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1.
Early Hum Dev ; 152: 105133, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe gestational age-specific distribution of scores for the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) up to 48 h after birth in a low-risk, term-born, single-center sample in Ghana. STUDY DESIGN: This is a nested substudy of a larger prospective study (IMPRINT: Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy on Infant Neurodevelopment) comprising 140 low-risk, term-born neonates at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, between November 2018 and February 2019. The sample was stratified into three gestational age groups: early-term (37 + 0-38 + 6, weeks + days; n = 61), full-term (39 + 0-40 + 6, weeks + days; n = 52), and late/post-term (41 + 0-42 + 6, weeks + days; n = 27). Neonates were administered the 34-item HNNE by trained physicians. As per the original British scoring system, raw scores for the Ghanaian sample were plotted and scores > 10th centile were assigned a score of 1, 5th-10th centile 0.5, and < 5th centile 0. RESULTS: The range of raw scores for 16/34 HNNE items varied with gestational age. Specifically, 100% (7/7), 50% (5/10), 33% (1/3), 33% (1/3), 20% (1/5), and 14% (1/7) of items within the orientation and behavior, tone, abnormal signs/patterns, movements, tone patterns, and reflexes subdomain, respectively showed a different distribution of scores above the 10th centile across the three gestational age groups. CONCLUSION: Differences in gestational age-specific results within our sample in comparison to the original British sample could be, albeit unlikely, due to misclassification of gestational age, unmeasured maternal or fetal morbidity, or perhaps more likely, variation in testing or test conditions, or some combination of these. Genetic variation in neurological development is also a possibility. Further research is warranted to determine the reasons for differences. Our findings highlight the need to determine the accuracy and reliability of standardized neurologic assessments in predicting neurodevelopmental risk for infants in low- and middle-income countries.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) in a low-risk, term-born, contemporary sample in Ghana. Of particular interest was to compare these findings with the original British study that validated the HNNE, and published data from other low- and middle-income countries. STUDY DESIGN: In a nested substudy of a larger prospective study (IMPRINT: Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy on Infant Neurodevelopment), 140 low-risk, term-born neonates (39.3 ± 1.4 weeks gestation) at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana were administered the 34-item HNNE from birth to 48 h of age by trained physicians. Neonates' performance was compared with previously published normative data from the United Kingdom (1998), and published data from Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Uganda. RESULTS: Ghanaian neonates demonstrated lower scores on 29/34 HNNE items relative to normative data from the United Kingdom (P < .05), with only 5% of Ghanaian neonates in our sample classified as neurologically optimal. There were significant differences in the proportion of neonates scoring optimally per HNNE item between our Ghanaian sample, compared with published data from other settings (Thai [13/16 items], Burmese [14/16 items], Vietnamese [7/9 items], and Ugandan [22/34 items] neonates). Raw scores were markedly different between Ghanaian and British neonates, with Ghanaian neonates demonstrating lower median and wider range of scores. These differences were less prominent between Ghanaian and Ugandan neonates. CONCLUSION: Our findings raise questions as to whether or not the thresholds for optimality for the HNNE based on data from the United Kingdom are applicable to Ghanaian newborns. Our study could not fully resolve whether the differences in scores were due to genetic differences in developmental pathways, the implementation of the assessment, or the characteristics of our sample. Low proportions of neonates scoring optimally from other low- and middle-income countries suggest the need for further research to determine the clinical utility of the HNNE in resource-limited settings, including the predictive value for neurodevelopment later in infancy.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2669-2676, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350862

