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1.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and manufacture a pelvis phantom for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate interventions, such as MRGB (MR-guided biopsy) or brachytherapy seed placement. METHODS: The phantom was designed to mimic the human pelvis incorporating bones, bladder, prostate with four lesions, urethra, arteries, veins, and six lymph nodes embedded in ballistic gelatin. A hollow rectum enables transrectal access to the prostate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the phantom for minimal invasive MRI-guided interventions, a targeted inbore MRGB was performed. The needle probe was rectally inserted and guided using an MRI-compatible remote controlled manipulator (RCM). RESULTS: The presented pelvis phantom has realistic imaging properties for MR imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US). In the targeted inbore MRGB, a prostate lesion was successfully hit with an accuracy of 3.5 mm. The experiment demonstrates that the limited size of the rectum represents a realistic impairment for needle placements. CONCLUSION: The phantom provides a valuable platform for evaluating the performance of MRGB systems. Interventionalists can use the phantom to learn how to deal with challenging situations, without risking harm to patients.

2.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 829-838, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251481

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and local staging of primary prostate cancer. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Image-guided biopsy techniques such as MRI-ultrasound fusion not only allow guidance for targeted tissue sampling of index lesions for diagnostic confirmation, but also improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Minimally invasive, focal therapies of localized prostate cancer complement the treatment spectrum, especially for low- and intermediate-risk patients. PERFORMANCE: In patients of low and intermediate risk, MR-guided, minimally invasive therapies could enable local tumor control, improved functional outcomes and possible subsequent therapy escalation. Further study results related to multimodal approaches and the application of artificial intelligence (AI) by machine and deep learning algorithms will help to leverage the full potential of focal therapies for prostate cancer in the upcoming era of precision medicine. ACHIEVEMENTS: Completion of ongoing randomized trials comparing each minimally invasive therapy approach with established whole-gland procedures is needed before minimally invasive therapies can be implemented into existing treatment guidelines. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: This review article highlights minimally invasive therapies of prostate cancer and the key role of mpMRI for planning and conducting these therapies.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 347-355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sodium MRI (23Na MRI) derived biomarkers such as tissue sodium concentration (TSC) provide valuable information on cell function and brain tissue viability and has become a reliable tool for the assessment of brain tumors and ischemic stroke beyond pathoanatomical morphology. Patients with major stroke often suffer from different degrees of underlying white matter lesions (WMLs) attributed to chronic small vessel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the WM TSC in patients with an acute ischemic stroke and to correlate the TSC with the extent of small vessel disease. Furthermore, the reliability of relative TSC (rTSC) compared to absolute TSC in these patients was analyzed. METHODOLOGY: We prospectively examined 62 patients with acute ischemic stroke (73 ± 13 years) between November 2016 and August 2019 from which 18 patients were excluded and thus 44 patients were evaluated. A 3D 23Na MRI was acquired in addition to a T2-TIRM and a diffusion-weighted image. Coregistration and segmentation were performed with SPM 12 based on the T2-TIRM image. The extension of WM T2 hyperintense lesions in each patient was classified using the Fazekas scale of WMLs. The absolute TSC in the WM region was correlated to the Fazekas grades. The stroke region was manually segmented on the coregistered absolute diffusion coefficient image and absolute, and rTSC was calculated in the stroke region and compared to nonischemic WM region. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Student t-test. RESULTS: For patients with Fazekas grade I (n = 25, age: 68.5 ± 15.1 years), mean TSC in WM was 55.57 ± 7.43 mM, and it was not statistically significant different from patients with Fazekas grade II (n = 7, age: 77.9 ± 6.4 years) with a mean TSC in WM of 53.9 ± 6.4 mM, p = 0.58. For patients with Fazekas grade III (n = 9, age: 81.4 ± 7.9 years), mean TSC in WM was 68.7 ± 10.5 mM, which is statistically significantly higher than the TSC in patients with Fazekas grade I and II (p < 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the TSC in WM and the Fazekas grade with r = 0.48 p < 0.001. The rTSC in the stroke region was statistically significant difference between low (0 and I) and high (2 and 3) Fazekas grades (p = 0.0353) whereas there was no statistically significant difference in absolute TSC in the stroke region between low (0 and I) and high (2 and 3) Fazekas grades. CONCLUSION: The significant difference in absolute TSC in WM in patients with severe small vessel disease; Fazekas grade 3 can lead to inaccuracies using rTSC quantification for evaluation of acute ischemic stroke using 23 Na MRI. The study, therefore, emphasizes the importance of absolute tissue sodium quantification.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Isótopos de Sódio/metabolismo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/metabolismo , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/metabolismo
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102752, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently shows ill-defined areas with intermediate signal intensity between the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and focal T2-hyperintense lesions, termed "diffusely appearing white matter" (DAWM). Even though several advanced MRI techniques have shown the potential to detect and quantify subtle commonly not visible microscopic tissue changes, to date only a few advanced MRI studies investigated DAWM changes in a quantitative manner. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify tissue abnormalities in the DAWM in comparison to focal lesions and the NAWM in MS patients by sodium (23Na) MRI. METHODS: 23Na and conventional MRI were performed in 25 MS patients with DAWM (DAWM+) and in 25 sex- and age matched MS patients without DAWM (DAWM-), as well as in ten healthy controls (HC). Mean total sodium concentrations (TSC) were quantified in the DAWM, NAWM, normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) and in focal MS lesions. RESULTS: In MS DAWM+and DAWM-, TSC values were increased in the NAGM (DAWM+: 44.61 ± 4.09 mM; DAWM-: 45.37 ± 3.8 mM) and in the NAWM (DAWM+: 39.85 ± 3.89 mM; DAWM-: 39.82 ± 4.25 mM) compared to normal grey and white matter in HC (GM 40.87 ± 3.25 mM, WM 35.9 ± 1.81 mM; p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Interestingly, the DAWM showed similar sodium concentrations (39.32 ± 4.59 mM) to the NAWM (39.85 ± 3.89 mM), whereas TSC values in T1 hypointense (46.53 ± 7.87 mM) and T1 isointense (41.99 ± 6.10 mM) lesions were significantly higher than in the DAWM (p < 0.001 and 0.017 respectively). CONCLUSION: 23Na MRI is confirmed as a sensitive marker of even subtle tissue abnormalities. DAWM sodium levels are increased and comparable to the abnormalities in NAWM, suggesting pathological changes less severe than in focal lesions comparable to what is expected in the NAWM.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Sódio , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
NMR Biomed ; 34(4): e4474, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480128

