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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Drug Policy ; 98: 103431, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol use is common among people with HIV (PWH), leading to sub-optimal HIV care outcomes. Yet, heavy episodic drinking (HED) is not routinely addressed within most HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV disclosure may provide social support, potentially reducing HED to cope with HIV. We examined the prevalence of HED and HIV disclosure by antiretroviral treatment (ART) status among PWH receiving HIV care in Cameroon. METHODS: We analyzed routine HIV clinical data augmented with systematic alcohol use data among adult PWH receiving HIV care in three regional hospitals from January 2016 to March 2020. Recent HED prevalence was examined across PWH by ART status: those not on ART, recent ART initiators (ART initiation ≤30 days prior), and ART users (ART initiation >30 days prior); and by gender. We used log-binomial regression to estimate prevalence differences (PD) between HIV disclosure and recent HED by ART status. RESULTS: Among 12,517 PWH in care, 16.4% (95%CI: 15.7, 17.0) reported recent HED. HED was reported among 21.2% (95%CI: 16.0, 26.3) of those not on ART, 24.5% (95%CI: 23.1, 26.0) of recent ART initiators, and 12.9% (95%CI: 12.2, 13.6) of ART users. Regardless of ART status, men were more likely than women to report HED. Those who disclosed HIV status had a lower HED prevalence than those who had not disclosed (aPD: -0.07; 95%CI: -0.10, -0.05) and not modified by gender. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of recent HED was high among PWH in care. HED prevalence was highest among men and recent ART initiators. Longitudinal analyses should explore how HIV disclosure may support PWH in reducing or abstaining from HED through social support. Systematic HED screening and referral to care should be included in routine HIV clinical care, particularly for men, to improve engagement in the HIV care continuum in Cameroon.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403021

RESUMO

Depression is associated with suboptimal HIV care outcomes. Little is known about the extent to which the prevalence of depressive symptoms varies across the HIV care continuum. Also, the relationship among gender, HIV disclosure, HIV care stage, and depressive symptoms in PLWH remains poorly understood. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,507 PLWH at enrollment in International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Cameroon between 2016 and 2020. Recent depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). A score of three or greater on the PHQ-2 was considered indicative of likely major depressive disorder. We estimated the prevalence of depressive symptoms across three stages of HIV care: those not yet on antiretroviral therapy (ART), recent ART initiators (ART initiation ≤ 30 days prior), and ART users (ART initiation > 30 days prior). Adjusted prevalence differences (aPD) of depressive symptoms were estimated comparing recent ART initiators and ART users. Disclosure and gender were examined as effect measure modifiers of the relationship between HIV care stage and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 11.9%, 22.0%, and 8.7% among PLWH not yet on ART, recent ART initiators, and ART users, respectively. ART users had significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms compared to recent ART initiators (aPD - 0.09 [95% CI - 0.11, - 0.08]). Neither gender nor HIV disclosure modified the effect measure of the relationship between HIV care stage and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were commonly reported among this group of PLWH and were associated with recent ART initiation. Integration of screening and treatment of depression into HIV care should be prioritized and may be particularly relevant for PLWH initiating ART.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287753