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. However, most studies have been conducted among North American and European populations. Prostate cancer mortality appears elevated in West Africa, yet risk factors for prostate cancer in this region are unknown. We thus examined the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer using a case-control study conducted in Accra, Ghana in 2004 to 2012. Cases and controls were drawn from a population-based sample of 1037 men screened for prostate cancer, yielding 73 cases and 964 controls. An additional 493 incident cases were recruited from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Anthropometric measurements were taken at enrollment. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and prostate cancer, adjusting for potential confounders. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m2 for cases and 24.3 kg/m2 for controls. After adjustment, men with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had an increased risk of prostate cancer relative to men with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.11-3.13). Elevated WC (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.51) and WHR (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.16) were also associated with prostate cancer. Associations were not modified by smoking status and were evident for low- and high-grade disease. These findings indicate that overall and abdominal obesity are positively associated with prostate cancer among men in Ghana, implicating obesity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for prostate cancer in this region.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 593546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424841

RESUMO

In 2018, 228 million cases and 405,000 malaria-associated deaths were reported worldwide with a majority being in Africa. A wide range of factors, including parasitemia, host immunity, inflammatory responses to infection, and host hemoglobin genotype, mediate the severity of malaria. Among the hemoglobinopathies, hemoglobin S (HbS) is caused by a single amino acid substitution of Glutamic Acid replaced by Valine at the sixth position of the beta-globin chain (E6V). Hemoglobin C (HbC) on the other hand, involves a single amino acid substitution of Glutamic Acid by a Lysine (E6K), which has received the most attention. These substitutions alter the stability of Hb leading to wide-ranging hematological disorders. The homozygous state of hemoglobin S (HbSS) results in sickle cell anemia (SCA) whereas the heterozygous state (HbAS) results in sickle cell trait (SCT). Both mutations are reported to mediate the reduction in the severity and fatality of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The mechanism underlying this protection is poorly understood. Since both malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with the destruction of erythrocytes and widespread systemic inflammation, identifying which inflammatory factor(s) mediate susceptibility of individuals with different hemoglobin genotypes to Plasmodium infection could result in the discovery of new predictive markers and interventions against malaria or SCD severity. We hypothesized that hemoglobin genotypes modulate the inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Ghana, West Africa, between 2014 and 2019 to ascertain the relationships between blood inflammatory cytokines, Plasmodium infection, and hemoglobin genotype. A total of 923 volunteers were enrolled in the study. A total of 74, age and sex-matched subjects were identified with various genotypes including HbAS, HbAC, HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, or HbAA. Complete blood counts and serum inflammatory cytokine expression levels were assessed. The results indicate that differential expression of CXCL10, TNF-α, CCL2, IL-8, and IL-6 were tightly linked to hemoglobin genotype and severity of Plasmodium infection and that these cytokine levels may be predictive for susceptibility to severe malaria or SCD severity.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1008027, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849090

