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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2119765119, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594392

RESUMO

SignificanceQuantum coherence has a fundamentally different origin for nonidentical and identical particles since for the latter a unique contribution exists due to indistinguishability. Here we experimentally show how to exploit, in a controllable fashion, the contribution to quantum coherence stemming from spatial indistinguishability. Our experiment also directly proves, on the same footing, the different role of particle statistics (bosons or fermions) in supplying coherence-enabled advantage for quantum metrology. Ultimately, our results provide insights toward viable quantum-enhanced technologies based on tunable indistinguishability of identical building blocks.

2.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(11)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828204

RESUMO

Under the influence of external environments, quantum systems can undergo various different processes, including decoherence and equilibration. We observe that macroscopic objects are both objective and thermal, thus leading to the expectation that both objectivity and thermalisation can peacefully coexist on the quantum regime too. Crucially, however, objectivity relies on distributed classical information that could conflict with thermalisation. Here, we examine the overlap between thermal and objective states. We find that in general, one cannot exist when the other is present. However, there are certain regimes where thermality and objectivity are more likely to coexist: in the high temperature limit, at the non-degenerate low temperature limit, and when the environment is large. This is consistent with our experiences that everyday-sized objects can be both thermal and objective.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1471, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674586

RESUMO

The classical Gibbs paradox concerns the entropy change upon mixing two gases. Whether an observer assigns an entropy increase to the process depends on their ability to distinguish the gases. A resolution is that an "ignorant" observer, who cannot distinguish the gases, has no way of extracting work by mixing them. Moving the thought experiment into the quantum realm, we reveal new and surprising behaviour: the ignorant observer can extract work from mixing different gases, even if the gases cannot be directly distinguished. Moreover, in the macroscopic limit, the quantum case diverges from the classical ideal gas: as much work can be extracted as if the gases were fully distinguishable. We show that the ignorant observer assigns more microstates to the system than found by naive counting in semiclassical statistical mechanics. This demonstrates the importance of accounting for the level of knowledge of an observer, and its implications for genuinely quantum modifications to thermodynamics.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(18): 180504, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763920

RESUMO

Quantum systems can be exploited for disruptive technologies but in practice quantum features are fragile due to noisy environments. Quantum coherence, a fundamental such feature, is a basis-dependent property that is known to exhibit a resilience to certain types of Markovian noise. Yet, it is still unclear whether this resilience can be relevant in practical tasks. Here, we experimentally investigate the resilient effect of quantum coherence in a photonic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state under Markovian bit-flip noise, and explore its applications in a noisy metrology scenario. In particular, using up to six-qubit probes, we demonstrate that the standard quantum limit can be outperformed under a transversal noise strength of approximately equal magnitude to the signal, providing experimental evidence of metrological advantage even in the presence of uncorrelated Markovian noise. This work highlights the important role of passive control in noisy quantum hardware, which can act as a low-overhead complement to more traditional approaches such as quantum error correction, thus impacting on the deployment of quantum technologies in real-world settings.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 151(9): 094107, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492070

RESUMO

The reaction-coordinate mapping is a useful technique to study complex quantum dissipative dynamics into structured environments. In essence, it aims to mimic the original problem by means of an "augmented system," which includes a suitably chosen collective environmental coordinate-the "reaction coordinate." This composite then couples to a simpler "residual reservoir" with short-lived correlations. If, in addition, the residual coupling is weak, a simple quantum master equation can be rigorously applied to the augmented system, and the solution of the original problem just follows from tracing out the reaction coordinate. But, what if the residual dissipation is strong? Here, we consider an exactly solvable model for heat transport-a two-node linear "quantum wire" connecting two baths at different temperatures. We allow for a structured spectral density at the interface with one of the reservoirs and perform the reaction-coordinate mapping, writing a perturbative master equation for the augmented system. We find that (a) strikingly, the stationary state of the original problem can be reproduced accurately by a weak-coupling treatment even when the residual dissipation on the augmented system is very strong, (b) the agreement holds throughout the entire dynamics under large residual dissipation in the overdamped regime; and (c) such a master equation can grossly overestimate the stationary heat current across the wire, even when its nonequilibrium steady state is captured faithfully. These observations can be crucial when using the reaction-coordinate mapping to study the largely unexplored strong-coupling regime in quantum thermodynamics.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(5): 050501, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491318