RESUMO

Quantitative 23 Na magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides tissue sodium concentration (TSC), which is connected to cell viability and vitality. Long acquisition times are one of the most challenging aspects for its clinical establishment. K-space undersampling is an approach for acquisition time reduction, but generates noise and artifacts. The use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is increasing in medical imaging and they are a useful tool for MRI postprocessing. The aim of this study is 23 Na MRI acquisition time reduction by k-space undersampling. CNNs were applied to reduce the resulting noise and artifacts. A retrospective analysis from a prospective study was conducted including image datasets from 46 patients (aged 72 ± 13 years; 25 women, 21 men) with ischemic stroke; the 23 Na MRI acquisition time was 10 min. The reconstructions were performed with full dataset (FI) and with a simulated dataset an image that was acquired in 2.5 min (RI). Eight different CNNs with either U-Net-based or ResNet-based architectures were implemented with RI as input and FI as label, using batch normalization and the number of filters as varying parameters. Training was performed with 9500 samples and testing included 400 samples. CNN outputs were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). After quantification, TSC error was calculated. The image quality was subjectively rated by three neuroradiologists. Statistical significance was evaluated by Student's t-test. The average SNR was 21.72 ± 2.75 (FI) and 10.16 ± 0.96 (RI). U-Nets increased the SNR of RI to 43.99 and therefore performed better than ResNet. SSIM of RI to FI was improved by three CNNs to 0.91 ± 0.03. CNNs reduced TSC error by up to 15%. The subjective rating of CNN-generated images showed significantly better results than the subjective image rating of RI. The acquisition time of 23 Na MRI can be reduced by 75% due to postprocessing with a CNN on highly undersampled data.

6.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 429-435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sodium (23Na) MR imaging is a noninvasive MRI technique that has been shown to be sensitive to visualize biochemical information about tissue viability, their cell integrity, and cell function in various studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in regional brain 23Na signal intensity between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls to preliminarily evaluate the capability of 23Na imaging as a biomarker for AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients diagnosed with AD were included: 12 in the state of dementia and 2 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 12 healthy controls (HC); they were all scanned on a 3T clinical scanner with a double tuned 1H/23Na birdcage head coil. After normalizing the signal intensity with that of the vitreous humor, relative tissue sodium concentration (rTSC) was measured after automated segmentation in the hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) in both cerebral hemispheres. RESULTS: Patients with AD showed a significant increase in rTSC in comparison to healthy controls in the following brain regions: WM 13.6%; p=0.007, hippocampus 12.9%; p=0.003, amygdala 18.9%; p=0.0007. CONCLUSION: 23Na-MRI has the potential to be developed as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sódio
7.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 297-305, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, treatment response to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in brain metastases (BM) can only be determined by MRI evaluation of contrast-enhancing lesions in a long-time follow-up. Sodium MRI has been a subject of immense interest in imaging research as the measure of tissue sodium concentration (TSC) can give valuable quantitative information on cell viability. We aimed to analyze the longitudinal changes of TSC in BM measured with 23 Na MRI before and after SRS for assessment of early local tumor effects. METHODS: Seven patients with a total of 12 previously untreated BM underwent SRS with 22 Gy. In addition to a standard MRI protocol including dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion, a 23 Na MRI was performed at three time points: (I) 2 days before, (II) 5 days, and (III) 40 days after SRS. Nine BMs were evaluated. The absolute TSC in the BM, the respective peritumoral edemas, and the normal-appearing corresponding contralateral brain area were assessed and the relative TSC were correlated to the changes in BM longest axial diameters. RESULTS: TSC was elevated in nine BM at baseline before SRS with a mean of 73.4 ± 12.3 mM. A further increase in TSC was observed 5 days after SRS in all the nine BM with a mean of 86.9 ± 13 mM. Eight of nine BM showed a mean 60.6 ± 13.3% decrease in the longest axial diameter 40 days after SRS; at this time point, the TSC also had decreased to a mean 65.1 ± 7.9 mM. In contrast, one of the nine BM had a 13.4% increase in the largest axial diameter at time point III. The TSC of this BM showed a further TSC increase of 80.1 mM 40 days after SRS. CONCLUSION: Changes in TSC using 23 Na MRI shows the possible capability to detect radiobiological changes in BM after SRS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiocirurgia , Sódio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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