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1.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645974

RESUMO

Engineered T-cell therapies have proven to be successful in cancer and their clinical effectiveness is directly correlated with the infused T-cell differentiation profile. Indeed, stem cell memory and central memory T cells proliferate and persist longer in vivo compared with more-differentiated T cells, while conferring enhanced antitumor activity. Here, we propose an optimized process using cord blood (CB) to generate minimally differentiated T-cell products in terms of phenotype, function, gene expression, and metabolism, using peripheral blood (PB)-derived T cells cultured with IL-2 as a standard. Phenotypically, CB-derived T cells, particularly CD4 T cells, are less differentiated than their PB counterparts when cultured with IL-2 or with IL-7 and IL-15. Furthermore, culture with IL-7 and IL-15 enables better preservation of less-differentiated CB-derived T cells compared with IL-2. In addition, transcriptomic and metabolic assessments of CB-derived transgenic T cells cultured with IL-7 and IL-15 point out their naivety and stemness signature. These relatively quiescent transgenic T cells are nevertheless primed for secondary stimulation and cytokine production. In conclusion, our study indicates that CB may be used as a source of early differentiated T cells to develop more effective adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638376

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been associated with long-term complete responses leading to improved overall survival in several cancer types. However, these novel immunotherapies are only effective in a small proportion of patients, and therapeutic resistance represents a major limitation in clinical practice. As with chemotherapy, there is substantial evidence that radiation therapy promotes anti-tumor immune responses that can enhance systemic responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we discuss the main preclinical and clinical evidence on strategies that can lead to an enhanced response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in combination with radiation therapy. We focused on central issues in optimizing radiation therapy, such as the optimal dose and fractionation for improving the therapeutic ratio, as well as the impact on immune and clinical responses of dose rate, target volume, lymph nodes irradiation, and type of radiation particle. We explored the addition of a third immunomodulatory agent to the combination such as other checkpoint inhibitors, chemotherapy, and treatment targeting the tumor microenvironment components. The strategies described in this review provide a lead for future clinical trials.

3.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352265

RESUMO

CD4 T cells play a key role in anticancer immunity. In this study, we investigate the clinical relevance of circulating CD4 T helper type 1 (Th1) response against telomerase (anti-TERT Th1 response) in patients with melanoma. The spontaneous anti-TERT Th1 response was detected in 54.5% (85/156) of patients with melanoma before treatment. The prevalence of this systemic response was inversely related to Breslow thickness >1 mm and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage ≥II (P = 0.001 and 0.032, respectively). In contrast to patients treated with targeted therapies, the anti-TERT Th1 immunity was associated with an objective response after immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment. Hence, 86% (18/21) of responder patients exhibited pre-existing anti-TERT Th1 versus 35% (6/19) in nonresponders (P = 0.001). This response was also associated with increased progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with melanoma treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (P = 0.0008 and 0.012, respectively). Collectively, the presence of circulating anti-TERT Th1 response is inversely related to melanoma evolution and appears to be a predictive factor of response to immunotherapy. Our results highlight the interest in telomerase-specific CD4 Th1 response as a promising blood-based biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy in melanoma.

4.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 142, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376633

RESUMO

This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies. Antibodies blocking spike binding to immobilized ACE-2 (NAb) correlated with anti-Spike (S) IgG d42 titers (Spearman r = 0.865, p < 0.0001), and an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL was predictive of NAb ≥ 30%, the positivity cutoff for NAb (p < 0.0001). Only 47% of the patients achieved an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL after the two BNT162b2 inocula, compared to 87% of healthy controls. In multivariable analysis, male patients, use of B-cell targeting treatment within the last 12 months prior to vaccination, and CD19+ B-cell level <120/uL, were associated with a significantly decreased probability of achieving a protective anti-S IgG level after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. Finally, using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, we found a significant increase in T-cell response against the S protein, with 53% of patients having an anti-S IgG-positive ELISPOT after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. There was a correlation between the anti-S ELISPOT response and IgG d42 level (Spearman r = 0.3026, p = 0.012). These findings suggest that vaccination with two BNT162b2 inocula translates into a significant increase in humoral and cellular response in patients with hematological malignancies, but only around half of the patients can likely achieve effective immune protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Immunol ; 229: 108798, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280578

