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1.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(5): 1594-1602.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that influences postoperative morbidity and mortality after vascular procedures; however, its integration in clinical practice has been limited, given the lack of consensus on how to measure it. This study sought to compare the incremental predictive value of six different nonphysical performance frailty scales to predict poor outcomes after interventions for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: This preplanned analysis of the FRailty Assessment In Lower Extremity arterial Disease (FRAILED) prospective cohort included two centers recruiting patients between July 1, 2015, and October 1, 2016. Individuals who underwent vascular interventions for Rutherford class 3 or higher PAD were enrolled. The following scales were compared: Edmonton Frail Scale, Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), modified Essential Frailty Toolset (mEFT), modified Frailty Index, Multidimensional Prognostic Index, and the Risk Analysis Index-C. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality and major disability at 12 months after the procedure. The secondary end point was length of stay. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of frailty with the primary end point after adjusting for confounders. To compare the incremental predictive value of each frailty scale, model performance statistics were calculated. RESULTS: The cohort was composed of 148 patients with a mean age of 70 years. Depending on the scale used, the prevalence of frailty ranged from 16% to 70%. Frailty as measured by the GFI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.72) and mEFT (adjusted odds ratio, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) predicted mortality and worsening disability at 12 months after interventions for PAD. Furthermore, there was statistically significant C-statistic, Bayesian information criterion, and integrated discrimination improvement when the GFI and mEFT were added to the baseline model. Frailty was not associated with length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is associated with mortality and worsening disability after interventions for PAD. The GFI and mEFT performed well and identified vulnerable older adults who are at risk of poor outcomes after interventions for PAD and recommended for use in this setting.

2.
J Surg Res ; 237: 3-11, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise-based interventions have become part of the standard of care in rehabilitation programs for cardiovascular risk reduction and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. The systematic review describes the current state of knowledge of the effects of preoperative exercise training (prehabilitation) on perioperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular interventions. METHODS: Studies were systematically searched within 14 databases from inception to October 2016. Only studies that assessed a preoperative exercise program in adult patients undergoing cardiac or vascular interventions with clinical or patient-centered endpoints were included in the review. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed quality using Cochrane Collaboration's tool for RCTs11111111111111111 and ROBINS-I tool for nonrandomized studies. RESULTS: Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and were stratified for qualitative analyses by cardiac (n = 7) and vascular (n = 2) procedures. Prehabilitation was associated with decreased length of stay, reduced postoperative complications, improved objective physical functioning, and improved subjective quality of life (SF-36 physical and mental health domains) measures in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular procedures. Given the amount of heterogeneity that was present in the designs, populations, and comparators among the included studies, we were unable to statistically pool data across trials. CONCLUSIONS: Our qualitative findings suggest that prehabilitation may improve clinical outcomes, physical performance, and health-related quality-of-life measures in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular surgery procedures.

3.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6): 1989-1998.e2, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review sought to describe the current state of knowledge of the impact of frailty on perioperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing vascular interventions. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature from both PubMed and Ovid Embase databases was conducted to identify relevant English- and French-language articles published from inception to May 31, 2018. Patients undergoing vascular surgery interventions were included. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies have addressed the prevalence or prognostic impact of frailty in patients undergoing vascular surgery procedures. The prevalence of frailty ranged from 20% to 60%, and notably 14 different frailty assessments were used in these studies. Frailty was associated with increased comorbid status, prolonged length of stay, discharge to assisted living facility, loss of independence, postoperative morbidity, and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There are a variety of heterogeneous tools to measure frailty in patients undergoing vascular surgery interventions. The prevalence of frailty varies by the scale used to measure it, as does its predictive value. Clinicians and surgeons should be sensitized to the importance of assessing frailty preoperatively in older adults undergoing vascular surgery and using it to assist in the decision-making process and allocation of surgical resources.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(21): 2185-2192, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine whether frail older adults undergoing nonfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures had a higher risk of 30-day and 12-month mortality. BACKGROUND: Frailty can help predict outcomes and guide therapy in older adults being considered for TAVR. Nonfemoral TAVR procedures are more invasive and impart a greater risk of adverse events, which may be less well tolerated in frail patients, compared with transfemoral TAVR procedures. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty Assessment Before Cardiac Surgery & Transcatheter Interventions) prospective multicenter cohort that consisted of older adults undergoing TAVR from 2012 to 2017. Frailty was assessed using the Essential Frailty Toolset (EFT). Endpoints of interest were 30-day and 12-month all-cause mortality. Interaction tables and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate statistical interaction on the additive and multiplicative scales. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 723 patients with a mean age of 84 ± 6 years, of which 556 (77%) had femoral access and 167 (23%) had nonfemoral access. In frail patients with EFT scores ≥3 (35%), nonfemoral access was associated with increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48 to 10.31); whereas in nonfrail patients with EFT scores <3 (65%), nonfemoral access had no effect (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.34 to 4.94). There was statistical evidence of interaction between frailty and access site on 30-day mortality on the additive scale (relative excess risk due to interaction = 5.95). Nonfemoral access was associated with increased 1-year mortality in frail patients (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.00 to 3.93) but not in nonfrail patients (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 0.90 to 3.74), although there was no statistical evidence of interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Frail patients undergoing TAVR via a more invasive nonfemoral access face a substantially higher risk of 30-day mortality, whereas nonfrail older adults tolerate the procedure with a low short-term risk irrespective of access route.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Canadá , Cateterismo Periférico/mortalidade , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/mortalidade , França , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
CNS Drugs ; 32(4): 321-334, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiologic evidence regarding the risk of ICH associated with SSRIs and antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all relevant articles in English, French, or German published before April 2017. Observational studies with SSRIs or any antidepressants classified by strength of serotonin reuptake inhibition as primary exposure, a comparison group, and ICH as outcome were eligible. RESULTS: Among twelve identified studies (six nested case-control, three cohort, two case-control, one case-crossover), seven assessed the risk of ICH associated with SSRIs (some also including other antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake), two the risk of ICH associated with inhibitors of serotonin reuptake according to the degree of reuptake inhibition, and three addressed both objectives. Four of ten studies showed an increased risk of ICH associated with SSRIs, with the two largest studies suggesting a moderate effect. Three of five studies showed an increased risk of ICH associated with strong inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Limitations including residual confounding, inclusion of prevalent users, potentially inappropriate study designs, and lack of power may have influenced these results, especially in studies showing no association or a highly increased risk. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests an increased risk of ICH with antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake, such as SSRIs. An increased risk of ICH with strong inhibitors of serotonin reuptake compared with weak inhibitors is also possible but the available evidence is limited. Antidepressants only moderately or weakly inhibiting serotonin reuptake might be preferred in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Humanos
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(3): 191-197, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344620

