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1.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(2): 147-158, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668571

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Older adults with syncope are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED). We seek to derive a novel risk-stratification tool to predict 30-day serious cardiac outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of older adults (≥60 years) with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 EDs in the United States. Patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED were excluded. We collected clinical and laboratory data on all patients. Our primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality or serious cardiac outcome. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,177 older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope between April 2013 and September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 9.0 years). The incidence of the primary outcome was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9% to 6.5%). Using Bayesian logistic regression, we derived the FAINT score: history of heart failure, history of cardiac arrhythmia, initial abnormal ECG result, elevated pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T. A FAINT score of 0 versus greater than or equal to 1 had sensitivity of 96.7% (95% CI 92.9% to 98.8%) and specificity 22.2% (95% CI 20.7% to 23.8%), respectively. The FAINT score tended to be more accurate than unstructured physician judgment: area under the curve 0.704 (95% CI 0.669 to 0.739) versus 0.630 (95% CI 0.589 to 0.670). CONCLUSION: Among older adults with syncope or near syncope of potential cardiac cause, a FAINT score of zero had a reasonably high sensitivity for excluding death and serious cardiac outcomes at 30 days. If externally validated, this tool could improve resource use for this common condition.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brief early administration of supplemental oxygen (sO2) to create hyperoxia may increase oxygenation to penumbral tissue and improve stroke outcomes. Hyperoxia may also result in respiratory compromise and vasoconstriction leading to worse outcomes. This study examines the effects of prehospital sO2 in stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of adult acute stroke patients (aged ≥18 years) presenting via EMS to an academic Comprehensive Stroke Center between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Demographic and clinical characteristics obtained from Get with the Guidelines-Stroke registry and subjects' medical records were compared across three groups based on prehospital oxygen saturation and sO2 administration. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine if sO2 status was associated with neurological outcomes or respiratory complications. RESULTS: 1352 eligible patients were identified. 62.7% (n = 848) did not receive sO2 ("controls"), 10.7% (n = 144) received sO2 due to hypoxia ("hypoxia"), and 26.6% (n = 360) received sO2 despite normoxia ("hyperoxia"). The groups represented a continuum from more severe deficits (hypoxia) to less severe deficits (controls): mean prehospital GCS (hypoxia -12, hyperoxia - 2, controls - 14 p ≤ 0.001), mean initial NIHSS (hypoxia - 15, hyperoxia - 13, controls - 8 p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounders, all groups had similar rates of respiratory complications and favorable neurological outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxic subjects had no significant increase in respiratory complications, nor did they differ in neurologic outcomes at discharge when controlling for confounders. While limited by the retrospective nature, this suggests brief, early sO2 for stroke may be safe to evaluate prospectively.

4.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 260-269, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080027

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Many adults with syncope are hospitalized solely for observation and testing. We seek to determine whether hospitalization versus outpatient management for older adults with unexplained syncope is associated with a reduction in postdisposition serious adverse events at 30 days. METHODS: We performed a propensity score analysis using data from a prospective, observational study of older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. We enrolled adults (≥60 years) who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED. Clinical and laboratory data were collected on all patients. The primary outcome was rate of post-ED serious adverse events at 30 days. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,492 older adults with syncope and no serious ED diagnosis from April 2013 to September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 8.9 years), and 51% were women. The incidence of serious adverse events within 30 days after the index visit was 7.4% for hospitalized patients and 3.19% for discharged patients, representing an unadjusted difference of 4.2% (95% confidence interval 2.38% to 6.02%). After propensity score matching on risk of hospitalization, there was no statistically significant difference in serious adverse events at 30 days between the hospitalized group (4.89%) and the discharged group (2.82%) (risk difference 2.07%; 95% confidence interval -0.24% to 4.38%). CONCLUSION: In our propensity-matched sample of older adults with unexplained syncope, for those with clinical characteristics similar to that of the discharged cohort, hospitalization was not associated with improvement in 30-day serious adverse event rates.

5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(12): 2215-2223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common chief complaint among older adults in the Emergency Department (ED), and orthostatic vital signs are often a part of their evaluation. We assessed whether abnormal orthostatic vital signs in the ED are associated with composite 30-day serious outcomes in older adults presenting with syncope. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults ≥ 60 years who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients lost to follow up. We used the standard definition of abnormal orthostatic vital signs or subjective symptoms of lightheadedness upon standing to define orthostasis. We determined the rate of composite 30-day serious outcomes, including those during the index ED visit, such as cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cardiac intervention, new diagnosis of structural heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemorrhage/anemia requiring transfusion, with major traumatic injury from fall, recurrent syncope, and death) between the groups with normal and abnormal orthostatic vital signs. RESULTS: The study cohort included 1974 patients, of whom 51.2% were male and 725 patients (37.7%) had abnormal orthostatic vital signs. Comparing those with abnormal to those with normal orthostatic vital signs, we did not find a difference in composite 30-serious outcomes (111/725 (15.3%) vs 184/1249 (14.7%); unadjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95%CI, 0.81-1.35], p = 0.73). After adjustment for gender, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), history of arrhythmia, dyspnea, hypotension, any abnormal ECG, physician risk assessment, medication classes and disposition, there was no association with composite 30-serious outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82 [95%CI, 0.62-1.09], p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of older adult patients presenting with syncope who were able to have orthostatic vital signs evaluated, abnormal orthostatic vital signs did not independently predict composite 30-day serious outcomes.

6.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(5): 528-538, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An estimated 1.2 million annual emergency department (ED) visits for syncope/near syncope occur in the United States. Cardiac biomarkers are frequently obtained during the ED evaluation, but the prognostic value of index high-sensitivity troponin (hscTnT) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if hscTnT and NT-proBNP drawn in the ED are independently associated with 30-day death/serious cardiac outcomes in adult patients presenting with syncope. METHODS: A prespecified secondary analysis of a prospective, observational trial enrolling participants ≥ age 60 presenting with syncope, at 11 United States hospitals, was conducted between April 2013 and September 2016. Exclusions included seizure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, trauma, intoxication, hypoglycemia, persistent confusion, mechanical/electrical invention, prior enrollment, or predicted poor follow-up. Within 3 hours of consent, hscTnT and NT-proBNP were collected and later analyzed centrally using Roche Elecsys Gen 5 STAT and 2010 Cobas, respectively. Primary outcome was combined 30-day all-cause mortality and serious cardiac events. Adjusting for illness severity, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, variations between primary outcome and biomarkers were estimated, adjusting absolute risk associated with ranges of biomarkers using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS: The cohort included 3,392 patients; 367 (10.8%) experienced the primary outcome. Adjusted absolute risk for the primary outcome increased with hscTnT and NT-proBNP levels. HscTnT levels ≤ 5 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%-5%) outcome risk, and hscTnT > 50 ng/L, a 29% (95% CI = 26%-33%) risk. NT-proBNP levels ≤ 125 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% CI = 4%-5%) risk, and NT-proBNP > 2,000 ng/L a 29% (95% CI = 25%-32%) risk. Likelihood ratios and predictive values demonstrated similar results. Sensitivity analyses excluding ED index serious outcomes demonstrated similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: hscTnT and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of 30-day death and serious outcomes in older ED patients presenting with syncope.

7.
J Emerg Med ; 56(2): 127-134, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resuscitation and critical care unit is a novel emergency department-intensive care unit designed to provide early critical care to emergency department patients for ≤24 h. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify clinical variables associated with short intensive care unit (ICU) stays in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), who commonly require ICU-level care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-center, cross-sectional study of DKA patients ≥18 years of age who presented to an academic, urban hospital emergency department over 16 months. Patient demographics and clinical variables extracted from medical records were compared between prolonged ICU stay patients of ≥24 h versus short ICU stay patients (SSPs) of <24 h. ICU care was defined as treatment in the resuscitation and critical care unit or inpatient ICU. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-eight emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of DKA were analyzed. There were 53 prolonged ICU stay patients, 58 SSPs, and 57 patients required no ICU time. SSPs had significantly higher initial serum bicarbonate (13.0 vs. 9.0 mEq/L, p = 0.01) and shorter anion gap closure time (9.8 vs. 14.4 hours, p = 0.003). Medication nonadherence was a significantly more frequent precipitant in SSPs (67.2% vs. 47.2%, p = 0.03). Initial anion gap, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and severity of illness scores were not significantly different between groups. After multivariate logistic regression adjusting for variables significant from univariate analysis, higher initial bicarbonate (p = 0.04) and medication nonadherence (p = 0.03) remained significantly associated with SSPs. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA with short ICU stays have higher initial bicarbonate levels and are more likely to have medication nonadherence than patients requiring prolonged critical care. These variables may identify patients with DKA who are best treated in an emergency department-intensive care unit to potentially reduce inpatient ICU use.


