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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 157, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to the first recorded outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Uganda, in March 2016, earlier studies done until the 1970's indicated the presence of the RVF virus (RVFV) in the country, without any recorded outbreaks in either man or animals. While severe outbreaks of RVF occurred in the neighboring countries, none were reported in Uganda despite forecasts that placed some parts of Uganda at similar risk. The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) undertook studies to determine the RVF sero-prevalence in risk prone areas. Three datasets from cattle sheep and goats were obtained; one from retrospective samples collected in 2010-2011 from the northern region; the second from the western region in 2013 while the third was from a cross-sectional survey done in 2016 in the south-western region. Laboratory analysis involved the use of the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses, including non-parametric chi-square tests for comparisons between districts and species in the regions. RESULTS: During the Yellow Fever outbreak investigation of 2010-2011 in the northern region, a total sero-prevalence of 6.7% was obtained for anti RVFV reacting antibodies (IgG and IgM) among the domestic ruminant population. The 2013 sero-survey in the western region showed a prevalence of 18.6% in cattle and 2.3% in small ruminants. The 2016 sero-survey in the districts of Kabale, Kanungu, Kasese, Kisoro and Rubirizi, in the south-western region, had the respective district RVF sero-prevalence of 16.0, 2.1, 0.8, 15.1and 2.7% among the domestic ruminants combined for this region; bovines exhibited the highest cumulative sero-prevalence of 15.2%, compared to 5.3 and 4.0% respectively for sheep and goats per species for the region. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of apparent outbreaks in Uganda, despite neighboring enzootic areas, having minimal restrictions to the exchange of livestock and their products across borders, suggest an unexpected RVF activity in the study areas that needs to be unraveled. Therefore, more in-depth studies are planned to mitigate the risk of an overt RVF outbreak in humans and animals as has occurred in neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/imunologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Prevalência , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 11: 106, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal, haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs, that poses a serious threat to pig farmers and is currently endemic in domestic pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To obtain insight into the factors related to ASF outbreaks at the farm-level, a longitudinal study was performed in one of the major pig producing areas in central Uganda. Potential risk factors associated with outbreaks of ASF were investigated including the possible presence of apparently healthy ASF-virus (ASFV) infected pigs, which could act as long-term carriers of the virus. Blood and serum were sampled from 715 pigs (241 farms) and 649 pigs (233 farms) to investigate presence of ASFV and antibodies, during the periods of June-October 2010 and March-June 2011, respectively. To determine the potential contribution of different risks to ASF spread, a questionnaire-based survey was administered to farmers to assess the association between ASF outbreaks during the study period and the risk factors. RESULTS: Fifty-one (21 %) and 13 (5.6 %) farms reported an ASF outbreak on their farms in the previous one to two years and during the study period, respectively. The incidence rate for ASF prior to the study period was estimated at 14.1 per 100 pig farm-years and 5.6 per 100 pig farm-years during the study. Three pigs tested positive for ASFV using real-time PCR, but none tested positive for ASFV specific antibodies using two different commercial ELISA tests. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for existence of pigs that were long-term carriers for the virus based on the analysis of blood and serum as there were no seropositive pigs and the only three ASFV DNA positive pigs were acutely infected and were linked to outbreaks reported by farmers during the study. Potential ASF risk factors were present on both small and medium-scale pig farms, although small scale farms exhibited a higher proportion with multiple potential risk factors (like borrowing boars for sows mating, buying replacement from neighboring farms without ascertaining health status, etc) and did not implement any biosecurity measures. However, no risk factors were significantly associated with ASF reports during the study.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/sangue , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Virus Genes ; 47(2): 370-3, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23225112

RESUMO

Porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) are small linear ssDNA viruses belonging to the genus bocavirus in the family Parvoviridae. The genome encodes four proteins-the non-structural protein 1 (NS1), the NP1 protein (unknown function) and the two structural proteins VP1 and VP2. In recent years, a number of different highly divergent PoBoV species have been discovered. PoBoVs have been shown to be present in pig populations in Europe, Asia and in the United States of America. In this study, we present the first data of the presence of PoBoV in Africa, specifically in Uganda. A PCR targeting a PoBoV species that have previously been detected in both Sweden and China was used to screen 95 serum samples from domestic pigs in Uganda. Two pigs were found to be positive for this specific PoBoV and the complete coding region was amplified from one of these samples. The amino acid sequence comparison of all these proteins showed a high identity (98-99 %) to the published Chinese sequences (strains: H18 and SX) belonging to the same PoBoV species. The same was true for the Swedish sequences from the same species. To the other PoBoV species the divergence was higher and only a 28-43 % protein sequence identity was seen comparing the different proteins.