RESUMO

Inflammatory response in patients with COPD secondary to organic dust exposure (OD-COPD) is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to characterize inflammatory and immune profile from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a group of patients with mild-to-moderate COPD secondary to organic dust exposure (OD-COPD), tobacco smoking (T-COPD), or both. We compared T, B and NK cells distribution and inflammatory (TNF-α, Il-1ß, IL-6), type 1 (IFN-γ), type 2 (IL-4, IL-13) and type 3 (IL-17) immunity related cytokines at baseline, and after stimulation with LPS, flagellin and CD3/CD28 beads in all COPD groups. OD-COPD displayed significantly lower NK cells and CD8+ T cells compared with controls. After flagellin stimulation, T-COPD had significantly lower IL-13 levels than OD-COPD and controls (p < 0.05) whereas IFN-γ tended to be lower in OD-COPD. All COPD groups displayed higher IL-1ß and IL-17 than controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Inflammatory responses in OD-COPD were different from T-COPD. OD-COPD displayed higher levels of type 2 immunity related cytokines.


Assuntos
Poeira/imunologia , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Idoso , Agricultura , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple synergistic combination approaches with cancer drugs are developed to overcome primary resistance to immunotherapy; however, the mechanistic rationale to combine chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with immune checkpoint inhibitors remains elusive. METHODS: This study described the immunological landscape of tumor microenvironment (TME) exposed to CRT. Tumor samples from patients with rectal cancer (n=43) treated with neoadjuvant CRT or radiotherapy were analyzed by nanostring and immunohistochemistry. Studies in mice were performed using three syngeneic tumors (TC1, CT26 and MC38). Tumor-bearing mice were treated either with platinum-based CRT, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-Programmed Cell Death Receptor-1 (PD-1) therapy was used in combination with CRT. The therapy-exposed TME was screened by RNA sequencing and flow cytometry and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte functionality was evaluated by interferon (IFN)-γ ELIspot and intracellular cytokine staining. RESULTS: Front-to-front comparison analysis revealed the synergistic effect of CRT to establish a highly inflamed and Th1-polarized immune signature in the TME of patients and mice. In both settings, CRT-exposed TMEs were highly enriched in newly-infiltrated tumor-specific CD8+ T cells as well as tissue resident memory CD103+CD8+ T cells. In mice, CD8 T cells were involved in the antitumor response mediated by CRT and were primed by CRT-activated CD103+ dendritic cells. In the three tumor models, we showed that concurrent combination of CRT with a dual CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade was required to achieve an optimal antitumor effect and to establish a broad and long-lasting protective antitumor T cell immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the ability of CRT to stimulate strong antitumor T-cell-mediated immunity and tissue resident memory T activation in TME, to foster immune checkpoint inhibitors action. These findings have implications in clinic for the design clinical trials combining chemoradiation with immunotherapy.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669992, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262562

RESUMO

Evidences highlight the role of various CD4+ helper T cells (CD4+ Th) subpopulations in orchestrating the immune responses against cancers. Epigenetics takes an important part in the regulation of CD4+ Th polarization and plasticity. In this review, we described the epigenetic factors that govern CD4+ T cells differentiation and recruitment in the tumor microenvironment and their subsequent involvement in the antitumor immunity. Finally, we discussed how to manipulate tumor reactive CD4+ Th responses by epigenetic drugs to improve anticancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/transplante , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 38, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The synergistic effect of chemoradiation (CRT) has been previously demonstrated in several cancer types. Here, we investigated the systemic immune effects of CRT in patients with lung or head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected at baseline and 1 month after treatment from blood samples of 29 patients treated with cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy for lung or head and neck cancer. Circulating anti-tumor Th1 response was assessed by the ELISpot assay using a mixture of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II restricted peptides derived from telomerase (TERT). Phenotyping of circulating immunosuppressive cells (Treg and MDSC) was performed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: A significant increase of circulating Treg was observed in 60% of patients after CRT The mean rate of Treg was 3.1% versus 4.9% at baseline and after CRT respectively, p = 0.0015). However, there was a no significant increase of MDSC rate after CRT. In contrast, a decrease of tumor-specific Th1 response was documented in 7 out of 10 evaluated patients. We found high frequency of pre-existing tumor-specific Th1 response among patients with objective response after CRT compared to non-responders. CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-based CRT promotes expansion of Treg and decrease of circulating anti-tumor Th1 response in peripheral blood. The balance towards a sustained specific anti-tumor T-cell response appears to be associated with response to CRT.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 1-9, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are considered highly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, delaying cancer-specific therapies could have a deleterious effect on survival. The potential suppressive effects of chemotherapies or cancer-related microenvironment raised the question on how cancer patients' immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: We have started a prospective monocentric trial entitled COV-CREM (NCT04365322) in April 2020. The primary objective of the trial was to assess specific immune response's intensity and diversity to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that cancer patients (28 solid tumours, 11 haematological malignancies) exposed to SARS-CoV-2 produced a high rate of specific antibodies, as observed in patients without a cancer history (n = 29). However, our results highlight a lack in the generation of T-cell responses against CoV-N, M and S proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, suggesting that cancer patients failed to mount a protective T-cell immunity. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 infection did not impair established immune memory since specific responses against common viruses were not hampered in cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Given the severity and the unknown evolution of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is of fundamental importance to integrate cancer patients in vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Blood Adv ; 5(5): 1540-1551, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687433

