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Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 26-35, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518467


INTRODUCTION: Electives have been shown to contribute to both the professional and personal development of students in specific areas of interest outside the standard curriculum. The School of Oral Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand introduced electives as a pedagogy in the Bachelor of Dental Sciences (BDS) and Bachelor of Oral Health Sciences (BOHSc) curricula in 2010 and 2014, respectively. However, since its introduction, the relevance of these electives in the BDS and BOHSc curricula has not been investigated. METHODS: This research was designed as an evaluation study that used a questionnaire survey administered to 76 dental and oral hygiene graduates (BDS and BOHSc). RESULTS: Of the initial 76 questionnaires that were distributed, 55 (BDS = 38, BOHSc = 17) were returned, giving a response rate of 72.4%. Almost all the participants (92.7%) agreed that the electives enabled them to develop better interpersonal skills; 80.0% and 82.7% agreed that their clinical skills, and knowledge of key concepts in dental practice, respectively, had improved upon completion of the elective. In appraising the elective programme, 87.0% of the graduates agreed that the content and outcome of the elective programme should be reviewed and changed. CONCLUSION: Obtaining empirical data on the impact of electives on clinical knowledge, skill and behaviour of dental graduates will enhance the relevance of electives in dental education. Findings by this study reveal that the actual impact of the electives on dental graduates was desirable and corresponded with the intended impact. The problematic areas that were identified will inform future planning.

Educação em Odontologia , Higiene Bucal , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565127


With its number of employees ranging from 45,310 to 46,000, the textile and apparel industry is the main private sector employer of labour in Lesotho. It has been reported that a third (an estimated 34%) of these workers are living with HIV. There is perception that textile factory workers living with HIV (TFWLWH) in Lesotho indulge in HIV risk-taking behaviours. However, no study has yet investigated or documented factors that influence risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers. Transmitting the disease to others, treatment complications and death consequent to HIV reinfection are complications associated with HIV risk-taking behaviours by seropositive individuals. Using an in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interview, this study obtained the perspectives of ten factory workers from three randomly selected textile factories in Maseru, Lesotho on factors that influence HIV-risk taking behaviour amongst TFWLWH in Lesotho. Analysis of the comments given by workers revealed four core themes, namely, peer pressure, communication, cultural norms and societal norms. Determining the predictors of HIV risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers will inform both present and future interventions aimed at supporting textile factory workers living with HIV in Lesotho. This supports the need for continued research to identify HIV risk-taking behaviours by people living with HIV countrywide, to decrease the incidence of new infections and complications arising from reinfection.

Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Indústria Têxtil , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Setor Privado , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558931


Introduction: Studies have reported that emergency medical care practitioners (EMCPs) encounter challenges when attending to psychiatric emergencies. The EMC provider's ability to understand, assess and manage psychiatric emergencies has been reported to be poor due to limited knowledge and insufficient training. In South Africa (SA), little is known about the knowledge of EMCPs on pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of EMCPs working in the Free State province on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This descriptive study used a questionnaire survey to obtain data on the knowledge of EMCPs on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Results: Only 159 of the initial 192 questionnaires distributed were returned, giving a response rate of 82.8%. The majority (87.4%) of the participants reported inadequate knowledge of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. More than a third of the participants reported that they are not knowledgeable on how to assess a psychiatric patient (P < 0.01), 64.2% and 73.6% (P < 0.001 in both cases) could not perform mental status examination and lack the knowledge of crisis intervention skills for managing a psychiatric emergencies. The majority (76.7%; P < 0.001) of the participants are not conversant with the Mental Health Care Act 2002 (Act no. 17 of 2002). Finally, participants (94.3% and 86.8%, respectively; P < 0.001) agree that teaching and prior exposure to a psychiatric facility, as in work integrated learning, will empower EMC graduates with skills required to effectively manage psychiatric emergencies. Conclusion: EMC practitioners are often the first healthcare professionals arriving at any scene of medical emergencies including psychiatric emergencies. To avoid malpractices, which could be detrimental to patient's health, it is of utmost importance that EMCPs are well trained and equipped to manage any form of medical emergency including those involving psychiatric patients.

Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223388


Introduction: In South Africa in 2016, injuries accounted for 4 483 deaths of children aged 0-4 years. Prior studies have reported that, in some parts of the country, poor pre-hospital clinical care is a key contributor to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill and injured children. A key component of a coordinated emergency health care system are emergency medical care (EMC) personnel. Here, we assess the knowledge of EMC personnel employed by the Free State Department of Health on aspects of paediatric pre-hospital emergency care. Methods: This descriptive study used a questionnaire survey to obtain data on the knowledge of Free State EMC personnel on aspects of paediatric pre-hospital emergency care. Results: Only 197 of the initial 250 questionnaires distributed were returned, giving a response rate of 78.8%. More than half (51.2%) of the participants across the five districts had inadequate knowledge of paediatric pre-hospital emergency care. The majority of EMC personnel could not calculate the paediatric blood pressure for age and did not know the paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (74.0% and 53.4% respectively; P < 0.0001 in both cases). Participants attributed inadequate knowledge to limited exposure to paediatrics cases, insufficient training, limited scope of practice, and lack of equipment. Conclusion: Enhancing the knowledge and skills of EMC personnel in paediatrics pre-hospital care through a short learning programme or continuous professional development programme, and providing adequate paediatric emergency equipment, will ensure that comprehensive pre-hospital emergency care is given to paediatric patients in the province.

Competência Clínica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Auxiliares de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Auxiliares de Emergência/educação , Auxiliares de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pediatria , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Pan Afr Med J ; 29: 8, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632630


There is paucity of physician-scientists in Africa, resulting in overt dependence of clinical practice on research findings from advanced "first world" countries. Physician-scientists include individuals with a medical degree alone or combined with other advanced degrees (e.g. MD/MBChB and PhD) with a career path in biomedical/ translational and patient-oriented/evaluative science research. The paucity of clinically trained research scientists in Africa could result in dire consequences as exemplified in the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, where shortage of skilled clinical scientists, played a major role in disease progression and mortality. Here we contextualise the role of physician-scientist in health care management, highlight factors limiting the training of physician-scientist in Africa and proffer implementable recommendations to address these factors.

Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Educação Médica/métodos , Médicos/organização & administração , África , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Papel do Médico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos