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Front Public Health ; 10: 1006271, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530665


Background: Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is prevalent in conflict zones due to a lack of essential resources and knowledge, thereby escalating the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) cases in these territories. This has resulted in a higher incidence of cases from exposure to a single COVID-19 positive case and further burdens the health care system of conflict zones which are already on the brink of collapsing. Aim: This narrative review aims to determine VH to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine in five conflict zones that include Somalia, Yemen, Palestine, Syria, and Afghanistan. Methodology: A Boolean search was carried out in MEDLINE-PubMed from inception till 6 June 2022. The search was performed by using the following keywords: "(SARS-CoV-2 OR covid OR covid 19) AND (vaccine hesitancy OR covid vaccine acceptance OR intention to vaccinate) AND (Syria OR Yemen OR Palestine OR Afghanistan OR Somalia"). The full text of all relevant articles in English along with their supplementary material was extracted. Results: All the included studies reported at least 30% or more increase in vaccine hesitancy among conflict settings. VH was mostly due to a lack of available resources, lack of appropriate knowledge, and believing misleading rumors about the vaccine. Discussion: Considering the massive amount of reluctance among people residing in conflict zones, the need to take effective measures against VH is undoubtedly apparent. This can be accomplished by carrying out mass vaccinations by the governments and proper health education through raising the public awareness regarding vaccines, thereby eliminating rumors that exacerbate the fear of adverse effects. Conclusion: The approach described in this article to combat VH can be implemented to increase vaccination rates and significantly alleviate R0 across the globe.

Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa , Vacinação
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e940, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425896


Background: Vaccine hesitancy is not a new phenomenon to Pakistan. This is evidenced through the slow progress of previous vaccination campaigns and programs against MMR, BCG, and especially polio. This issue continues to persist and is therefore becoming the cause of low COVID-19 vaccination rates in Pakistan. Aim: To provide insights about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Pakistanis, and its potential harm on public health. Moreover, we aim provide recommendations to counter the factors limiting the COVID-19 vaccination in Pakistan. Methodology: A Boolean search was conducted to find the literature in MEDLINE-PubMed, Google Scholar, and databases up till March 16, 2022. Specific keywords were used which comprised of "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," "vaccine hesitancy," "vaccine acceptance," "intention to vaccinate," and "Pakistan," with use of "OR" and "AND." Only free full-text original studies in English language were used to compare and contrast. Results: As proven by various studies, COVID-19 vaccination rates are influenced by multiple factors, including inaccurate beliefs about COVID-19, hesitancy amongst healthcare workers, uncertainty regarding vaccine's efficacy and fear of side effects. Various conspiracy theories and lower testing rates among others also add up to impose a negative impact on the vaccination rates and public health of Pakistan. This may lead to newer strains of potentially harmful COVID-19, mental health deterioration, and prolonged lockdowns. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy is a global public health threat, and its impacts are pronounced in Pakistan. This is reflected in the COVID-19 pandemic; low vaccination rates in Pakistan may lead to future outbreaks of new, potentially harmful, strains of COVID-19 which can prolong lockdowns in the country and affect mental health of the population. To improve the current situations, it is imperative for the government, educational institutes, and healthcare systems to develop trust and continually use dialogue, communication, and education to address misconceptions to improve COVID-19 vaccination in Pakistan.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 76: 103503, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495406


Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine which is considered to be a gold-standard therapy for treating an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). Some experts highlight benefits of LT4 replacement therapy, others specify the harmful effects of it, in regards to treating subclinical hypothyroidism. With respect to current guidelines for the consistent dosing of levothyroxine for treating hypothyroidism, we aim to highlight limitations of long-term use of Levothyroxine therapy in SCH. Apropos of the studies published to date, we look into the appropriate dosing of Levothyroxine in SCH by physicians.

Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e531, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229055


BACKGROUND: The heterologous prime-boost vaccination technique is not novel as it has a history of deployment in previous outbreaks. AIM: Hence, this narrative review aims to provide critical insight for reviving the heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination relative to a brief positive outlook on the mix-dose approach deployed in previous and existing outbreaks (ie, Ebola virus disease (EVD), malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, HIV and influenza virus). METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS: A Boolean search was carried out to find the literature in MEDLINE-PubMed, Clinicaltrials, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases up till December 22, 2021, using the specific keywords that include "SARS-CoV2", "COVID-19", "Ebola," "Malaria," "Tuberculosis," "Human Immunodeficiency Virus," "Hepatitis B," "Influenza," "Mix and match," "Heterologous prime-boost," with interposition of "OR" and "AND." Full text of all the related articles in English language with supplementary appendix was retrieved. In addition, the full text of relevant cross-references was also retrieved. RESULTS: Therefore, as generally evident by the primary outcomes, that is, safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity reported and updated by preclinical and clinical studies for addressing previous and existing outbreaks so far, including COVID-19, it is understood that heterologous prime-boost immunization has been proven successful for eliciting a more efficacious immune response as of yet in comparison to the traditional homologous prime-boost immunization regimen. DISCUSSION: Accordingly, with increasing cases of COVID-19, many countries such as Germany, Pakistan, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom have started administering the heterologous vaccination as the technique aids to rationalize the usage of the available vaccines to aid in the global race to vaccinate majority to curb the spread of COVID-19 efficiently. However, the article emphasizes the need for more large controlled trials considering demographic details of vaccine recipients, which would play an essential role in clearing the mistrust about safety concerns to pace up the acceptance of the technique across the globe. CONCLUSION: Consequently, by combatting the back-to-back waves of COVID-19 and other challenging variants of concerns, including Omicron, the discussed approach can also help in addressing the expected evolution of priority outbreaks as coined by WHO, that is, "Disease X" in 2018 with competency, which according to WHO can turn into the "next pandemic" or the "next public health emergency," thus would eventually lead to eradicating the risk of "population crisis."

Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 68: 102655, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377450


The coronavirus disease 2019 continues to unearth new facets that portend grave clinical implications. In recent times, there has been mounting fervor regarding coronavirus disease 2019 and mucormycosis superinfection. While the correlation between the two is conspicuous, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that render a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 susceptible to mucormycosis, or vice versa, are still elusive.