RESUMO

Oncogenesis and ontogeny of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) remain uncertain, between canonical plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and AXL+ SIGLEC6+ DCs (AS-DCs). We compared 12 BPDCN to 164 acute leukemia by Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays: BPDCN were closer to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with enrichment in pDC, B-cell signatures, vesicular transport, deubiquitination pathways, and AS-DC signatures, but only in some cases. Importantly, 1 T-cell ALL clustered with BPDCN, with compatible morphology, immunophenotype (cCD3+ sCD3- CD123+ cTCL1+ CD304+), and genetics. Many oncogenetic pathways are deregulated in BPDCN compared with normal pDC, such as cell-cycle kinases, and importantly, the transcription factor SOX4, involved in B ontogeny, pDC ontogeny, and cancer cell invasion. High-throughput sequencing (HaloPlex) showed myeloid mutations (TET2, 62%; ASXL1, 46%; ZRSR2, 31%) associated with lymphoid mutations (IKZF1), whereas single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Affymetrix SNP array 6.0) revealed frequent losses (mean: 9 per patient) involving key hematological oncogenes (RB1, IKZF1/2/3, ETV6, NR3C1, CDKN2A/B, TP53) and immune response genes (IFNGR, TGFB, CLEC4C, IFNA cluster). Various markers suggest an AS-DC origin, but not in all patients, and some of these abnormalities are related to the leukemogenesis process, such as the 9p deletion, leading to decreased expression of genes encoding type I interferons. In addition, the AS-DC profile is only found in a subgroup of patients. Overall, the cellular ontogenic origin of BPDCN remains to be characterized, and these results highlight the heterogeneity of BPDCN, with a risk of a diagnostic trap.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Transcriptoma , Carcinogênese , Células Dendríticas , Genômica , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Receptores Imunológicos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CAR-T cells immunotherapy is a breakthrough in the treatment of hematological malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and B-cell malignancies. However, CAR-T therapies face major hurdles such as the lack of tumor-specific antigen (TSA), and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment sometimes caused by the tumorous expression of immune checkpoints (ICPs) such as HLA-G. Indeed, HLA-G is remarkable because it is both a potent ICP and a TSA. HLA-G tumor expression causes immune escape by impairing innate and adaptive immune responses and by inducing a suppressive microenvironment. Yet, to date, no immunotherapy targets it. METHODS: We have developed two anti-HLA-G third-generation CARs based on new anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Anti-HLA-G CAR-T cells were specific for immunosuppressive HLA-G isoforms. HLA-G-activated CAR-T cells polarized toward T helper 1, and became cytotoxic against HLA-G+ tumor cells. In vivo, anti-HLA-G CAR-T cells were able to control and eliminate HLA-G+ tumor cells. The interaction of tumor-HLA-G with interleukin (IL)T2-expressing T cells is known to result in effector T cell functional inhibition, but anti-HLA-G CAR-T cells were insensitive to this inhibition and still exerted their function even when expressing ILT2. Lastly, we show that anti-HLA-G CAR-T cells differentiated into long-term memory effector cells, and seemed not to lose function even after repeated stimulation by HLA-G-expressing tumor cells. CONCLUSION: We report for the first time that HLA-G, which is both a TSA and an ICP, constitutes a valid target for CAR-T cell therapy to specifically target and eliminate both tumor cells and HLA-G+ suppressive cells.