RESUMO

Social support is associated with improved HIV care and quality of life. We utilized latent class analysis to identify three classes of baseline emotional and tangible perceived social support, termed "Strong", "Wavering" and "Weak". "Weak" vs. "Strong" perceived social support was associated over time with an 8% decreased risk of optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for emotional and 6% decreased risk for tangible perceived social support. Importantly, "Wavering" vs "Strong" social support also showed a decreased risk of ART adherence of 6% for emotional and 3% for tangible support. "Strong" vs. "Weak" perceived support had a similar association with undetectable viral load, but the association for "Strong" vs. "Wavering" support was not statistically significant. Intensity of social support is associated with HIV care outcomes, and strong social support may be needed for some individuals. It is important to quantify the level or intensity of social support that is needed to optimize HIV outcomes.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) success has led people to live longer with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and thus be exposed to increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hypertension (HTN), the biggest contributor to CVD burden, is a growing concern among PLWH. The current report describes the prevalence and predictors of HTN among PLWH in care in Cameroon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all PLWH aged 20 years and above who received care between 2016 and 2019 at one of the three Central Africa International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (CA-IeDEA) sites in Cameroon (Bamenda, Limbe, and Yaoundé). HTN was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Logistic regressions models examined the relationship between HTN and clinical characteristics, and HIV-related factors. RESULTS: Among 9,839 eligible PLWH, 66.2% were women and 25.0% had prevalent HTN [age-standardized prevalence 23.9% (95% CI: 22.2-25.6)], among whom 28 (1.1%) were on BP lowering treatment, and 6 of those (21.4%) were at target BP levels. Median age (47.4 vs. 40.5 years), self-reported duration of HIV infection (5.1 vs 2.8 years years), duration of ART exposure (4.7 vs 2.3 years), and CD4 count (408 vs 359 cell/mm3) were higher in hypertensives than non-hypertensives (all p<0.001). Age and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with higher prevalent HTN risk. PLWH starting ART had a 30% lower risk of prevalent HTN, but this advantage disappeared after a cumulative 2-year exposure to ART. There was no significant association between other HIV predictive characteristics and HTN. CONCLUSION: About a quarter of these Cameroonian PLWH had HTN, driven among others by age and adiposity. Appropriate integration of HIV and NCDs services is needed to improve early detection, treatment and control of common comorbid NCD risk factors like hypertension and safeguard cardiovascular health in PLWH.

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(6): e25672, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Central Africa International epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS (CA-IeDEA) is an open observational cohort study investigating impact, progression and long-term outcomes of HIV/AIDS among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Republic of Congo (ROC) and Rwanda. We describe trends in demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use of patients aged > 15 years entering into HIV care in the participating CA-IeDEA site. METHODS: Information on sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count, WHO staging and ART status at entry into care from 2004 through 2018 were extracted from clinic records of patients aged > 15 years enrolling in HIV care at participating clinics in Burundi, Cameroon, DRC, ROC and Rwanda. We assessed trends in patient characteristics at enrolment in HIV care including ART initiation within the first 30 days after enrolment in care and calculated proportions, means and medians (interquartile ranges) for the main variables of interest. RESULTS: Among 69,176 patients in the CA-IeDEA cohort, 39% were from Rwanda, 24% from ROC, 18% from Cameroon, 14% from Burundi and 5% from DRC. More women (66%) than men enrolled in care and subsequently initiated ART. Women were also younger than men (32 vs. 38 years, P < 0.001) at enrolment and at ART initiation. Trends over time show increases in median CD4 cell count at enrolment from 190 cells/µL in 2004 to 334 cells/µL in 2018 at enrolment. Among those with complete data on CD4 counts (60%), women had a higher median CD4 cell count at care entry than men (229 vs. 249 cells/µL, P < 0.001). Trends in the proportion of patients using ART within 30 days of enrolment at the participating site show an increase from 16% in 2004 to 75% in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Trends from 2004 to 2018 in the characteristics of patients participating in the CA-IeDEA cohort highlight improvements at entry into care and subsequent ART initiation including after the implementation of Treat All guidelines in the participating sites.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984044

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV treatment guidelines recommend that all people living with HIV (PLWH) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible after diagnosis (Treat All). As Treat All is more widely implemented, an increasing proportion of PLWH are likely to initiate ART when they are asymptomatic, and they may view the relative benefits and risks of ART differently than those initiating at more advanced disease stages. To date, patient perspectives of initiating care under Treat All in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described. METHODS: From September 2018 to March 2019, we conducted individual, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 37 patients receiving HIV care in two health centers in Kigali, Rwanda. Data were analyzed using a mixed deductive and inductive thematic analysis approach to describe perceived barriers to, facilitators of and acceptability of initiating and adhering to ART rapidly under Treat All. RESULTS: Of 37 participants, 27 were women and the median age was 31 years. Participants described feeling traumatized and overwhelmed by their HIV diagnosis, resulting in difficulty accepting their HIV status. Most were prescribed ART soon after diagnosis, yet fear of lifelong medication and severe side effects in the immediate period after initiating ART led to challenges adhering to therapy. Moreover, because many PLWH initiated ART while healthy, taking medications and attending appointments were visible signals of HIV status and highly stigmatizing. Nonetheless, many participants expressed enthusiasm for Treat All as a program that improved health as well as health equity. CONCLUSION: For newly-diagnosed PLWH in Rwanda, initiating ART rapidly under Treat All presents logistical and emotional challenges despite the perceived benefits. Our findings suggest that optimizing early engagement in HIV care under Treat All requires early and ongoing intervention to reduce trauma and stigma, and promote both individual and community benefits of ART.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(8): 1457-1475, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675224