RESUMO

Populations in sub-Saharan Africa have historically been exposed to intense selection from chronic infection with falciparum malaria. Interestingly, populations with the highest malaria intensity can be identified by the increased occurrence of endemic Burkitt Lymphoma (eBL), a pediatric cancer that affects populations with intense malaria exposure, in the so called "eBL belt" in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the effects of intense malaria exposure and sub-Saharan populations' genetic histories remain poorly explored. To determine if historical migrations and intense malaria exposure have shaped the genetic composition of the eBL belt populations, we genotyped ~4.3 million SNPs in 1,708 individuals from Ghana and Northern Uganda, located on opposite sides of eBL belt and with ≥ 7 months/year of intense malaria exposure and published evidence of high incidence of BL. Among 35 Ghanaian tribes, we showed a predominantly West-Central African ancestry and genomic footprints of gene flow from Gambian and East African populations. In Uganda, the North West population showed a predominantly Nilotic ancestry, and the North Central population was a mixture of Nilotic and Southern Bantu ancestry, while the Southwest Ugandan population showed a predominant Southern Bantu ancestry. Our results support the hypothesis of diverse ancestral origins of the Ugandan, Kenyan and Tanzanian Great Lakes African populations, reflecting a confluence of Nilotic, Cushitic and Bantu migrations in the last 3000 years. Natural selection analyses suggest, for the first time, a strong positive selection signal in the ATP2B4 gene (rs10900588) in Northern Ugandan populations. These findings provide important baseline genomic data to facilitate disease association studies, including of eBL, in eBL belt populations.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Malária Falciparum/genética , Seleção Genética , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Idoso , Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gana/epidemiologia , Migração Humana , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(2): 71-77, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Established prostate cancer (PCa) risk factors include age, family history of PCa and African ancestry. Studies, mostly among highly screened, predominantly European ancestral populations, suggest that employment in certain occupations (eg, farming, military) may also have an increased risk for PCa. Here, we evaluated the association between usual adult occupation and PCa risk in Ghanaian men, a population with historically low rates of PCa screening. METHODS: The Ghana Prostate Study is a case-control study of PCa that was conducted from 2004 to 2012 in 749 cases and 964 controls. In-person interviews were conducted to collect information from participants, including longest held job. Industrial hygienists classified job titles into occupational categories. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for the association between longest held job and PCa risk (overall, aggressive (Gleason≥7)), controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Risk was increased among men in management (overall PCa OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2; aggressive PCa OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5) and military occupations (overall PCa OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0; aggressive PCa OR=3.5, 95% CI 1.5 to 8.3). Risks were also elevated for management and military-specific jobs based on 3-digit level Standard Occupational Classification definitions. Sensitivity analyses accounting for access to medical care did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some evidence for increased risk of PCa among men in management and military occupations, which is consistent with the published literature. Additional research is needed to clarify the drivers of the associations between these occupations and PCa.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Malar J ; 17(1): 468, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study seeks to compare the performance of HRP2 (First Response) and pLDH/HRP2 (Combo) RDTs for falciparum malaria against microscopy and PCR in acutely ill febrile children at presentation and follow-up. METHODS: This is an interventional study that recruited children < 5 years who reported to health facilities with a history of fever within the past 72 h or a documented axillary temperature of 37.5 °C. Using a longitudinal approach, recruitment and follow-up of participants was done between January and May 2012. Based on results of HRP2-RDT screening, the children were grouped into one of the following three categories: (1) tested positive for malaria using RDT and received anti-malarial treatment (group 1, n = 85); (2) tested negative for malaria using RDT and were given anti-malarial treatment by the admitting physician (group 2, n = 74); or, (3) tested negative for malaria using RDT and did not receive any anti-malarial treatment (group 3, n = 101). Independent microscopy, PCR and Combo-RDT tests were done for each sample on day 0 and all follow-up days. RESULTS: Mean age of the study participants was 22 months and females accounted for nearly 50%. At the time of diagnosis, the mean body temperature was 37.9 °C (range 35-40.1 °C). Microscopic parasite density ranged between 300 and 99,500 parasites/µL. With microscopy as gold standard, the sensitivity of HRP2 and Combo-RDTs were 95.1 and 96.3%, respectively. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values for RDTs were relatively higher in microscopy-defined malaria cases than in PCR positive-defined cases. On day 0, participants who initially tested negative for HRP2 were positive by microscopy (n = 2), Combo (n = 1) and PCR (n = 17). On days 1 and 2, five of the children in this group (initially HRP2-negative) tested positive by PCR alone. On day 28, four patients who were originally HRP2-negative tested positive for microscopy (n = 2), Combo (n = 2) and PCR (n = 4). CONCLUSION: The HRP2/pLDH RDTs showed comparable diagnostic accuracy in children presenting with an acute febrile illness to health facilities in a hard-to-reach rural area in Ghana. Nevertheless, discordant results recorded on day 0 and follow-up visits using the recommended RDTs means improved malaria diagnostic capability in malaria-endemic regions is necessary.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/parasitologia , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-14, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer of the prostate (CaP) is the leading cancer among men in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A substantial proportion of these men with CaP are diagnosed at late (usually incurable) stages, yet little is known about the etiology of CaP in SSA. METHODS: We established the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Network, which includes seven SSA centers partnering with five US centers to study the genetics and epidemiology of CaP in SSA. We developed common data elements and instruments, regulatory infrastructure, and biosample collection, processing, and shipping protocols. We tested this infrastructure by collecting epidemiologic, medical record, and genomic data from a total of 311 patients with CaP and 218 matched controls recruited at the seven SSA centers. We extracted genomic DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, or buccal swabs from 265 participants and shipped it to the Center for Inherited Disease Research (Baltimore, MD) and the Centre for Proteomics and Genomics Research (Cape Town, South Africa), where genotypes were generated using the UK Biobank Axiom Array. RESULTS: We used common instruments for data collection and entered data into the shared database. Double-entered data from pilot participants showed a 95% to 98% concordance rate, suggesting that data can be collected, entered, and stored with a high degree of accuracy. Genotypes were obtained from 95% of tested DNA samples (100% from blood-derived DNA samples) with high concordance across laboratories. CONCLUSION: We provide approaches that can produce high-quality epidemiologic and genomic data in multicenter studies of cancer in SSA.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Baltimore , Carcinoma/patologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202097

