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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 19(3): 349-52, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27022798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HBE) is a part of the preoperative routine requested by anesthetists. However, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in the population is low. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors for hemoglobinopathies and propose clinical guidelines for preoperative screening of patients for pediatric day care surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study carried out over 12 months. Consecutive patients aged 6 months and older who had day case surgery were recruited to the study. Biodata and relevant clinical data were collated and documented in a proforma and analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences version 17. RESULTS: There were 124 patients106 boys and 18 girls. The median age was 3 years. Scrotal lesions were the most common conditions managed (71.7%). Seventy-eight percent of patients had HbAA, 15.3% had HbAS, and 4.8% had HbAC while 0.8% each had both HbSC and HbSS. At least one parent of 78.2% knew their Hb phenotype, of which, 79% were HbAA. A history of jaundice (P = 0.0001), hand and foot syndrome (P = 0.0001), frontal bossing (P = 0.0001), and low packed cell volume at surgery (P = 0.001) were found significant in predicting hemoglobinopathies. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for hemoglobinopathies from this study included a positive history of jaundice, hand and foot syndrome, frontal bossing, and anemia. Proposed guidelines for HBE screening include the presence of hemoglobinopathy in one parent if one parent has sickle cell trait, and the other parent's genotype is unknown or if any of the risk factors is present.


Assuntos
Eletroforese/métodos , Hemoglobinopatias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobina A , Hemoglobinopatias/sangue , Hemoglobinopatias/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traço Falciforme
2.
J West Afr Coll Surg ; 6(4): 83-103, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181366

RESUMO

Background: Informed consent is an integral part of a surgical and anaesthetic procedure, failure to obtain it may result in grave medico-legal implications. Aim: To determine the attitudes of Nigerian anaesthetists to informed consent. Methodology: The study population included physician anaesthetists who attended a continuous medical education programme in November 2015. The target was to cover over 50% of anaesthetists by convenience sampling. The responses to the questions were recorded and descriptive statistics were employed to calculate the various qualitative variables under study. Results: Fifty-six respondents were analysed, the majority were in the age group 31-40 years (37.5%), consultants were 51.79%, and males constituted 75%. The respondents agreed that the main purposes of informed consent included a need to improve the doctor/patient relationship in 36(64.29%), inform the patient about the desired benefits of the procedure in 32(57.14%), provide the doctor with greater protection against medical litigation in 32(57.14%), and to respect the patient's right of autonomy in 30(53.57%). The general consensus among the respondents was that the anaesthetist should explain to the patient what the procedure entails 40(71.43%), what the procedure aims to achieve and additional procedures that are likely to be necessary to the patient 41(73.21%). It was also agreed that there should be disclosure of all major risks/complications with incidence >1/20 in 29(51.79%) respondents, incidence >1/100 in 20(35.71%), incidence >1/1000, and incidence >1/10000 were 17(30.36%). The respondents who agreed that it is necessary to take consent before performing surgery or anaesthesia on patients and explained the procedure to patients were 48(85.71%). Conclusion: We determined that informed consent was an integral part of a surgical procedure. which helped to improve doctor/patient relationship, respected the patient's right of autonomy and provided the surgeon and anaesthetists with greater protection against medical litigation. It is paramount to disclose all major risk and complications. However, few anaesthetists 19(33.93%) obtain informed consent from their patients before epidural labour analgesia.