RESUMO

Extendibility of bosonic Gaussian states is a key issue in continuous-variable quantum information. We show that a bosonic Gaussian state is k-extendible if and only if it has a Gaussian k-extension, and we derive a simple semidefinite program, whose size scales linearly with the number of local modes, to efficiently decide k-extendibility of any given bosonic Gaussian state. When the system to be extended comprises one mode only, we provide a closed-form solution. Implications of these results for the steerability of quantum states and for the extendibility of bosonic Gaussian channels are discussed. We then derive upper bounds on the distance of a k-extendible bosonic Gaussian state to the set of all separable states, in terms of trace norm and Rényi relative entropies. These bounds, which can be seen as "Gaussian de Finetti theorems," exhibit a universal scaling in the total number of modes, independently of the mean energy of the state. Finally, we establish an upper bound on the entanglement of formation of Gaussian k-extendible states, which has no analogue in the finite-dimensional setting.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(14): 140505, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050483

RESUMO

We investigate the localization of two incoherent point sources with arbitrary angular and axial separations in the paraxial approximation. By using quantum metrology techniques, we show that a simultaneous estimation of the two separations is achievable by a single quantum measurement, with a precision saturating the ultimate limit stemming from the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. Such a precision is not degraded in the subwavelength regime, thus overcoming the traditional limitations of classical direct imaging derived from Rayleigh's criterion. Our results are qualitatively independent of the point spread function of the imaging system, and quantitatively illustrated in detail for the Gaussian instance. This analysis may have relevant applications in three-dimensional surface measurements.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(14): 140402, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050492

RESUMO

One of the central problems in the study of quantum resource theories is to provide a given resource with an operational meaning, characterizing physical tasks in which the resource can give an explicit advantage over all resourceless states. We show that this can always be accomplished for all convex resource theories. We establish in particular that any resource state enables an advantage in a channel discrimination task, allowing for a strictly greater success probability than any state without the given resource. Furthermore, we find that the generalized robustness measure serves as an exact quantifier for the maximal advantage enabled by the given resource state in a class of subchannel discrimination problems, providing a universal operational interpretation to this fundamental resource quantifier. We also consider a wider range of subchannel discrimination tasks and show that the generalized robustness still serves as the operational advantage quantifier for several well-known theories such as entanglement, coherence, and magic.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(15): 150402, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050502

RESUMO

We compute analytically the maximal rates of distillation of quantum coherence under strictly incoherent operations (SIO) and physically incoherent operations (PIO), showing that they coincide for all states, and providing a complete description of the phenomenon of bound coherence. In particular, we establish a simple, analytically computable necessary and sufficient criterion for the asymptotic distillability under SIO and PIO. We use this result to show that almost every quantum state is undistillable-only pure states as well as states whose density matrix contains a rank-one submatrix allow for coherence distillation under SIO or PIO, while every other quantum state exhibits bound coherence. This demonstrates the fundamental operational limitations of SIO and PIO in the resource theory of quantum coherence. We show that the fidelity of distillation of a single bit of coherence under SIO can be efficiently computed as a semidefinite program, and investigate the generalization of this result to provide an understanding of asymptotically achievable distillation fidelity.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(13): 130601, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012629

RESUMO

We study the process of assisted work distillation. This scenario arises when two parties share a bipartite quantum state ρ_{AB} and their task is to locally distill the optimal amount of work when one party is restricted to thermal operations, whereas the other can perform general quantum operations and they are allowed to communicate classically. We demonstrate that this question is intimately related to the distillation of classical and quantum correlations. In particular, we show that the advantage of one party performing global measurements over many copies of ρ_{AB} is related to the nonadditivity of the entanglement of formation. We also show that there may exist work bound in the quantum correlations of the state that is only extractable under the wider class of local Gibbs-preserving operations.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 010502, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012703

RESUMO

We consider a quantum communication task between two users Alice and Bob, in which Alice and Bob exchange their respective quantum information by means of local operations and classical communication assisted by shared entanglement. Here, we assume that Alice and Bob may have quantum side information, not transferred, and classical communication is free. In this work, we derive general upper and lower bounds for the least amount of entanglement which is necessary to perfectly perform this task, called the state exchange with quantum side information. Moreover, we show that the optimal entanglement cost can be negative when Alice and Bob make use of their quantum side information. We finally provide conditions on the initial state for the state exchange with quantum side information which give the exact optimal entanglement cost.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(16): 160401, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387674

RESUMO

Quantum Darwinism posits that information becomes objective whenever multiple observers indirectly probe a quantum system by each measuring a fraction of the environment. It was recently shown that objectivity of observables emerges generically from the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics, whenever the system of interest has finite dimensions and the number of environment fragments is large [F. G. S. L. Brandão, M. Piani, and P. Horodecki, Nat. Commun. 6, 7908 (2015)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms8908]. Despite the importance of this result, it necessarily excludes many practical systems of interest that are infinite dimensional, including harmonic oscillators. Extending the study of quantum Darwinism to infinite dimensions is a nontrivial task: we tackle it here by using a modified diamond norm, suitable to quantify the distinguishability of channels in infinite dimensions. We prove two theorems that bound the emergence of objectivity, first for finite mean energy systems, and then for systems that can only be prepared in states with an exponential energy cutoff. We show that the latter class includes any bounded-energy subset of single-mode Gaussian states.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(7): 070404, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169098