RESUMO

Background: Malaria is one of the most challenging public health concerns in the developing world. To address its impact in endemic regions, several interventions are implemented by stakeholders. The Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria (AMFm) is an example of such interventions. Its activities include communication interventions to enhance the knowledge of caregivers of children under five years, licensed chemical sellers (LCS) and prescribers on malaria management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the AMFm activities on malaria among targeted groups in two rural communities in Ghana. Methods: A communication intervention study was conducted in the Asante-Akim North and South Districts of Ghana. Repeated cross-sectional pre and post surveys were deployed. Relevant malaria messages were designed and used to develop the information, education and communication (IEC) tools for the intervention. With the aid of posters and flipcharts developed by our study, community health workers (CHWs), prescribers, and licenced chemical sellers provided proper counselling to clients on malaria management. Trained CHWs and community based volunteers educated caregivers of children under five years on malaria management at their homes and at public gatherings such as churches, mosques, schools. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were run to determine associations and control for demographic differences respectively. Results: There was significantly high exposure to malaria/ACT interventions in the intervention district than in the comparison district (OR = 16.02; 95% CI = 7.88-32.55) and same for malaria/ACT-related knowledge (OR = 3.63; 95% CI = 2.52-5.23). The participants in the intervention district were also more knowledgeable about correct administration of dispersible drug for children <5 years than their counterparts in the unexposed district. Conclusion: Our data show that targeted interventions improve malaria based competences in rural community settings. The availability of subsidized ACTs and the intensity of the communication campaigns contributed to the AMFm-related awareness, improved knowledge on malaria/ACTs and management practices.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(8)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117387

RESUMO

Prostate cancer incidence is 1.6-fold higher in African Americans than in other populations. The risk factors that drive this disparity are unknown and potentially consist of social, environmental, and genetic influences. To investigate the genetic basis of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis using two-sided statistical tests in 10 202 case subjects and 10 810 control subjects. We identified novel signals on chromosomes 13q34 and 22q12, with the risk-associated alleles found only in men of African ancestry (13q34: rs75823044, risk allele frequency = 2.2%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 to 1.76, P = 6.10 × 10-12; 22q12.1: rs78554043, risk allele frequency = 1.5%, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.89, P = 7.50 × 10-10). At 13q34, the signal is located 5' of the gene IRS2 and 3' of a long noncoding RNA, while at 22q12 the candidate functional allele is a missense variant in the CHEK2 gene. These findings provide further support for the role of ancestry-specific germline variation in contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Masculino
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(12): 1352-1361, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633309

