification for liver fat content ≤0.5% (n = 39) or >0.5% (n = 40). RESULTS: The glucagon-alanine index significantly correlated with liver fat and HOMA-IR in the entire cohort (ρ = 0.484, p < 0.001 and ρ = 0.417, p < 0.001, respectively). These associations resulted from significant correlations in participants with a liver fat content >0.5% (liver fat, ρ = 0.550, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR, ρ = 0.429, p = 0.006). In linear regression analyses, the association of the glucagon-alanine index with liver fat remained significant after adjustment for age and HOMA-IR in all participants and in those with liver fat >0.5% (ß = 0.246, p = 0.0.23 and ß = 0.430, p = 0.007, respectively) but not in participants with liver fat ≤0.5% (ß = -0.184, p = 0.286). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We reproduced the previously reported association of liver fat content and HOMA-IR with the glucagon-alanine index in an independent study cohort of young women with low to high risk for type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicates an insulin-resistance-independent association of liver fat content with the glucagon-alanine index. In summary, our study supports the concept that even lower levels of liver fat (from 0.5%) are connected to relative hyperglucagonaemia, reflecting an imminent impairment of the liver-alpha cell axis.

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