RESUMO

The ability to distill quantum coherence is pivotal for optimizing the performance of quantum technologies; however, such a task cannot always be accomplished with certainty. Here we develop a general framework of probabilistic distillation of quantum coherence in a one-shot setting, establishing fundamental limitations for different classes of free operations. We first provide a geometric interpretation for the maximal success probability, showing that under maximally incoherent operations (MIO) and dephasing-covariant incoherent operations (DIO) the problem can be simplified into efficiently computable semidefinite programs. Exploiting these results, we find that DIO and its subset of strictly incoherent operations have equal power in the probabilistic distillation of coherence from pure input states, while MIO are strictly stronger. We then prove a fundamental no-go result: Distilling coherence from any full-rank state is impossible even probabilistically. We further find that in some conditions the maximal success probability can vanish suddenly beyond a certain threshold in the distillation fidelity. Finally, we consider probabilistic coherence distillation assisted by a catalyst and demonstrate, with specific examples, its superiority to the unassisted and deterministic cases.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(1): 010401, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028167

RESUMO

We characterize the distillation of quantum coherence in the one-shot setting, that is, the conversion of general quantum states into maximally coherent states under different classes of quantum operations. We show that the maximally incoherent operations (MIO) and the dephasing-covariant incoherent operations (DIO) have the same power in the task of one-shot coherence distillation. We establish that the one-shot distillable coherence under MIO and DIO is efficiently computable with a semidefinite program, which we show to correspond to a quantum hypothesis testing problem. Further, we introduce a family of coherence monotones generalizing the robustness of coherence as well as the modified trace distance of coherence, and show that they admit an operational interpretation in characterizing the fidelity of distillation under different classes of operations. By providing an explicit formula for these quantities for pure states, we show that the one-shot distillable coherence under MIO, DIO, strictly incoherent operations, and incoherent operations is equal for all pure states.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(2): 029904, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376722

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.120503.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(23): 230501, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644631

RESUMO

Understanding how quantum resources can be quantified and distributed over many parties has profound applications in quantum communication. As one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a useful resource for secure quantum networks. By reconstructing the covariance matrix of a continuous variable four-mode square Gaussian cluster state subject to asymmetric loss, we quantify the amount of bipartite steering with a variable number of modes per party, and verify recently introduced monogamy relations for Gaussian steerability, which establish quantitative constraints on the security of information shared among different parties. We observe a very rich structure for the steering distribution, and demonstrate one-way EPR steering of the cluster state under Gaussian measurements, as well as one-to-multimode steering. Our experiment paves the way for exploiting EPR steering in Gaussian cluster states as a valuable resource for multiparty quantum information tasks.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(5): 050401, 2017 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211725

RESUMO

We investigate the dynamics of Gaussian states of continuous variable systems under Gaussianity-preserving channels. We introduce a hierarchy of such evolutions encompassing Markovian and weakly and strongly non-Markovian processes and provide simple criteria to distinguish between the classes, based on the degree of positivity of intermediate Gaussian maps. We present an intuitive classification of all one-mode Gaussian channels according to their non-Markovianity degree and show that weak non-Markovianity has an operational significance, as it leads to a temporary phase-insensitive amplification of Gaussian inputs beyond the fundamental quantum limit. Explicit examples and applications are discussed.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(12): 120503, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341664

RESUMO

Given a certain amount of entanglement available as a resource, what is the most efficient way to accomplish a quantum task? We address this question in the relevant case of continuous variable quantum teleportation protocols implemented using two-mode Gaussian states with a limited degree of entanglement and energy. We first characterize the class of single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels that can be simulated via a Braunstein-Kimble protocol with nonunit gain and minimum shared entanglement, showing that infinite energy is not necessary apart from the special case of the quantum limited attenuator. We also find that apart from the identity, all phase-insensitive Gaussian channels can be simulated through a two-mode squeezed state with finite energy, albeit with a larger entanglement. We then consider the problem of teleporting single-mode coherent states with Gaussian-distributed displacement in phase space. Performing a geometrical optimization over phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine the maximum average teleportation fidelity achievable with any finite entanglement and for any realistically finite variance of the input distribution.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(22): 220502, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925721

RESUMO

We derive fundamental constraints for the Schur complement of positive matrices, which provide an operator strengthening to recently established information inequalities for quantum covariance matrices, including strong subadditivity. This allows us to prove general results on the monogamy of entanglement and steering quantifiers in continuous variable systems with an arbitrary number of modes per party. A powerful hierarchical relation for correlation measures based on the log-determinant of covariance matrices is further established for all Gaussian states, which has no counterpart among quantities based on the conventional von Neumann entropy.

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