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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence and correlates of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in people with HIV are limited. This study sought to determine the prevalence of RLS, associated clinical correlates, and characterize sleep-related differences in men with and without HIV. METHODS: Sleep-related data were collected in men who have sex with men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Demographic, health behaviors, HIV status, comorbidities, and serological data were obtained from the MACS visit coinciding with sleep assessments. Participants completed questionnaires, home polysomnography, and wrist actigraphy. RLS status was determined with the Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire. RLS prevalence was compared in men with and without HIV. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine correlates of RLS among all participants and men with HIV alone. Sleep-related differences were examined in men with and without HIV by RLS status. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 942 men (56% HIV+; mean age 57 years; 69% white). The prevalence of definite RLS was comparable in men with and without HIV (9.1% vs 8.7%). In multinomial regression, HIV status was not associated with RLS prevalence. However, white race, anemia, depression, and antidepressant use were each independently associated with RLS. HIV disease duration was also associated with RLS. Men with HIV and RLS reported poorer sleep quality, greater sleepiness, and had worse objective sleep efficiency/fragmentation than men without HIV/RLS. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of RLS in men with and without HIV was similar. Screening for RLS may be considered among people with HIV with insomnia and with long-standing disease.

2.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648131

RESUMO

Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP. Women face unique barriers to LAI use yet little research has examined women's perceptions of potential LAI HIV therapy candidates. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at six Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) sites with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from 2017 to 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Participants identified specific sub-populations who could most benefit from LAI over daily pills: (1) young people; (2) women with childcare responsibilities; (3) people with adherence-related psychological distress; (4) individuals with multiple sex partners; and (5) people facing structural insecurities such as homelessness. Women are underserved by current HIV care options and their perspectives are imperative to ensure a successful scale-up of LAI PrEP and LAI ART that prioritizes equitable access and benefit for all individuals.

4.
AIDS ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define a smoking cessation "cascade" among US women with and without HIV and examine differences by sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN: Observational cohort study using data from smokers participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 2014 and 2019. METHODS: We followed 1165 women smokers with and without HIV from their first study visit in 2014 or 2015 until 1) an attempt to quit smoking within approximately three years of follow-up, 2) initial cessation (i.e., no restarting smoking within approximately six months of a quit attempt), and 3) sustained cessation (i.e., no restarting smoking within approximately 12 months of a quit attempt). Using the Aalen-Johansen estimator, we estimated the cumulative probability of achieving each step, accounting for the competing risk of death. RESULTS: Forty-five percent of smokers attempted to quit, 27% achieved initial cessation, and 14% achieved sustained cessation with no differences by HIV status. Women with some post-high school education were more likely to achieve each step than those with less education. Outcomes did not differ by race. Thirty-six percent (95% CI: 31, 42) of uninsured women attempted to quit compared to 47% (95% CI: 44, 50) with Medicaid and 49% (95% CI: 41, 59) with private insurance. CONCLUSIONS: To decrease smoking among US women with and without HIV, targeted, multi-stage interventions and increased insurance coverage are needed to address shortfalls along this cascade.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496009

RESUMO

Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) have lower risk for HIV-1 infection. We showed restriction of ex vivo HIV-1 infection in SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that was due, in part, to the upregulation of antiviral, inflammatory and hemolytic factors including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Here, we investigated whether individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT), who develop mild hemolysis, also restrict HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo infection of SCT PBMCs demonstrated ~2-fold reduction of HIV-1 replication and lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcription products, 2-Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) circles, HIV-1 integration and gag RNA expression. SCT PBMCs had higher HO-1 mRNA and protein levels and reduced ribonucleotide reductase 2 (RNR2) protein levels. HO-1 inhibition by tin porphyrin eliminated ex vivo HIV-1 restriction. Among Howard University clinic recruits, higher levels of HO-1 and RNR2 mRNA and lower HIV-1 env mRNA levels were found in SCT individuals living with HIV-1. To determine the population level effect of SCT on HIV-1 prevalence, we assessed SCT trait among women living with HIV (WLH) in the Women Interagency HIV-1 Study (WIHS). Among WIHS African American participants, prevalence of SCT was lower among women with HIV compared with uninfected women (8.7% vs 14.2%; OR 0.57; 95%CI = 0.36-0.92, p=0.020). WIHS WLH with SCT had higher levels of CD4+/CD8+ ratios over 20 years of follow up (p=0.003) than matched WLH without SCT. Together, our findings suggest that HIV-1 restriction factors including HO-1 and RNR2 might restrict HIV-1 infection among individuals with SCT and limit the pathogenicity of HIV.