Assuntos
Bocavirus/classificação , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bocavirus/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Soro/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Uganda
5.
Virol J ; 9: 192, 2012 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22967311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of rapidly growing human populations, intensification of livestock production and increasing exploitation of wildlife habitats for animal agriculture, the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans is expanding, with potential impacts on both domestic animal and human health. Wild animals serve as reservoirs for many viruses, which may occasionally result in novel infections of domestic animals and/or the human population. Given this background, we used metagenomics to investigate the presence of viral pathogens in sera collected from bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), a nocturnal species of wild Suid known to move between national parks and farmland, in Uganda. RESULTS: Application of 454 pyrosequencing demonstrated the presence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), a GB Hepatitis C-like virus, and a Sclerotinia hypovirulence-associated-like virus in sera from the bushpigs. PCR assays for each specific virus combined with Sanger sequencing revealed two TTSuV-1 variants, one TTSuV-2 variant as well as PPV4 in the serum samples and thereby confirming the findings from the 454 sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Using a viral metagenomic approach we have made an initial analysis of viruses present in bushpig sera and demonstrated for the first time the presence of PPV4 in a wild African Suid. In addition we identified novel variants of TTSuV-1 and 2 in bushpigs.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Parvovirus Suíno/classificação , Parvovirus Suíno/genética , Suínos , Torque teno virus/classificação , Torque teno virus/genética , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 74(11): 1417-22, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22785123

RESUMO

A serological survey on bovine brucellosis was carried out 3 times between 2007 and 2009 in 3 districts (Kiboga, Mpigi and Kiruhura) in western Uganda and 2 (Kumi and Mbale) in the east employing the rose bengal test (RBT) for infected-herd screening and an indirect ELISA (iELISA) for testing the serostatus of individual animals. The animal prevalence was significantly higher in the 3 districts of the west (mean 21.5% in 2009) compared with the 2 districts (mean 3.4% in 2008) in the east (P<0.0001), though a significant difference was not observed between Kumi and Mpigi in 2008. In the west, it was the lowest in Mpigi, but a significant increase was observed between 2008 (5.3%) and 2009 (30.0%), as in Kiruhura, in which the prevalence increased from 8.1% in 2007 to 16.8% in 2009. A similar trend was also observed in Kumi, namely, the seropositivity significantly increased from 2.3% in 2007 to 6.2% in 2008 and became remarkably higher than in Mbale (0.64%). As a result, the farm prevalence was also higher in the west, especially in Kiboga in 2007 (77.8%) and 2008 (65.6%), and Mpigi in 2009 (70.8%). The linear predictor of the fitted generalized linear model proved that the logit of RBT positivity increased linearly over the increase in percent positivity values. This study demonstrated an example of an unaided self-help survey as one of the control measures in Uganda.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Rosa Bengala , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Virol J ; 9: 39, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22336096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) are small, single-stranded circular DNA viruses belonging to the Anelloviridae family. Available studies clearly show that both viruses are widely distributed in the pig populations in America, Europe and Asia, although the impact of the infection is still unclear. Currently, the situation in domestic pig populations on the African continent is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible presence of the two viruses in domestic pigs in Uganda, and describe the phylogenetic relationships to those in the rest of the world. RESULTS: Ninety-five serum samples from six districts in Uganda were used, and PCR using TTSuV1 and 2 specific primers for the UTR region was run for viral nucleic acid detection. The positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses performed in order to compare the Ugandan sequences with sequences from other parts of the world. The prevalence of TTSuV1 and 2 in the selected domestic pigs were estimated at 16.8% and 48.4% respectively, with co-infection found in 13.7%. The sequence identity was 90-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV1; and 63-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV2 sequences. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the presence of TTSuV1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda. These results highlight the importance of screening for emerging viruses given the globalisation of human activities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Torque teno virus/classificação , Torque teno virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Primers do DNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soro/virologia , Suínos , Torque teno virus/genética , Uganda
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