3.
West Afr J Med ; 33(3): 201-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26070825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the indications for tracheal intubation in the emergency department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and problems encountered with the view to improve patient outcome. METHODS: A one-year prospective observational study of endotracheal intubation in the emergency room (ER) of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Data collected included indications, methods, success rates, use of drugs and complications of intubation. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients underwent endotracheal intubation. Indications included severe traumatic brain injury (58.5%) and traumatic brain injury with associated multiple injuries (10.6%). Anaesthetist registrars performed 73.9% of the intubations. Seventy seven patients (81.9%) were successfully intubated at the first attempt. No patient required a surgical airway due to failed intubation. The mean time from a decision to intubate to successful tracheal intubation was 129.90 ± 23.43 mins. 63.8% of the patients were intubated between 4 pm-8 am. Causes of delay in endotracheal intubation were non availability of skilled personnel (47.9%), non-availability of drugs (27%) and lack of oxygen (25%). Eighty-eight patients (93.6%) had complications at intubation: hypotension (42.5%), desaturation (34%), oesophageal intubation (2.1%), bronchial intubation (5.3%), cardiac arrest (2.1%). Post intubation complications included: blocked tube in 3 patients, accidental extubation in 4 patients and kinking of tube in 1 patient. Nine patients (9.6%) improved and were extubated. CONCLUSION: In this institution, the majority of Emergency department intubations were performed by anaesthetists after working hours with a very high success rate and a low rate of post-intubation serious complications. The delay in intubation should urgently be addressed to improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia
4.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 23(1): 58-64, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24579497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The critically ill patient undergoes rapid changes in the internal milieu requiring quick intervention. Point of care testing has been shown to be valuable in the early diagnosis and management of such patients. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the agreement between I-STAT Abbot point of care testing with standard laboratory testing in the analysis of electrolytes and glucose concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODS: The study was performed in a Sub-Saharan Tertiary Teaching Hospital in critically ill patients. Electrolyte and glucose analysis were measured with I-STAT Abbot Analyzer unit with parallel blood specimens (n = 30) tested in the laboratory on an ion-selective electrode, SFRI analyzer ISE 6000. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in mean sodium, potassium, chloride and glucose between I-STAT POCT and standard laboratory measurements. The agreement between POCT and laboratory glucose was good p(c) = 0.967, mean difference of 0.79 and 95% limit of agreement from -3.83 to +5.107 mmol/L, p = 0.733. Bicarbonate was moderate (p) = 0.637, mean difference of 1.95 and 95% limit of agreement from -4.294 to +0.394 mmol/L, p = 0.101. There was moderate agreement for sodium (p(c)) = 0.32, mean difference of 5.8 and 95% limit of agreement from -0.378 to +11.98 mmol/L, p = 0.064. Agreement for potassium was moderate (p(c)) = 0.439, mean difference of 0.15 and limit of agreement from -0.401 to +0.701 mmol/L, p = 0.588. There was, however, a significant difference in mean chloride, and BUN values; chloride (p(c)) = 0.0796, mean difference of 13.8 and 95% limit of agreement from -7.55 to + 20.015 mmol/L. Blood urea nitrogen (p(c)) = 0.064, mean difference of 18.55 and 95% limit of agreement from -30.126 to +6.974 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: The mean sodium, potassium, glucose and bicarbonate were comparable with moderate to good agreement between I-STAT POCT and ISE 6000 Analyzer. Though, the mean BUN and chloride levels between the analytical methods differ significantly.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Estado Terminal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Centros de Atenção Terciária , África ao Sul do Saara , Glicemia/análise , Eletrólitos/sangue , Humanos
5.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 23(2): 142-4, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24579513

RESUMO

Eventration of the diaphragm can have varied symptomatology. We present three cases that presented with features suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction, productive cough of acute onset, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture respectively. They were successfully treated with plication of affected hemidiaphragm. We also reviewed existing literature on the subject with presentation of our findings.