7.
HIV Med ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of HIV infection with preterm birth (PTB), and of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PTB. METHODS: We analysed singleton live-born pregnancies among women from 1995 to 2019 in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective cohort of US women with, or at risk for, HIV. The primary exposures were HIV status and ART use before delivery [none, monotherapy or dual therapy, or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. The primary outcome was PTB < 34 weeks, and, secondarily, < 28 and < 37 weeks. We analysed self-reported birth data, and separately modelled the associations between HIV and PTB, and between ART and PTB, among women with HIV. We used modified Poisson regression, and adjusted for age, race, parity, tobacco use and delivery year, and, when modelling the impact of ART, duration from HIV diagnosis to delivery, nadir CD4 count, and pre-pregnancy viral load and CD4 count. RESULTS: We analysed 488 singleton deliveries (56% exposed to HIV) to 383 women. The risk of PTB < 34 weeks was similar among women with and without HIV, but the risk of PTB < 37 weeks was higher [32% vs. 23%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.91] among women with HIV. The risk of PTB < 34 weeks was lower among women with HIV receiving HAART than among those receiving no ART (7% vs. 26%; aRR:0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.44). The associations between HAART and PTB < 28 and < 37 weeks were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Antiretroviral therapy exposure was associated with a decreased risk of PTB among a US cohort of women with HIV. Given the growing concerns about ART and adverse pregnancy outcomes, this finding that ART may be protective for PTB is reassuring.

8.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 877-885, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neighborhood poverty and deprivation are associated with adverse health outcomes including death, but evidence is limited among persons with HIV, particularly women. We estimated changes in mortality risk from improvement in three measures of area-level socioeconomic context among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: Starting in October 2013, we linked geocoded residential census block groups to the 2015 Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and two 2012-2016 American Community Survey poverty variables, categorized into national tertiles. We used parametric g-computation to estimate, through March 2018, impacts on mortality of improving each income or poverty measure by one and two tertiles maximum versus no improvement. RESULTS: Of 1596 women with HIV (median age 49), 91 (5.7%) were lost to follow-up and 83 (5.2%) died. Most women (62%) lived in a block group in the tertile with the highest proportions of individuals with income:poverty <1; 13% lived in areas in the tertile with the lowest proportions. Mortality risk differences comparing a one-tertile improvement (for those in the two highest poverty tertiles) in income:poverty <1 versus no improvement increased over time; the risk difference was -2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.7, -0.64) at 4 years. Estimates from family income below poverty level (-1.0%; 95% CI = -2.7, 0.62) and ADI (-1.5%; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.21) exposures were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent results from three distinct measures of area-level socioeconomic environment support the hypothesis that interventions to ameliorate neighborhood poverty or deprivation reduce mortality risk for US women with HIV. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B863.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of adaptive immunity is a hallmark of HIV infection that persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Few long-term prospective studies have related adaptive immunity impairments to mortality in HIV, particularly in women. METHODS: Among 606 women with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 2002-2005 underwent multiparameter flow cytometry. Underlying cause of death was ascertained from the National Death Index up to 2018. We examined associations of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and non-activation/normal function (%CD57-CD28+) with natural-cause, HIV-related, and non-HIV-related mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, median participant age was 41, and 67% were on ART. Among 100 deaths during median 13.3 years follow-up, 90 were natural-cause (53 non-HIV-related, 37 HIV-related). Higher activation and exhaustion of CD4+ T-cells were associated with risk of natural-cause and non-HIV-related mortality, adjusting for age, demographic, behavioral, HIV-related, and cardiometabolic factors at baseline. Additional adjustment for time-varying viral load and CD4+ T-cell count did not attenuate these associations. CD8+ T-cell markers were not associated with any outcomes adjusting for baseline factors. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent CD4+ T-cell activation and exhaustion may contribute to excess long-term mortality risk in women with HIV, independent of HIV disease progression.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449258

