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Asian J Anesthesiol ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176407


BACKGROUND: Extended-release local anesthetics allow for prolonged analgesia after a single administration. Although Asians demonstrate different pain thresholds than Caucasians, whether they have different postoperative local anesthetic analgesic effects has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine on Asian and Caucasian adults, and the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, assessor-blinded cohort study of adult patients who received liposomal bupivacaine for surgery between 2012 and 2018. Asians and Caucasians were matched in a 1:1 ratio by clinical characteristics and surgery type. The primary outcome was pain management, defined as average pain score and opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours. The secondary outcome was the incidence of LAST syndrome. Reviewers were blinded to the ethnicity of the patient. RESULTS: After 1:1 propensity score matching, 130 Asians and 129 Caucasians were analyzed. All confounding variables were balanced, except for higher body mass index in the Asian group. Pain scores were lower (adjusted mean difference of -0.50 [97.5% CI, -0.98, -0.01]; superiority p = 0.011) and opioid consumption was not greater (geometric means ratio, 0.61 [97.5% CI, 0.36, 1.04]; non-inferiority p < 0.001) in Asian patients compared to Caucasian patients. Only one Caucasian patient was judged as having a potential case of LAST syndrome. The length of hospital stay and the incidence of additional complications were not different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Asian adults receiving liposomal bupivacaine as part of multimodal perioperative analgesia demonstrated lower pain scores compared to matching Caucasians, despite not having greater opioid consumption.

Anesth Analg ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031346


BACKGROUND: Avoiding intraoperative hypotension might serve as a measure of clinician skill. We, therefore, estimated the range of hypotension in patients of nurse anesthetists, and whether observed differences were associated with a composite of serious complications. METHODS: First, we developed a multivariable model to predict the amount of hypotension, defined as minutes of mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg, for noncardiac surgical cases from baseline characteristics excluding nurse anesthetist. Second, we compared observed and predicted amounts of hypotension for each case and summarized "excess" amounts across providers. Third, we estimated the extent to which hypotension on an individual case level was independently associated with a composite of serious complications. Finally, we assessed the range of actual and excess minutes of MAP <65 mm Hg on a provider level, and the extent to which these pressure exposures were associated with complications. RESULTS: We considered 110,391 hours of anesthesia by 99 nurse anesthetists. A total of 69% of 25,702 included cases had at least 1 minute of MAP <65 mm Hg, with a median (quartiles) of 4 (0-15) minutes on the case level. We were unable to explain much variance of intraoperative hypotension from baseline patient characteristics. However, cases in the highest 2 quartiles (>10 and >24 min/case more than predicted) were an estimated 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) and 31% (95% CI, 1.2-1.5) more likely to experience complications compared to those with 0 excess minutes (both P< .001). There was little variation of the average excess minutes <65 mm Hg across the nurse anesthetists, with median (quartiles) of 1.6 (1.2-1.9) min/h. There was no association in confounder-adjusted models on the nurse anesthetist level between average excess hypotension and complications, either for continuous exposure (P = .09) or as quintiles (P = .30). CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension is associated with complications on a case basis. But the average amount of hypotension for nurse anesthetists over hundreds of cases differed only slightly and was insufficient to explain meaningful differences in complications. Avoiding hypotension is a worthy clinical goal, but does not appear to be a useful metric of performance because the range of average amounts per clinician is not meaningfully associated with patient outcomes, at least among nurse anesthetists in 1 tertiary center.

Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037122


BACKGROUND: Informed consent for procedures in the emergency department (ED) challenges practitioners to navigate complex ethical and medical ambiguities. A patient's altered mental status or emergent medical problem does not negate the importance of his or her participation in the decision-making process but, rather, necessitates a nuanced assessment of the situation to determine the appropriate level of participation. Given the complexities involved with informed consent for procedures in the ED, it is important to understand the experience of key stakeholders involved. METHODS: For this review, we searched Medline, the Cochrane database, and for studies involving informed consent in the ED. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to select for studies that included issues related to informed consent as primary outcomes. The following data was extracted from included studies: Title, authors, date of publication, study type, participant type (i.e. adult patient, pediatric patient, parent of pediatric patient, patient's family, or healthcare provider), number of participants, and primary outcomes measured. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were included for final review. Commonly addressed themes included medical education (7 of 15 studies), surrogate decision-making (5 of 15 studies), and patient understanding (4 of 15 studies). The least common theme addressed in the literature was community notification (1 of 15 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Studies of informed consent for procedures in the ED span many aspects of informed consent. The aim of the present narrative review is to summarize the work that has been done on informed consent for procedures in the ED.

Anesthesiology ; 132(5): 1053-1061, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929326


BACKGROUND: Perioperative acute kidney injury is common. However, it is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value. Therefore, the long-term clinical importance of mild postoperative acute kidney injury remains unclear. This study assessed whether adults who do and do not experience mild kidney injury after noncardiac surgery are at similar risk for long-term renal injury. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of adults having noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic who had preoperative, postoperative, and long-term (1 to 2 yr after surgery) plasma creatinine measurements. The exposure (postoperative kidney injury) and outcome (long-term renal injury) were defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative criteria. The primary analysis was for lack of association between postoperative kidney injury (stage I vs. no injury) and long-term renal injury. RESULTS: Among 15,621 patients analyzed, 3% had postoperative stage I kidney injury. Long-term renal outcomes were not similar in patients with and without postoperative stage I injury. Specifically, about 26% of patients with stage I postoperative kidney injury still had mild injury 1 to 2 yr later, and 11% had even more severe injury. A full third (37%) of patients with stage I kidney injury therefore had renal injury 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Patients with postoperative stage I injury had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction (KDIGO stage I, II, or III) compared with patients without postoperative kidney injury (odds ratio [95% CI] of 2.4 [2.0 to 3.0]) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: In adults recovering from noncardiac surgery, even small postoperative increases in plasma creatinine, corresponding to stage I kidney injury, are associated with renal dysfunction 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Even mild postoperative renal injury should therefore be considered a clinically important perioperative outcome.

Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
Plant Direct ; 2(10): e00087, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245687


Anthocyanins provide ideal visual markers for the identification of mutations that disrupt molecular responses to abiotic stress. We screened Arabidopsis mutants of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) and MATE (Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion) transporter genes under nutritional stress and identified four genes (ABCG25,ABCG9,ABCG5, and MATE45) required for normal anthocyanin pigmentation. ABCG25 was previously demonstrated to encode a vascular-localized cellular exporter of abscisic acid (ABA). Our results show that MATE45 encodes an aerial meristem- and a vascular-localized transporter associated with the trans-Golgi, and that it plays an important role in controlling the levels and distribution of ABA in growing aerial meristems and non-meristematic tissues. MATE45 promoter-GUS reporter fusions revealed the activity localized to the leaf and influorescence meristems and the vasculature. Loss-of-function mate45 mutants exhibited accelerated rates of aerial organ initiation suggesting at least partial functional conservation with the maize ortholog bige1. The aba2-1 mutant, which is deficient in ABA biosynthesis, exhibited a number of phenotypes that were rescued in the mate45-1 aba2-1 double mutant. mate45 exhibited enhanced the seed dormancy, and germination was hypersensitive to ABA. Enhanced frequency of leaf primordia growth in mate45 seedlings grown in nutrient imbalance stress was ABA-dependent. The ABA signaling reporter construct pRD29B::GUS revealed elevated levels of ABA signaling in the true leaf primordia of mate45 seedlings grown under nutritional stress, and gradually reduced signaling in surrounding cotyledon and hypocotyl tissues concomitant with reduced expressions of ABCG25. Our results suggest a role of MATE45 in reducing meristematic ABA and in maintaining ABA distribution in adjacent non-meristematic tissues.