12.
Oncogene ; 40(17): 3030-3046, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767437

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence is recognizing human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a potential oncogenic virus. We hereby provide the first experimental in vitro evidence for HCMV as a reprogramming vector, through the induction of dedifferentiation of mature human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), generation of a polyploid giant cancer cell (PGCC) phenotype characterized by sustained growth of blastomere-like cells, in concordance with the acquisition of embryonic stem cells characteristics and epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity. HCMV presence parallels the succession of the observed cellular and molecular events potentially ensuing the transformation process. Correlation between PGCCs detection and HCMV presence in breast cancer tissue further validates our hypothesis in vivo. Our study indicates that some clinical HCMV strains conserve the potential to transform HMECs and fit with a "blastomere-like" model of oncogenesis, which may be relevant in the pathophysiology of breast cancer and other adenocarcinoma, especially of poor prognosis.

13.
Qual Life Res ; 30(11): 3255-3266, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine Electronic Monitoring of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) (REMOQOL) in clinical care with real-time feedback to physicians could help to enhance patient-centered care. We evaluated the feasibility of REMOQOL in the French context in the QOLIBRY study. The primary objective was to assess the patients' compliance with REMOQOL. METHODS: The QOLIBRY study was a single-center, prospective study conducted in the University Hospital of Besançon (France). Eligible patients were those treated with systemic therapies for breast, lung or colorectal cancer at any stage. Patients were invited to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and cancer-site-specific modules before each visit on tablets and/or computers in the hospital or at home. During the consultation, physicians had real-time access to visual summaries of HRQoL scores. Compliance was assessed as adequate if at least 66% of HRQoL assessments were completed during the 4 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Between March 2016 and October 2018, 177 patients were included in the QOLIBRY study. Median age was 64 years (IQR 54-71). The proportion of patients with an adequate compliance rate was 95.5% (n = 63) in the breast cancer cohort, 98.2% (n = 55) in the colorectal cancer cohort, and 90.9% (n = 50) in the lung cancer cohort. The physicians checked the HRQoL results in 73.1% of visits and prescribed supportive care and adapted patient management in 8.3% and 5.2% of visits, respectively. CONCLUSION & PERSPECTIVES: The results of QOLIBRY study suggest that REMOQOL is feasible in the French context. However, information about HRQoL monitoring, training of the physicians in the use of the software, and recommendations for using HRQoL results to guide care are essential and must be improved.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Qualidade de Vida , Eletrônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The positive role of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has been well described but the prognostic value of CD4 T cell subsets remained to be investigated. In this study, we expanded TIL from surgically resected liver metastases of patients with CRC and characterized the phenotype and the prognostic value of expanded-CD4 T cells. METHODS: Liver metastases were surgically resected from 23 patients with CRC. Tumors were enzymatically digested and cultured in high dose of interleukin-2 for up to 5 weeks. T cell phenotype and reactivity of cultured-T cells were measured by flow cytometry and correlated with patients' clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We successfully expanded 21 over 23 TIL from liver metastases of patients with CRC. Interestingly, we distinguished two subsets of expanded T cells based on T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) expression. Medians fold expansion of expanded T cells after rapid expansion protocol was higher in CD3+TIM-3low cultures. In an attempt to investigate the correlation between the phenotype of expanded CD4 T cells and clinical outcomes, we observed on one hand that the level of Tregs in culture as well as the expression of both PD1 and TIM-3 by expanded T cells was not correlated to the clinical outcomes. Interestingly, on the other hand, cultures containing high levels of Th17 cells were associated with a poor prognosis (p=0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed the presence of Th17 cells in expanded T cells from liver metastases. Among CD4 T cell characteristics investigated, TIM-3 but not programmed cell death protein 1 predicted the expansion capacity of TIL while only the Th17 phenotype showed correlation with patients' survival, suggesting a particular role of this T cell subset in CRC immune contexture. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02817178.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical benefit from programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) inhibitors relies on reinvigoration of endogenous antitumor immunity. Nonetheless, robust immunological markers, based on circulating immune cell subsets associated with therapeutic efficacy are yet to be validated. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell from three independent cohorts of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma patients treated with PD-1 inhibitor, at baseline and longitudinally after therapy. Using multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated four subsets of CD8+ T cells, based on PD-1 and TIGIT expression profiles. We performed phenotypic characterization, T cell receptor sequencing, targeted transcriptomic analysis and antitumor reactivity assays to thoroughly characterize each of these subsets. RESULTS: We documented that the frequency of circulating PD-1+TIGIT+ (DPOS) CD8+ T-cells after 1 month of anti-PD-1 therapy was associated with clinical response and overall survival. This DPOS T-cell population was enriched in highly activated T-cells, tumor-specific and emerging T-cell clonotypes and T lymphocytes overexpressing CXCR5, a key marker of the CD8 cytotoxic follicular T cell population. Additionally, transcriptomic profiling defined a specific gene signature for this population as well as the overexpression of specific pathways associated with the therapeutic response. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a convincing rationale for monitoring this PD-1+TIGIT+ circulating population as an early cellular-based marker of therapeutic response to anti-PD-1 therapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/biossíntese , Receptores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/sangue , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/sangue , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptores CXCR5/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/sangue , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054115