RESUMO

Background: Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often have bacterial vaginosis (BV). The goal of this analysis was to assess how BV prevalence changed over time and across U.S. regions in enrollment cohorts of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Methods: In a multisite study, BV was diagnosed retrospectively when pH and two of three other Amsel criteria were met. Prevalence was determined across four recruitment waves: 1994-5, 2001-2, 2011-2, and 2013-5. Generalized estimating equation multivariable logistic regression models assessed changes in visit prevalence across waves after controlling for HIV disease severity and other risks. Results: Among 4,790 women (3,539 with HIV and 1,251 without HIV), BV was diagnosed at 7,870 (12%) of 64,444 visits. Baseline prevalence across enrollment waves was 15.0%-19.2%, but declined in all cohorts, with prevalence in the initial cohort falling to 3.9% in the 1994-5 cohort after up to 21 years of continuous observation. Prevalence varied within U.S. regions. HIV status was not associated with BV. Conclusions: BV prevalence decreased with time in study. Prevalence varied across sites, but was not uniformly increased or decreased in any U.S. region. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT00000797.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0242641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the challenges and costs associated with implementing HIV-1 incidence assay testing, there is great interest in evaluating the use of commercial HIV diagnostic tests for determining recent HIV infection. A diagnostic test with the capability of providing reliable data for the determination of recent HIV infection without substantial modifications to the test protocol would have a significant impact on HIV surveillance. The Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay is an antigen/antibody immunoassay, which meets the criteria as the first screening test in the recommended HIV laboratory diagnostic algorithm for the United States. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co) for determining recent infection, including estimation of the mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and false recent rate (FRR), and selection of recency cutoffs. RESULTS: The MDRI estimates for the S/Co recency cutoff of 400 is within the 4 to 12 months range recommended for HIV incidence assays, and the FRR rate for this cutoff was 1.5%. Additionally, ARCHITECT Combo S/Co values were compared relative to diagnostic test results from two prior prospective HIV-1 diagnostic studies in order to validate the use of the S/Co for both diagnostic and recency determination. CONCLUSION: Dual-use of the ARCHITECT Combo assay data for diagnostic and incidence purposes would reduce the need for separate HIV incidence testing and allow for monitoring of recent infection for incidence estimation and other public health applications.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276657

RESUMO

The HIV-1 viral inhibition assay (VIA) measures CD8 T cell-mediated inhibition of HIV replication in CD4 T cells and is increasingly used for clinical testing of HIV vaccines and immunotherapies. The VIA has multiple sources of variability arising from in vitro HIV infection and co-culture of two T cell populations. Here, we describe multiple modifications to a 7-day VIA protocol, the most impactful being the introduction of independent replicate cultures for both HIV infected-CD4 (HIV-CD4) and HIV-CD4:CD8 T cell cultures. Virus inhibition was quantified using a ratio of weighted averages of p24+ cells in replicate cultures and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. An Excel template is provided to facilitate calculations. Virus inhibition was higher in people living with HIV suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (n=14, mean: 40.0%, median: 43.8%, range: 8.2 to 73.3%; p < 0.0001, two-tailed, exact Mann-Whitney test) compared to HIV-seronegative donors (n = 21, mean: -13.7%, median: -14.4%, range: -49.9 to 20.9%) and was stable over time (n = 6, mean %COV 9.4%, range 0.9 to 17.3%). Cross-sectional data were used to define 8% inhibition as the threshold to confidently detect specific CD8 T cell activity and determine the minimum number of culture replicates and p24+ cells needed to have 90% statistical power to detect this threshold. Last, we note that, in HIV seronegative donors, the addition of CD8 T cells to HIV infected CD4 T cells consistently increased HIV replication, though the level of increase varied markedly between donors. This co-culture effect may contribute to the weak correlations observed between CD8 T cell VIA and other measures of HIV-specific CD8 T cell function.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Estudos Transversais , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287753

RESUMO

Social support is associated with improved HIV care and quality of life. We utilized latent class analysis to identify three classes of baseline emotional and tangible perceived social support, termed "Strong", "Wavering" and "Weak". "Weak" vs. "Strong" perceived social support was associated over time with an 8% decreased risk of optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for emotional and 6% decreased risk for tangible perceived social support. Importantly, "Wavering" vs "Strong" social support also showed a decreased risk of ART adherence of 6% for emotional and 3% for tangible support. "Strong" vs. "Weak" perceived support had a similar association with undetectable viral load, but the association for "Strong" vs. "Wavering" support was not statistically significant. Intensity of social support is associated with HIV care outcomes, and strong social support may be needed for some individuals. It is important to quantify the level or intensity of social support that is needed to optimize HIV outcomes.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1151-1158, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125574