RESUMO

In 2019, the National Institutes of Health combined the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) into the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). In this paper, participants who made a study visit during October 2018-September 2019 (targeted for MWCCS enrollment) are described by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus and compared with people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. Participants include 2,115 women and 1,901 men with a median age of 56 years (interquartile range, 48-63); 62% are PLWH. Study sites encompass the South (18%), the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast (45%), the West Coast (22%), and the Midwest (15%). Participant race/ethnicity approximates that of PLWH throughout the United States. Longitudinal data and specimens collected for 35 years (men) and 25 years (women) were combined. Differences in data collection and coding were reviewed, and key risk factor and comorbidity data were harmonized. For example, recent use of alcohol (62%) and tobacco (28%) are common, as are dyslipidemia (64%), hypertension (56%), obesity (42%), mildly or severely impaired daily activities (31%), depressive symptoms (28%), and diabetes (22%). The MWCCS repository includes serum, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cell pellets, urine, cervicovaginal lavage samples, oral samples, B-cell lines, stool, and semen specimens. Demographic differences between the MACS and WIHS can confound analyses by sex. The merged MWCCS is both an ongoing observational cohort study and a valuable resource for harmonized longitudinal data and specimens for HIV-related research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(6): 551-561, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530894

RESUMO

Clinical health record data are used for HIV surveillance, but the extent to which these data are population representative is not clear. We compared age, marital status, body mass index, and pregnancy distributions in the Central Africa International Databases to Evaluate AIDS (CA-IeDEA) cohorts in Burundi and Rwanda to all people living with HIV and the subpopulation reporting receiving a previous HIV test result in the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, restricted to urban areas, where CA-IeDEA sites are located. DHS uses a probabilistic sample for population-level HIV prevalence estimates. In Rwanda, the CA-IeDEA cohort and DHS populations were similar with respect to age and marital status for men and women, which was also true in Burundi among women. In Burundi, the CA-IeDEA cohort had a greater proportion of younger and single men than the DHS data, which may be a result of outreach to sexual minority populations at CA-IeDEA sites and economic migration patterns. In both countries, the CA-IeDEA cohorts had a higher proportion of underweight individuals, suggesting that symptomatic individuals are more likely to access care in these settings. Multiple sources of data are needed for HIV surveillance to interpret potential biases in epidemiological data.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África Central , Burundi/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Gravidez , Ruanda/epidemiologia
10.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(5): 694-704, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544023