RESUMO

Neoplasms involving plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) include Blastic pDC Neoplasms (BPDCN) and other pDC proliferations, where pDCs are associated with myeloid malignancies: most frequently Chronic MyeloMonocytic Leukemia (CMML) but also Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), hereafter named pDC-AML. We aimed to determine the reactive or neoplastic origin of pDCs in pDC-AML, and their link with the CD34+ blasts, monocytes or conventional DCs (cDCs) associated in the same sample, by phenotypic and molecular analyses (targeted NGS, 70 genes). We compared 15 pDC-AML at diagnosis with 21 BPDCN and 11 normal pDCs from healthy donors. CD45low CD34+ blasts were found in all cases (10-80% of medullar cells), associated with pDCs (4-36%), monocytes in 14 cases (1-10%) and cDCs (2 cases, 4.8-19%). pDCs in pDC-AML harbor a clearly different phenotype from BPDCN: CD4+ CD56- in 100% of cases, most frequently CD303+, CD304+ and CD34+; lower expression of cTCL1 and CD123 with isolated lymphoid markers (CD22/CD7/CD5) in some cases, suggesting a pre-pDC stage. In all cases, pDCs, monocytes and cDC are neoplastic since they harbor the same mutations as CD34+ blasts. RUNX1 is the most commonly mutated gene: detected in all AML with minimal differentiation (M0-AML) but not in the other cases. Despite low number of cases, the systematic association between M0-AML, RUNX1 mutations and an excess of pDC is puzzling. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is required to confirm RUNX1 mutations in pDC-AML with minimal differentiation and to investigate whether it represents a proliferation of blasts with macrophage and DC progenitor potential.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957741

RESUMO

Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) chemotherapy regimen is highly effective in advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA), as demonstrated by the Epitopes-HPV02 study results. Here, we analyzed the impact of DCF regimen and the prognostic value of adaptive immune responses and immunosuppressive cells in SCCA patients included in two prospective studies (Epitopes-HPV01 and HPV02). The presence of T-cell responses against Human papillomavirus (HPV)16-E6/E7 and anti-telomerase (hTERT)-antigens was measured by IFNᵧ-ELISpot. Here, we showed that HPV-adaptive immune responses are increased in SCCA patients. SCCA patients also displayed enhanced circulating TH1 T-cells restricted by hTERT. Exposition to DCF increased hTERT immunity but not HPV or common viruses immune responses. Notably, the correlation of hTERT immune responses with SCCA patients' clinical outcomes highlights that hTERT is a relevant antigen in this HPV-related disease. The influence of peripheral immunosuppressive cells was investigated by flow cytometry. While both regulatory T-cells and monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressive cells (M-MDSC) accumulated in the peripheral blood of SCCA patients, only high levels of M-MDSC were negatively correlated with hTERT adaptive immune responses and predicted poor prognosis. Altogether, our results reveal that hTERT is a relevant antigen in HPV-driven SCCA disease and that M-MDSC levels influence TH1-adaptive immune responses and patients' survival.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Ânus/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Telomerase/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Células Th1/imunologia
18.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927784