RESUMO

The development of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines began in March 2020 in response to a request from the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Within 4 days of the request, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel was established and the first meeting took place (virtually-as did subsequent meetings). The Panel comprises 57 individuals representing 6 governmental agencies, 11 professional societies, and 33 medical centers, plus 2 community members, who have worked together to create and frequently update the guidelines on the basis of evidence from the most recent clinical studies available. The initial version of the guidelines was completed within 2 weeks and posted online on 21 April 2020. Initially, sparse evidence was available to guide COVID-19 treatment recommendations. However, treatment data rapidly accrued based on results from clinical studies that used various study designs and evaluated different therapeutic agents and approaches. Data have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, leading to 24 revisions and updates of the guidelines in the first year. This process has provided important lessons for responding to an unprecedented public health emergency: Providers and stakeholders are eager to access credible, current treatment guidelines; governmental agencies, professional societies, and health care leaders can work together effectively and expeditiously; panelists from various disciplines, including biostatistics, are important for quickly developing well-informed recommendations; well-powered randomized clinical trials continue to provide the most compelling evidence to guide treatment recommendations; treatment recommendations need to be developed in a confidential setting free from external pressures; development of a user-friendly, web-based format for communicating with health care providers requires substantial administrative support; and frequent updates are necessary as clinical evidence rapidly emerges.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Comitês Consultivos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Aprovação de Drogas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Participação dos Interessados , Estados Unidos
16.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent immune activation due to gut barrier dysfunction is a suspected cause of morbidity in HIV, but the impact of menopause on this pathway is unknown. METHODS: In 350 women with HIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, plasma biomarkers of gut barrier dysfunction (intestinal fatty acid binding protein; IFAB), innate immune activation (soluble CD14 and CD163; sCD14, sCD163), and systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; IL-6, TNFR1), were measured at 674 person-visits spanning ≤2 years. RESULTS: Menopause (post- vs. pre-menopausal status) was associated with higher plasma sCD14 and sCD163 in linear mixed-effects regression adjusting for age and other covariates (B [95% CI]=161.89ng/mL [18.37, 305.41] and 65.48 ng/mL [6.64, 124.33], respectively); but not with plasma IFAB, IL-6, or TNFR1. In piece-wise linear mixed-effects regression of biomarkers on years before/after the final menstrual period, sCD14 increased during the menopausal transition by 250.71 ng/mL per year (95% CI: 16.63, 484.79; p=0.04), but not in the pre-menopausal or post-menopausal periods. CONCLUSIONS: In women with HIV, menopause may increase innate immune activation, but data did not support an influence on the gut barrier or inflammation. Clinical implications of immune activation during the menopausal transition warrants further investigation.

17.
AIDS Behav ; 25(9): 2875-2885, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115265

RESUMO

This study tested a conceptual psychosocial model of self-rated successful aging (SRSA) with HIV. Our sample (n = 356) included older women living with HIV (OWLH): average age 56.5 years, 73% Black. SRSA was assessed using a research-based 10-point scale (higher scores = better outcomes). We conducted adjusted structural equation modeling. The global model included two latent variables-protective attributes (composite of positive psychosocial factors: resilience, personal mastery, optimism, spirituality) and psychological distress (composite of negative psychosocial factors: anxiety, depression, loneliness, internalized HIV-related stigma). The model showed good fit (χ2(58) = 76, p = 0.06; RMSEA = 0.03; CFI = 0.99). Increased protective attributes were associated with improved SRSA both directly and mediated by improved coping with stress. While psychological distress did not have a direct effect on SRSA, it was indirectly associated with worsened SRSA via diminished protective attributes and via decreased coping with stress. Findings suggest the need for interventions enhancing positive and mitigating negative psychosocial factors in OWLH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social
18.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791743