Assuntos
Eventração Diafragmática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eventração Diafragmática/cirurgia , Obstrução da Saída Gástrica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 22(2): 103-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23175907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrolytes and acid-base disorders are common challenges seen in the intensive care unit (ICU) resulting in difficulty in weaning patients off the ventilator, prolonged admission periods, preventable cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. These require prompt lab results most of which are done serially, ideally a point of care test (POCT), as most central hospital lab result's turnaround time (TAT) sometimes might not meet up with the urgency of clinical decision making in the ICU. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of electrolytes and acid-base abnormalities using i-Stat portable analysers in the ICU of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). METHOD: The i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer, a POCT system consisting of a hand-held analyzer and single-use cartridges that measure different panels of analytes in 65-100 microl of blood using an EC8+ cartridge type analyzer for sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, pH, blood gases [TCO2, pO2, pCO2]) and heamatocrit was used. RESULTS: Over 66.78% of the patients had multiple electrolytes and acid-base abnormalities. Azotemia in 20%, hypoglycaemia in 13.33%, and hyperglycaemia in 53.33% of patients. CONCLUSION: it is concluded from this study that electrolyte and acid base abnormalities is not uncommon in the intensive care unit of LUTH and the i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer was helpful in facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Estado Terminal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue
7.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 22(2): 113-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23175909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-ray pelvimetry is a radiological investigation that involves the measurement of different anthropometric dimensions of the pelvis. The pelvic inlet and outlet play important role in labour outcome. The query as to whether x-ray pelvimetry has a useful predictive value regarding labour outcome prompted this study. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of X-ray pelvimetry is still relevant in term pregnancy, and its reliability in predicting labour outcome. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of pregnant patients who had X-ray pelvimetry at term and successfully delivered at a rural community based mission maternity hospital between 2005-2008. Each x- ray pelvimetry report was matched with the mode of delivery of the patient. 150 patients who were found suitable had data such as age, mode of delivery, etc, extracted. RESULTS: In a review of 150 X -ray pelvimetry films, 119 (79.33%) were categorised as adequate pelvis, 10(6.67%) borderline pelvis and 21 (14%) inadequate pelvis respectively based on the conclusions of the radiologist. Out of the 21 patients with inadequate pelvis, 14 (67%) had normal delivery and 7 (33%) had caesarean section. For the 10 patients with borderline pelvis, 7 (67%) had normal delivery and 3 (33%) had caesarean section. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that X-ray pelvimetry may not be accurate but has fair predictive value on mode of delivery in term pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 22(1): 34-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23175878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is an early clinical sign suggestive of vascular damage to the glomerulus. Microalbuminuria has also been currently reported as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and becomes relevant in the management of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: This study is to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria, identify the risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes, and to asses the achievement of treatment goals for cardiovascular risk reduction in type 2 diabetics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy- two subjects with microalbuminuria were recruited from three hundred consecutively screened type 2 diabetics attending the Diabetic Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the participants. Anthropometric measurements were made and blood specimens were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of microalbuminuria was twenty-four percent (24%) in type 2 diabetes. Multiple logistic regression identified duration of diabetes (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI; 0.03-1.58), hypertension(odds ratio 5.2 (95% Cl; 1.24-18.62), Body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio 1.27 (95% CI; 1.0-1.6), waist/hip ratio (WHR) (odds ratio 1.9 (95% Cl; 1.3-3.5), andHbA,c (odds ratio 6.6 (95% Cl; 1.02-27) as independent risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetics. Optimum blood pressure, glycemic and weight control were achieved in eighty five percent (85%), fifty eight percent (58%) and nineteen percent (19%) of the type 2 diabetes respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that microalbuminuria is common among patients with type 2 diabetes. It also showed improvement in glycemic control and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor control when compared with previous studies.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 22(4): 236-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24568056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of total cancer cases and 14% of cancer deaths worldwide. The developing countries are catching up with this trend. Breast ultrasound when properly performed and interpreted, is an indispensable tool in breast imaging. The early diagnosis and treatment of breast masses reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with delayed diagnosis of breast carcinoma. The use of breast ultrasound is gaining ground in recent time, this is due to current advances in ultrasound technology which permit greater spatial and contrast resolution and shortened scan time. OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of ultrasound in the detection of palpable breast masses and to correlate the findings of ultrasound with the findings of fine needle aspiration cytology, or histopathology. METHODS: Breast ultrasound scanning was done in 100 patients with signs and symptoms of breast lesion referred from the Surgical out Patient Clinic to the Radiodiagnosis Department of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Histology reports were collected from either the case note or Morbid Anatomy department to correlate the findings with ultrasound diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age was 41.7 +/- 11.34 (18-59) years. Symptoms of breast lesion were highest in the age group 41-50 years 38 (38%), and least in 18-20 years 4 (4%). When the use of ultrasonography was compared with the histopathology report in the diagnosis of breast lesion in the studied population, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity (96.6%), accuracy (97%), posting predictive value (PPV) 81.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 100%. The accuracy, specificity and PPV however decreased with increasing age. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography of the breast is useful in the diagnosis of breast lesions, because of the high sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value it exhibited with histopathologic findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Mamária , Adulto Jovem
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