RESUMO

Background: To estimate the incidence, prevalence, frequency, and duration of incarceration and to identify risk factors for incarceration among women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. Methods: During semiannual study visits in a multicenter cohort study, 970 HIV sero-negative participants at risk for HIV were asked about their own incarceration (10/2007-09/2017) and incarceration of sexual partners (10/2013-09/2017). We used descriptive statistics and multivariable log-binomial regression to identify baseline predictors of incident incarceration. Results: Median follow-up time across the 970 participants was 5.5 years (IQR 3.5-9.5). Nearly half (n = 453, 46.7%) of participants were incarcerated during or before the study, and the incarceration rate was 5.5 per 100 person-years. In multivariable models, incident incarceration was associated with prior incarceration (RR 5.20, 95% CI: 3.23-8.41) and noninjection drug use (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10-2.25). Conclusions: Incarceration is common for women at risk for HIV. Prevention interventions that address the complex interplay of drug use, sex exchange, and housing instability for women who have experienced incarceration have the potential to reach an important group of U.S. women at risk of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Prisioneiros , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 74, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among Cameroon women. The burden of cervical cancer is in part traceable to the inadequate understanding of socio-contextual determinants of access to screening and prevention opportunities. We explored multilevel individual, community and structural factors that facilitate or inhibit cervical cancer prevention in women at risk in a low-income, high HIV prevalence context. METHODS: We utilized an exploratory qualitative approach to obtain data through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews from May to August, 2018. A two-stage purposive sampling strategy was used to select 80 women and 20 men who participated in 8 focus group discussions and 8 in-depth interviews. The socio-ecological model guided data analyses to identify micro-, meso-, and macro-level determinants of cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: Micro-level factors including lack of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, lack of access to information, excessive cost of cervical cancer screening, low risk perceptions, and poor health seeking behaviors were major barriers for women seeking cervical cancer screening. Meso-level factors, such as social networks, socio-cultural norms, perceptions of the role of men and HIV-related stigma when screening is integrated into HIV care, also engender negative attitudes and behaviors. Macro-level barriers to cervical cancer screening included poorly equipped health facilities and a lack of national cancer prevention policies and programs. CONCLUSION: In the context of the call for elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem, our findings highlight challenges and opportunities that should be considered when implementing interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening in low-middle income settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Camarões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): e112-e119, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown. METHODS: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at ≤3 study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (all P < .05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm3) but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ativação Linfocitária , Carga Viral
14.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(10): 425-435, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941054

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) contributes to HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms whereby FI negatively impacts HIV health are untested. We tested the hypothesis that FI leads to poor HIV clinical outcomes through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. We analyzed data from Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) among 1803 women living with HIV (WLWH) (8225 person-visits) collected from 2013 to 2015 biannually from nine sites across the United States participating in the WIHS. FI was measured with the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes included HIV viral nonsuppression, CD4 cell counts, and physical health status (PHS). We used longitudinal logistic and linear regression models with random effects to examine associations adjusting for covariates and path analysis to test nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. Increasing severity of FI was associated with unsuppressed viral load, lower CD4 counts, and worse PHS (all p < 0.05). Report of FI 6 months earlier was independently associated with most outcomes after adjusting for concurrent FI. For viral nonsuppression, the nutritional and behavioral paths accounted for 2.09% and 30.66% of the total effect, with the mental health path operating via serial mediation through the behavioral path. For CD4 count, the mental health and behavioral paths accounted for 15.21% and 17.0% of the total effect, respectively. For PHS, depressive symptoms accounted for 60.2% of the total effect. In conclusion, FI is associated with poor health among WLWH through different paths depending on the outcome. Interventions should target FI and its behavioral and mental health mechanisms to improve HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1256-1267, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996812

RESUMO

Background: Our objectives were to estimate the association of gender-based violence (GBV) experience with the risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women, to compare the STI risks associated with recent and lifetime GBV exposures, and to quantify whether these associations differ by HIV status. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, 1994-2018. Poisson models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to estimate the association of past 6-month GBV experience (physical, sexual, or intimate partner psychological violence) with subsequent self-reported STI diagnosis (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease, or trichomoniasis). Results: Data from 2868 women who reported recent sexual activity comprised 12,069 person-years. Higher STI risk was observed among HIV-seropositive women (incidence rate [IR] 5.5 per 100 person-years) compared with HIV-seronegative women (IR 4.3 per 100 person-years). Recent GBV experience was associated with a 1.28-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.65) risk after adjustment for HIV status and relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and sexual risk variables. Other important risk factors for STI acquisition included unstable housing (adjusted incidence rate ratio [AIRR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.32-2.46), unemployment (AIRR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.76), transactional sex (AIRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.52-2.80), and drug use (AIRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75). Recent physical violence contributed the highest risk of STI acquisition among HIV-seronegative women (AIRR 2.27, 95% CI 1.18-4.35), whereas lifetime GBV experience contributed the highest risk among HIV-seropositive women (AIRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.20-2.10). Conclusions: GBV prevention remains an important public health goal with direct relevance to women's sexual health.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 33: 100605, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637528