RESUMO

Robust community-level SARS-CoV-2 prevalence estimates have been difficult to obtain in the American South and outside of major metropolitan areas. Furthermore, though some previous studies have investigated the association of demographic factors such as race with SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk, fewer have correlated exposure risk to surrogates for socioeconomic status such as health insurance coverage. We used a highly specific serological assay utilizing the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein to identify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in remnant blood samples collected by the University of North Carolina Health system. We estimated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in this cohort with Bayesian regression, as well as the association of critical demographic factors with higher prevalence odds. Between April 21st and October 3rd of 2020, a total of 9,624 unique samples were collected from clinical sites in central NC and we observed a seroprevalence increase from 2.9 (1.7, 4.3) to 9.1 (7.2, 11.1) over the study period. Individuals who identified as Latinx were associated with the highest odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 exposure at 7.77 overall (5.20, 12.10). Increased odds were also observed among Black individuals and individuals without public or private health insurance. Our data suggests that for this care-accessing cohort, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was significantly higher than cumulative total cases reported for the study geographical area six months into the COVID-19 pandemic in North Carolina. The increased odds of seropositivity by ethnoracial grouping as well as health insurance highlights the urgent and ongoing need to address underlying health and social disparities in these populations.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684141

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota is known to impact women's health, but the biological factors that influence the composition of the microbiota are not fully understood. We previously observed that levels of glycogen in the lumen of the vagina were higher in women that had a high body mass index (BMI). Vaginal glycogen is thought to impact the composition of the vaginal microbiota. We therefore sought to determine if BMI was associated having or not having bacterial vaginosis (BV), as determined by the Amsel criteria. We also hypothesized that increased blood glucose levels could lead to the previously-observed higher vaginal glycogen levels and therefore investigated if hemoglobin A1c levels were associated with BV. We analyzed data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study using multiple multivariable (GEE) logistic regression models to assess the relationship between BMI, BV and blood glucose. Women with a BMI >30 kg/m2 (obese) had a lower rate (multivariable adjusted OR 0.87 (0.79-0.97), p = 0.009) of BV compared to the reference group (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). There was a significantly lower rate of BV in post-menopausal obese women compared to the post-menopausal reference group, but not in pre-menopausal women. HIV- post-menopausal obese women had a significantly lower rate of BV, but this was not seen in HIV+ post-menopausal obese women. Pre-menopausal women with a higher hemoglobin A1c (≥6.5%) had a significantly lower rate (multivariable adjusted OR 0.66 (0.49-0.91), p = 0.010) of BV compared to pre-menopausal women with normal hemoglobin A1c levels (<5.7%), but there was no difference in post-menopausal women. This study shows an inverse association of BMI with BV in post-menopausal women and hemoglobin A1c with BV in pre-menopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm these relationships in other cohorts across different reproductive stages and to identify underlying mechanisms for these observed associations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Obesidade , Pré-Menopausa , Vaginose Bacteriana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
20.
AIDS ; 35(9): 1433-1438, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV disease decreases liver and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality. Elevated markers of monocyte/macrophage activation (soluble CD163 and sCD14) are associated with excess non-AIDS morbidity and mortality in HIV. We examined the effect of HCV eradication on these markers in relation to change in hepatic fibrosis. DESIGN: A nested substudy within a longitudinal observational cohort. METHODS: We studied 126 HIV/HCV-coinfected women successfully treated for HCV, with undetectable HCV RNA at least 12 weeks after therapy completion. sCD163 and sCD14 were measured in serum collected before and after HCV eradication. Results were correlated with changes in markers of hepatic fibrosis. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 56.3 years, mean CD4+ cell count was 615, and 72% had suppressed HIV RNA. After treatment, sCD163 and sCD14 levels significantly decreased from pre-treatment levels in unadjusted analyses. After adjusting for age, race, hepatic fibrosis status, baseline HCV RNA, CD4 count and HIV RNA status, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use, the decreases in sCD163 and sCD14 remained significant. Decrease in pre-treatment to post-treatment sCD163 were significantly positively correlated with changes in FIB-4 (r = 0.250, P = 0.005) and APRI (r = 0.262, P = 0.003); similarly decrease in sCD14 was significantly positively correlated with changes in FIB-4 (r = 0.333, P = 0.0001) and APRI (r = 0.457, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: HCV eradication is associated with significant reductions in monocyte/macrophage activation markers that correlate with reductions in markers of hepatic fibrosis. These findings support broad access to and early initiation of HCV treatment in order to decrease immune activation and improve health in HIV-infected persons.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Ativação de Macrófagos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos
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