RESUMO

Importance: Depression is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about depression in older adults undergoing transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical (SAVR) aortic valve replacement. Objective: To determine the prevalence of depression and its association with all-cause mortality in older adults undergoing TAVR or SAVR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This preplanned analysis of the Frailty Aortic Valve Replacement (FRAILTY-AVR) prospective cohort study included 14 centers in 3 countries from November 15, 2011, through April 7, 2016. Individuals 70 years or older who underwent TAVR or SAVR were enrolled. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form at baseline and follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality at 1 and 12 months after TAVR or SAVR. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of depression with mortality after adjusting for confounders such as frailty and cognitive impairment. Results: Among 1035 older adults (427 men [41.3%] and 608 women [58.7%]) with a mean (SD) age of 81.4 (6.1) years, 326 (31.5%) had a positive result of screening for depression, whereas only 89 (8.6%) had depression documented in their clinical record. After adjusting for clinical and geriatric confounders, baseline depression was found to be associated with mortality at 1 month (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.18-4.10) and at 12 months (OR, 1.532; 95% CI, 1.03-2.24). Persistent depression, defined as baseline depression that was still present 6 months after the procedure, was associated with a 3-fold increase in mortality at 12 months (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.08-8.20). Conclusions and Relevance: One in 3 older adults undergoing TAVR or SAVR had depressive symptoms at baseline and a higher risk of short-term and midterm mortality. Patients with persistent depressive symptoms at follow-up had the highest risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Depressão/mortalidade , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/psicologia
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 103(5): 1498-1504, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty assessment can help predict which older adults will experience adverse events after cardiac surgical procedures. Low muscle mass is a core component of frailty that is suboptimally captured by self-reported weight loss; refined measures using computed tomographic (CT) images have emerged and are predictive of outcomes in noncardiac surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between CT muscle area and length of stay (LOS) after cardiac surgical procedures. METHODS: Frail patients who had a perioperative abdominal or thoracic CT scan were identified. The CT scans were analyzed to measure cross-sectional lean muscle area at the L4 vertebra (psoas muscle area [PMA], lumbar muscle area [LMA]) and the T4 vertebra (thoracic muscle area [TMA]). The associations of PMA, LMA, and TMA with frailty markers and postoperative LOS were investigated. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were included; the mean age was 69.2 ± 9.97 years. Low muscle area was correlated with lower handgrip strength and short physical performance battery (SPPB) scores indicative of physical frailty. Postoperative LOS was correlated with PMA (R = -0.47, p = 0.004), LMA (R = -0.41, p = 0.01), and TMA (R = -0.29, p = 0.03). After adjustment for the predicted risk of prolonged LOS, age, sex, and body surface area, PMA remained significantly associated with LOS (ß = -2.35, 95% CI -4.48 to -0.22). The combination of low PMA and handgrip strength, indicative of sarcopenia, yielded the greatest incremental value in predicting LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Low PMA is a marker of physical frailty associated with increased LOS in older adults undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. Further research is necessary to validate PMA as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Idoso Fragilizado , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Superfície Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculos Psoas/patologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto
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