RESUMO

To address gaps in access to cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer services in Sub-Saharan African (SSA), this scoping review was conducted to explore facilitators and barriers that exist on the patient-, provider-, and system-level. An extensive literature search was conducted in accordance with scoping review methodology and the Cochrane guidelines. Our search criteria were limited to original research studies conducted in community or clinical settings in SSA within the last 10 years (2010-2020). Themes found from this review included patient knowledge and provider education, access to screening services, trust, health-related behaviors, attitudes, values, and practices, community and social values, health infrastructure, resource allocation, and political will. Identified barriers included lack of knowledge about cervical and breast cancer among patients, gaps in education and training among providers, and lack of resources and health infrastructure at the facility level and within the overall health system. Facilitators included perceived risk of cancer, support and encouragement of the provider, and utilization of novel approaches in low-resource settings by health systems. To better address individual-, provider-, and health system and facility-based facilitators and barriers to care, there is a need for political and financial investment and further research on the health service delivery in specific national health systems, especially in the context of the global campaign to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem.

17.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676125

RESUMO

Background: Women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLWH), especially those living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), are at increased risk of cervical cancer. The optimal cervical-cancer screening strategy for WLWH has not been determined. We therefore conducted a pilot study of screening methods in WLWH living in Limbe, Cameroon. Methods: Five-hundred sixty-six WLWH, aged 25-59 years, were enrolled. After self-collecting a cervicovaginal specimen, they underwent a pelvic exam, during which a provider also collected a cervical specimen and visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA) was performed. Both self- and provider-collected specimens were tested for high-risk HPV by the Xpert HPV Test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), with the residual of the latter used for liquid-based cytology. Women testing HPV positive on either specimen and/or VIA positive were referred to colposcopy and biopsies. However, because of poor attendence for follow-up colposcopy for the screen positives due to civil strife and technical issues with biopsies, high-grade cytology and/or clinical diagnosis of cancer was used as the primary high-grade cervical abnormality endpoint. Clinical performances for high-grade cervical abnormality of HPV testing and VIA for screening WLWH, and the most carcinogenic HPV genotypes and/or VIA to triage high-risk HPV-positive WLWH, were evaluated. Results: Four-hundred eighty-seven (86.0%) WLWH had results for HPV testing on both specimen, VIA, and cytology and were included in the analysis. Forty-nine (10.1%) had a high-grade cervical abnormality. HPV testing on provider- and self-collected specimens was more sensitive than VIA (95.9 and 91.8% vs. 43.8%, respectively, p < 0.01 for both comparisons) for identifying women with high-grade cervical abnormalities. HPV testing on provider- and self-collected specimens was less specific than VIA (57.5 and 51.6% vs. 89.7%, respectively, p < 0.01 for both comparisons) for identifying women with high-grade cervical abnormalities; HPV testing on provider-collected specimens was more specific than on self-collected specimens (p < 0.01). Among HPV-positive women, HPV16/18/45 detection or VIA positivity had a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 73.5 and 29.0%, respectively, for provider-collected specimens and 68.8 and 22.9%, respectively, for self-collected specimens for high-grade cervical abnormalities. Conclusions: HPV testing was more sensitive but less specific than VIA for detection of high-grade cervical abnormality in WLWH. Improved triage methods for HPV-positive WLWH are needed. Trial registration: NCT04401670 (clinicaltrials.gov); retrospectively registered on May 26, 2020.