RESUMO

In locally advanced rectal cancer, radiotherapy (RT) followed by surgery have improved locoregional control, but distant recurrences remain frequent. Although checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated objective response in several cancers, the clinical benefit of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade remains uncertain in rectal cancer. We collected data from biopsies and surgical specimens in 74 patients. The main objective was to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant RT and fractionation on PD-L1 expression. Secondary objectives were to study the relation between PD-L1 expression and tumor regression grade (TRG), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and CD8 TILs infiltration. Median rates of cells expressing PD-L1 pre- and post-RT were 0.15 (range, 0-17) and 0.5 (range, 0-27.5), respectively (p = 0.0005). There was no effect of RT fractionation on PD-L1+ cell rates. We found no relation between CD8+ TILs infiltration and PD-L1 expression and no difference between high-PD-L1 or low-PD-L1 expression and TRG. High-to-high PD-L1 expression profile had none significant higher OS and PFS compared to all other groups (p = 0.06). Median OS and PFS were higher in biopsies with >0.08 PD-L1+ cells. High-to-high PD-L1 profile and ypT0-2 were significantly associated with higher OS and PFS. This study did not show the differential induction of PD-L1 expression according to fractionation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Environ Res ; 188: 109847, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although farming is often considered a risk factor for COPD, data regarding the burden and characteristics of COPD in dairy farmers are sparse and conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To characterize COPD in dairy farmers. METHODS: 4788 subjects entered two parallel COPD screening programs, one in agricultural workers and one in general practice from 2011 to 2015. Subjects with COPD were invited to participate in the characterization phase of the study. Those who accepted were included in two subgroups: dairy farmers with COPD (DF-COPD) (n = 101) and non-farmers with COPD (NF-COPD) (n = 85). Patients with COPD were frequency-matched with subjects with normal spirometry for age, sex and tobacco smoking (pack-years and status) (DF-controls n = 98, NF-controls n = 89). All subjects from these four groups underwent lung function and exercise testing, questionnaires and blood analysis. RESULTS: The frequency of COPD in dairy farmers was 8.0% using the GOLD criterion and 6.2% using the lower limit of normal criterion and was similar in non-farming subjects (7.3% and 5.2%, respectively) although dairy farmers had lower tobacco consumption (screening phase). DF-COPD had better pulmonary function, exercise capacity and quality of life, fewer symptoms and comorbidities than NF-COPD, and higher levels of some Th2 biomarkers (MCP-2, periostin) (characterization phase). In farmers, COPD was not related to occupational exposure factors, supporting the role of host factors. CONCLUSION: COPD secondary to organic dust exposure (dairy farming) appears less severe and associated with fewer comorbidities than COPD secondary to tobacco smoking.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria
20.
Leukemia ; 34(12): 3228-3241, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111969

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is associated with a remarkably poor prognosis and with no treatment consensus. The identification of relevant therapeutic targets is challenging. Here, we investigated the immune functions, antileukemia efficacy and safety of CD28/4-1BB CAR T cells targeting CD123 the interleukin (IL)-3 receptor alpha chain which is overexpressed on BPDCN. We demonstrated that both retroviral and lentiviral engineering CD28/4-1BB CD123 CAR T cells exhibit effector functions against BPDCN cells through CD123 antigen recognition and that they efficiently kill BPDCN cell lines and BPDCN-derived PDX cells. In vivo, CD28/4-1BB CD123 CAR T-cell therapy displayed strong efficacy by promoting a decrease of BPDCN blast burden. Furthermore we showed that T cells from BPDCN patient transduced with CD28/4-1BB CD123 CAR successfully eliminate autologous BPDCN blasts in vitro. Finally, we demonstrated in humanized mouse models that these effector CAR T cells exert low or no cytotoxicity against various subsets of normal cells with low CD123 expression, indicating a potentially low on-target/off-tumor toxicity effect. Collectively, our data support the further evaluation for clinical assessment of CD28/4-1BB CD123 CAR T cells in BPDCN neoplasm.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-3/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células HL-60 , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Camundongos
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