Assuntos
Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(5): 869-872, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361153

RESUMO

Almost 20% of patients with syncope will experience another event. It is unknown whether recurrent syncope is a marker for a higher or lower risk etiology of syncope. The goal of this study is to determine whether older adults with recurrent syncope have a higher likelihood of 30-day serious clinical events than patients experiencing their first episode. METHODS: This study is a pre-specified secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective, observational study conducted at 11 emergency departments in the US. Adults 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope were enrolled. The primary outcome was occurrence of 30-day serious outcome. The secondary outcome was 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia. In multivariate analysis, we assessed whether prior syncope was an independent predictor of 30-day serious events. RESULTS: The study cohort included 3580 patients: 1281 (35.8%) had prior syncope and 2299 (64.2%) were presenting with first episode of syncope. 498 (13.9%) patients had 1 prior episode while 771 (21.5%) had >1 prior episode. Those with recurrent syncope were more likely to have congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, previous diagnosis of arrhythmia, and an abnormal ECG. Overall, 657 (18.4%) of the cohort had a serious outcome by 30 days after index ED visit. In multivariate analysis, we found no significant difference in risk of events (adjusted odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.31; p = 0.387). CONCLUSION: In older adults with syncope, a prior history of syncope within the year does not increase the risk for serious 30-day events.


Assuntos
Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síncope/epidemiologia
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 73(3): 274-280, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529112

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Controversy remains in regard to the risk of adverse events for patients presenting with syncope compared with near-syncope. The purpose of our study is to describe the difference in outcomes between these groups in a large multicenter cohort of older emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: From April 28, 2013, to September 21, 2016, we conducted a prospective, observational study across 11 EDs in adults (≥60 years) with syncope or near-syncope. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect information during their index visit and at 30-day follow-up. Our primary outcome was the incidence of 30-day death or serious clinical events. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant demographic or historical variables. RESULTS: A total of 3,581 patients (mean age 72.8 years; 51.6% men) were enrolled in the study. There were 1,380 patients (39%) presenting with near-syncope and 2,201 (61%) presenting with syncope. Baseline characteristics revealed a greater incidence of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, previous arrhythmia, nonwhite race, and presenting dyspnea in the near-syncope compared with syncope cohort. There were no differences in the primary outcome between the groups (near-syncope 18.7% versus syncope 18.2%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified no difference in 30-day serious outcomes for patients with near-syncope (odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.14) compared with syncope. CONCLUSION: Near-syncope confers risk to patients similar to that of syncope for the composite outcome of 30-day death or serious clinical event.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Síncope/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(4): 685-689, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common chief complaint in the ED, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a routine diagnostic tool in the evaluation of syncope. We assessed whether increasingly prolonged QTc intervals are associated with composite 30-day serious outcomes in older adults presenting to the ED with syncope. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients presenting without an ECG, measurement of QTc, non-sinus rhythm, bundle branch block or those without 30-day follow-up. We categorized QTc cutoffs into values of <451; 451-470; 471-500, and >500 ms. We determined the rate of composite 30-day serious outcomes including ED serious outcomes and 30-day arrhythmias not identified in ED. RESULTS: The study cohort included 2609 patients. There were 1678 patients (64.3%) that had QTc intervals <451 ms; 544 (20.8%) were 451-470 ms; 302 (11.6%) were 471-500 ms, and 85 (3.3%) had intervals >500 ms. Composite 30-day serious outcomes was associated with increasingly prolonged QTc intervals (13.0%, 15.3%, 18.2%, 22.4%, p = 0.01), but this association did not persist in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of older patients presenting with syncope, increased QTc interval was a marker of but was not independently predictive of composite 30-day serious outcomes.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
11.
J Hosp Med ; 13(12): 823-828, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common reason for visiting the emergency department (ED) and is associated with significant healthcare resource utilization. OBJECTIVE: To develop a risk-stratification tool for clinically significant findings on echocardiography among older adults presenting to the ED with syncope or nearsyncope. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study from April 2013 to September 2016. SETTING: Eleven EDs in the United States. PATIENTS: We enrolled adults (=60 years) who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was a clinically significant finding on TTE. Clinical, electrocardiogram, and laboratory variables were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of significant findings on echocardiography. RESULTS: A total of 3,686 patients were enrolled. Of these, 995 (27%) received echocardiography, and 215 (22%) had a significant finding on echocardiography. Regression analysis identified five predictors of significant finding: (1) history of congestive heart failure, (2) history of coronary artery disease, (3) abnormal electrocardiogram, (4) high-sensitivity troponin-T >14 pg/mL, and 5) N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide >125 pg/mL. These five variables make up the ROMEO (Risk Of Major Echocardiography findings in Older adults with syncope) criteria. The sensitivity of a ROMEO score of zero for excluding significant findings on echocardiography was 99.5% (95% CI: 97.4%-99.9%) with a specificity of 15.4% (95% CI: 13.0%-18.1%). CONCLUSIONS: If validated, this risk-stratification tool could help clinicians determine which syncope patients are at very low risk of having clinically significant findings on echocardiography. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01802398.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Síncope/etiologia , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2018 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Syncope and near-syncope are common in patients with dementia and a leading cause of emergency department (ED) evaluation and subsequent hospitalization. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical trajectory and short-term outcomes of patients who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope and were assessed by their ED provider to have dementia. METHODS: This multisite prospective cohort study included patients 60 years of age or older who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope between 2013 and 2016. We analyzed a subcohort of 279 patients who were identified by the treating ED provider to have baseline dementia. We collected comprehensive patient-level, utilization, and outcomes data through interviews, provider surveys, and chart abstraction. Outcome measures included serious conditions related to syncope and death. RESULTS: Overall, 221 patients (79%) were hospitalized with a median length of stay of 2.1 days. A total of 46 patients (16%) were diagnosed with a serious condition in the ED. Of the 179 hospitalized patients who did not have a serious condition identified in the ED, 14 (7.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with a serious condition during the hospitalization, and an additional 12 patients (6.7%) were diagnosed postdischarge within 30 days of the index ED visit. There were seven deaths (2.5%) overall, none of which were cardiac-related. No patients who were discharged from the ED died or had a serious condition in the subsequent 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with perceived dementia who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope were frequently hospitalized. The diagnosis of a serious condition was uncommon if not identified during the initial ED assessment. Given the known iatrogenic risks of hospitalization for patients with dementia, future investigation of the impact of goals of care discussions on reducing potentially preventable, futile, or unwanted hospitalizations while improving goal-concordant care is warranted.

14.
Ann Emerg Med ; 71(4): 452-461.e3, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275946

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Cardiac arrhythmia is a life-threatening condition in older adults who present to the emergency department (ED) with syncope. Previous work suggests the initial ED ECG can predict arrhythmia risk; however, specific ECG predictors have been variably specified. Our objective is to identify specific ECG abnormalities predictive of 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmias in older adults presenting to the ED with syncope. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults aged 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a serious cardiac arrhythmia diagnosed during the ED evaluation from the primary analysis. The outcome was occurrence of 30-day serous cardiac arrhythmia. The exposure variables were predefined ECG abnormalities. Independent predictors were identified through multivariate logistic regression. The sensitivities and specificities of any predefined ECG abnormality and any ECG abnormality identified on adjusted analysis to predict 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia were also calculated. RESULTS: After exclusion of 197 patients (5.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7% to 6.2%) with serious cardiac arrhythmias in the ED, the study cohort included 3,416 patients. Of these, 104 patients (3.0%; 95% CI 2.5% to 3.7%) had a serious cardiac arrhythmia within 30 days from the index ED visit (median time to diagnosis 2 days [interquartile range 1 to 5 days]). The presence of nonsinus rhythm, multiple premature ventricular conductions, short PR interval, first-degree atrioventricular block, complete left bundle branch block, and Q wave/T wave/ST-segment abnormalities consistent with acute or chronic ischemia on the initial ED ECG increased the risk for a 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia. This combination of ECG abnormalities had a similar sensitivity in predicting 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia compared with any ECG abnormality (76.9% [95% CI 67.6% to 84.6%] versus 77.9% [95% CI 68.7% to 85.4%]) and was more specific (55.1% [95% CI 53.4% to 56.8%] versus 46.6% [95% CI 44.9% to 48.3%]). CONCLUSION: In older ED adults with syncope, approximately 3% receive a diagnosis of a serious cardiac arrhythmia not recognized on initial ED evaluation. The presence of specific abnormalities on the initial ED ECG increased the risk for 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Síncope/epidemiologia , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J AIDS HIV Res ; 9(7): 159-163, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214096

RESUMO

Women of reproductive age account for nearly half of all HIV-infected people worldwide. Childbearing intention among HIV-infected women is complicated by social and reproductive concerns related to their HIV status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected sexually active South African women aged 17 to 21 in order to compare their childbearing intentions and to identify predictors of the desire to have children among women with HIV. We found the rate of childbearing intention to be similarly high among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants (80 and 79% respectively, p=0.81). History of previous parity was found to be associated with decreased intention to have children. No difference in childbearing intention was found between HIV-infected women on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and women not on ART. High rates of childbearing intention among HIV-infected women require integration of reproductive health services with comprehensive HIV/AIDS care in order to mitigate the risks of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV.