RESUMO

The prevalence of fusions of the transmembrane protease, serine 2, gene (TMPRSS2) with the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG), or TMPRSS2:ERG, in prostate cancer varies by race. However, such somatic aberration and its association with prognostic factors have neither been studied in a West African population nor been systematically reviewed in the context of racial differences. We used immunohistochemistry to assess oncoprotein encoded by the ERG gene as the established surrogate of ERG fusion genes among 262 prostate cancer biopsies from the Ghana Prostate Study (2004-2006). Poisson regression with robust variance estimation provided prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ERG expression in relation to patient characteristics. We found that 47 of 262 (18%) prostate cancers were ERG-positive, and being negative for ERG staining was associated with higher Gleason score. We further conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in relation to race, Gleason score, and tumor stage, combining results from Ghana with 40 additional studies. Meta-analysis showed the prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in prostate cancer to be highest in men of European descent (49%), followed by men of Asian (27%) and then African (25%) descent. The lower prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in men of African descent implies that alternative genomic mechanisms might explain the disproportionately high prostate cancer burden in such populations.


Assuntos
Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Idoso , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
12.
Int J Cancer ; 140(12): 2667-2677, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295287

RESUMO

Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Prevalência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Dermatol ; 56(1): 32-39, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of skin lightening has been reported from North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In literature, some prevalence rates exceed 50%, and both sexes are involved. Common agents used include hydroquinone, mercury, corticosteroids, and caustic agents. The agents are easily accessible and affordable with very little regulation. Cutaneous and systemic side effects occur but do not appear to be a deterrent, as the notion of light skin as a surrogate for beauty is strong. In Ghana, anecdotal reports of high bleaching rates among certain urban communities resulted in a study supported by the Food and Drugs Authority to determine various facets of this practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among adults in selected urban fishing communities of Accra was undertaken. Consecutive cases were enrolled after written informed consent. A questionnaire was administered, followed by physical examination and clinical photographs. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Of the 555 participants from the three communities, prevalence was 279 (50.3%). Duration of use ranged from 2 months to 17 years. Approximately 212 (76%) used more than one product, and 231 (82%) used agents on their face and body. Dermatological features were hypopigmentation 270 (96.8%), other color changes including ochronosis 241 (86.4%), changes in consistency 141 (50.3%), striae 157 (56.3%), and infections 42 (15.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of skin bleaching was 50.3% in these communities, which is high considering the adverse effects from the practice. We recommend regulation of products by enforcing the law, more education, and a population prevalence study.


Assuntos
Hipopigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Ocronose/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/induzido quimicamente , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Exame Físico , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Trop Pediatr ; 62(6): 477-486, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scarce studies have addressed hematological differences of malaria in urban and rural regions. METHODS: Full or complete blood cell counts from 46 and 75 individuals (age range from < 1 to 92 years) with uncomplicated malaria infection living in urban (Accra) and rural (Dodowa) Ghana, respectively, were assessed. Sickle cell trait and patients were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Between overall groups, patients from Accra had significantly lower parasite count (p < 0.0001) and granulocyte number (p = 0.026). Children in Accra had a significantly lower parasitemia (p = 0.0013), hemoglobin (p = 0.0254), platelet count (p = 0.0148) and red blood cell levels (p = 0.0080) when compared with the children of Dodowa. In adults, mean cell hemoglobin (p = 0.0086) and parasite count (p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in Dodowa. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that children living in urban setting may experience a greater anemic effect to malaria as compared with those living in a rural setting.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Malária , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitemia/sangue , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
Malar J ; 15(1): 263, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria (AMFm) was an innovative global financing mechanism for the provision of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) across both the private and public health sectors in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluated the effectiveness of AMFm subsidies in increasing access to ACT in Ghana and documented malaria management practices at the household and community levels during the implementation of the AMFm. METHODS: This study, conducted in four regions in Ghana between January, 2011 to December, 2012, employed cross-sectional mixed-methods design that included qualitative and quantitative elements, specifically household surveys, focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The study indicated high ACT availability, adequate provider knowledge and reasonably low quality-assured ACT use in the study areas, all of which are a reflection of a high market share of ACT in these hard-to-reach areas of the country. Adequate recognition of childhood malaria symptoms by licensed chemical seller (LCS) attendants was observed. A preference by caregivers for LCS over health facilities for seeking treatment solutions to childhood malaria was found. CONCLUSIONS: Artemisinin-based combination therapy with the AMFm logo was accessible and affordable for most people seeking treatment from health facilities and LCS shops in rural areas. Caregivers and LCS were seen to play key roles in the health of the community especially with children under 5 years of age.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10979, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052111