18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(5): 463-469, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high prevalence of anal and penile human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with MSM living with HIV (MSMLH) bearing the highest rates. Data on anogenital high-risk HPV (hrHPV) among MSM in Rwanda and the associated risk factors are scant. METHODS: We recruited 350 self-identified MSM aged 18 years living in Kigali, Rwanda, with 300 recruited from the community and 50 from partner clinics. Anal and penile specimens from all participants were analyzed for hrHPV using the AmpFire platform. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as a measure of association between various factors and anal and penile hrHPV infection prevalence. RESULTS: Anal hrHPV prevalence was 20.1%, was positively associated with having receptive anal sex with more partners (aOR: 9.21, 95% CI: 3.66 to 23.14), and was negatively associated with having insertive anal sex with more partners (aOR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.66). Penile hrHPV prevalence was 35.0%, was negatively associated with having receptive anal sex with more partners (aOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.66), and differed significantly by HIV status, with 55.2% and 29.7% for MSMLH and HIV-negative MSM, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Penile hrHPV prevalence was higher than that of anal hrHPV and it was significantly higher in Rwandan MSMLH than in HIV-negative MSM. The prevalence of anal and penile HPV infections is likely variable at different locations in Africa, according to a number of factors including HIV status and sexual practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Ânus/virologia , Coinfecção , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Pênis/virologia , Pênis/virologia , Prevalência , Ruanda/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Epidemiology ; 31(4): 570-577, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some time-to-event analyses, it is unclear whether loss to follow up should be treated as a censoring event or competing event. Such ambiguity is particularly common in HIV research that uses routinely collected clinical data to report the timing of key milestones along the HIV care continuum. In this setting, loss to follow up may be viewed as a censoring event, under the assumption that patients who are "lost" from a study clinic immediately enroll in care elsewhere, or a competing event, under the assumption that people "lost" are out of care all together. METHODS: We illustrate an approach to address this ambiguity when estimating the 2-year risk of antiretroviral treatment initiation among 19,506 people living with HIV who enrolled in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort between 2006 and 2017, along with published estimates from tracing studies in Africa. We also assessed the finite sample properties of the proposed approach using simulation experiments. RESULTS: The estimated 2-year risk of treatment initiation was 69% if patients were censored at loss to follow up or 59% if losses to follow up were treated as competing events. Using the proposed approach, we estimated that the 2-year risk of antiretroviral therapy initiation was 62% (95% confidence interval: 61, 62). The proposed approach had little bias and appropriate confidence interval coverage under scenarios examined in the simulation experiments. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed approach relaxes the assumptions inherent in treating loss to follow up as a censoring or competing event in clinical HIV cohort studies.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por HIV , África , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(5): e25486, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Foreign-born persons comprise ~13% of the US population. Immigrants, especially women, often face a complex set of social and structural factors that negatively impact health outcomes including greater risk of HIV infection. We described socio-demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics and AIDs and non-AIDS death among foreign-born women living with HIV (FBWLWH) participating in the US Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in the US from 1994 to 2016. We hypothesized that FBW will experience higher AIDS-related mortality compared to US-born women (USBW). METHODS: The WIHS is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of mostly women living with HIV (WLWH). The primary exposure in this analysis, which focused on 3626 WLWH, was self-reported country of birth collapsed into foreign-born and US born. We assessed the association of birthplace with categorized demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics, and AIDS/non-AIDS mortality of WLWH, using chi-squared tests. Proportional hazard models examined the association of birthplace with time from enrolment to AIDS and non-AIDS death. RESULTS: Of the 628 FBW, 13% were born in Africa, 29% in the Caribbean and 49% in Latin America. We observed significant differences by HIV status in socio-demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics and mortality. For both AIDS and non-AIDS caused deaths FBW WLWH had lower rates of death. Adjusting for year of study enrolment and other demographic/clinical characteristics mitigated FBW's statistical survival advantage in AIDS deaths Relative Hazard (RH = 0.91 p = 0.53), but did not substantively change the survival advantage in non-AIDS deaths RH = 0.33, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Foreign-born WLWH exhibited demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics that are significantly different compared with women born in the US or US territory. After adjusting for these characteristics, the FB WLWH had a significantly lower hazard of non-AIDS but not AIDS mortality compared to women born in the US or a US territory. These findings of non-increased mortality can help inform models of care to optimize treatment outcomes among FBWLWH in the United States.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
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