16.
J AIDS HIV Res ; 9(10): 202-206, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707404

RESUMO

The global burden of disease caused by both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest in the developing world, with the highest rates in sub-Saharan Africa. South African women not only have high rates of infection with HPV, but also have high rates of multiple concurrent infections with two or more HPV genotypes, and are among the world's most vulnerable to developing invasive cervical cancer. HIV co-infection increases these risks. Understanding clustering patterns of concurrent HPV infections in this population has important implications for HPV screening and will help define vaccination strategies in the future as vaccines continue to be developed to target more HPV genotypes. Latent class analysis was used to identify four distinct patterns of HPV co-infection: individuals with at least one low risk HPV genotype, but no high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infections; individuals with a disperse pattern of HR-HPV infections; individuals infected with members of the alpha-7 group, but not HPV-18; and individuals infected with HPV-16, but not HPV-18. In this analysis, although alpha-7 HPV infections were more prevalent among HIV-infected adolescents than their HIV-uninfected counterparts, overall clustering patterns were not different based on HIV status.

17.
Acad Emerg Med ; 24(4): 458-466, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859997

RESUMO

Loss to follow-up of enrolled patients (a.k.a. attrition) is a major threat to study validity and power. Minimizing attrition can be challenging even under ideal research conditions, including the presence of adequate funding, experienced study personnel, and a refined research infrastructure. Emergency care research is shifting toward enrollment through multisite networks, but there have been limited descriptions of approaches to minimize attrition for these multicenter emergency care studies. This concept paper describes a stepwise approach to minimize attrition, using a case example of a multisite emergency department prospective cohort of over 3,000 patients that has achieved a 30-day direct phone follow-up attrition rate of <3%. The seven areas of approach to minimize attrition in this study focused on patient selection, baseline contact data collection, patient incentives, patient tracking, central phone banks, local enrollment site assistance, and continuous performance monitoring. Appropriate study design, including consideration of these methods to reduce attrition, will be time well spent and may improve study validity.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Seleção de Pacientes , Idoso , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Acad Emerg Med ; 23(9): 1014-21, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical prediction models for risk stratification of older adults with syncope or near syncope may improve resource utilization and management. Predictors considered for inclusion into such models must be reliable. Our primary objective was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement of historical, physical examination, and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in older adults undergoing emergency department (ED) evaluation for syncope or near syncope. Our secondary objective was to assess the level of agreement between clinicians on the patient's overall risk for death or serious cardiac outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 11 EDs in adults 60 years of age or older who presented with unexplained syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a presumptive cause of syncope (e.g., seizure) or if they were unable or unwilling to follow-up. Evaluations of the patient's past medical history and current medication use were completed by treating provider and trained research associate pairs. Evaluations of the patient's physical examination and ECG interpretation were completed by attending/resident, attending/advanced practice provider, or attending/attending pairs. All evaluations were blinded to the responses from the other rater. We calculated the percent agreement and kappa statistic for binary variables. Inter-rater agreement was considered acceptable if the kappa statistic was 0.6 or higher. RESULTS: We obtained paired observations from 255 patients; mean (±SD) age was 73 (±9) years, 137 (54%) were male, and 204 (80%) were admitted to the hospital. Acceptable agreement was achieved in 18 of the 21 (86%) past medical history and current medication findings, none of the 10 physical examination variables, and three of the 13 (23%) ECG interpretation variables. There was moderate agreement (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.40) between clinicians on the patient's probability of 30-day death or serious cardiac outcome, although as the probability increased, there was less agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable agreement between raters was more commonly achieved with historical rather than physical examination or ECG interpretation variables. Clinicians had moderate agreement in assessing the patient's overall risk for a serious outcome at 30 days. Future development of clinical prediction models in older adults with syncope should account for variability of assessments between raters and consider the use of objective clinical variables.


Assuntos
Exame Físico/métodos , Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Adv Virol ; 2016: 7310894, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26997954

RESUMO

Infection with HIV is known to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence suggests that concurrent infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes increases the risk of cervical dysplasia more than infection with a single HPV genotype. However, the impact of the combination of HIV coinfection and presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections on the risk of cervical dysplasia is uncertain. We compared the results of HPV testing and Pap smears between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women to assess the cumulative impact of these two conditions. We found that both HIV and the presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections are associated with increased risk of associated Pap smear abnormality and that the impact of these two risk factors may be additive.

20.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2014: 498048, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25389377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adolescents may be at higher risk for high-grade cervical lesions than HIV-uninfected adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infections and Pap smear abnormalities between these two groups. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ (2) and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. RESULTS: HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P < 0.001) and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P = 0.001), and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P < 0.001). HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P = 0.054). A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
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