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Epigênese Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Acetilação , Atlas como Assunto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(7)2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823525

RESUMO

The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8-128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three independent associations at P values of less than 5.00×10(-8), all of which were replicated in studies from Ghana and Uganda (combined sample = 5869 case patients, 5615 control subjects; rs114798100: risk allele frequency [RAF] = 0.04, per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04 to 2.61, P = 2.38×10(-40); rs72725879: RAF = 0.33, OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.45, P = 3.04×10(-27); and rs111906932: RAF = 0.03, OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.08, P = 1.39×10(-13)). Risk variants rs114798100 and rs111906923 are only found in men of African ancestry, with rs111906923 representing a novel association signal. The three variants are located within or near a number of prostate cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including PRNCR1, PCAT1, and PCAT2. These findings highlight ancestry-specific risk variation and implicate prostate-specific lncRNAs at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility region.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually infects persons in the reproductive age group (15-49 years), but elderly people are also susceptible. Many people in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana believe that elderly people are not at risk for HIV. Despite numerous reports of the high prevalence of HIV infection among the elderly worldwide, there are no from Ghana. This work determined the sero-prevalence of HIV infection and risk factors for its transmission among 1,100 hospitalized elderly people at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra, Ghana. METHODS: Subjects voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided a blood specimen for HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the study participants, 440 were male (mean age: 64 ± 10.55 years), and 660 were female (mean age: 63 ± 9.51 years). The overall HIV-1 sero-prevalence among the subjects was 4.18 % (n = 46). On multivariate analysis, there was no statistical significance between the socio-demographics or risk factors and the HIV status of the participants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest high prevalence of HIV-1 among hospitalized elderly people at KBTH, recommending the need to include the elderly in HIV/AIDS testing, prevention, and control programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: MS-Et/M.9 - p4.10/2012-2013. Registered: 10th April, 2013.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28124024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to meet their iron requirement for a healthy pregnancy. The benefits and risks of universal iron supplementation during pregnancy in malaria endemic countries are currently being debated. As part of a broader study that focused on the effect of heme/HO-1 on pregnancy outcomes in malaria in pregnancy, we determined the association between iron supplementation and free heme levels in blood of pregnant women with and without malaria in Ghana. We hypothesized that pregnant women with malaria who took iron supplements will have higher levels of Heme/HO-1 than those who did not take iron supplements. METHODS: A total of 337 women were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for malaria diagnosis and heme/HO-1 measurement. Quantification of heme was done using a heme colorimetric assay kit and HO-1 levels were performed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) on plasma samples. RESULTS: Malaria positive iron supplemented women, in their third trimester, had significantly higher median levels of heme 59.3(43.1 - 60.4) than non-malaria iron supplemented women 35.7(33.0 - 62.2), p = 0.026. Also, malaria positive iron supplemented women had significant higher median levels of HO-16.2(IQR 4.9 - 8.1) than pregnant women who did not take iron supplements 2.9 (IQR 2.1 - 3.8), p = <0.001. CONCLUSION: Although iron supplementation may be highly beneficial and improve pregnancy outcomes for iron deficient or anemic mothers, it is also likely that iron supplementation for pregnant women who are not iron deficient may put this group of women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Findings from this study sheds light on the effect of iron supplementation on malaria derived heme in pregnancy, which may inform how iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women who are not iron deficient.

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