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J Sex Res ; 50(3-4): 276-98, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23480073


This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism.

Psiquiatria/história , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/classificação
J Med Philos ; 38(2): 107-27, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23459178


Essentialism is one of the most pervasive problems in mental health research. Many psychiatrists still hold the view that their nosologies will enable them, sooner or later, to carve nature at its joints and to identify and chart the essence of mental disorders. Moreover, according to recent research in social psychology, some laypeople tend to think along similar essentialist lines. The main aim of this article is to highlight a number of processes that possibly explain the persistent presence and popularity of essentialist conceptions of mental disorders. One such process is the general tendency of laypeople to essentialize conceptual structures, including biological, social, and psychiatric categories. Another process involves the allure of biological psychiatry. Advocating a categorical and biological approach, this strand of psychiatry probably reinforced the already existing lay essentialism about mental disorders. As such, the question regarding why we essentialize mental disorders is a salient example of how cultural trends zero in on natural tendencies, and vice versa, and how both can boost each other.

Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psiquiatria/tendências , Psiquiatria Biológica/tendências , Cultura , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Mutação , Neuropsiquiatria/tendências , Filosofia Médica , Psicologia Social/tendências
Hist Psychiatry ; 21(82 Pt 2): 131-43, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21877368


Ever since Darwin, psychiatrists have been tempted to put evolutionary theory to use in their efforts to understand and explain various aspects of mental disorders. Following a number of pivotal developments in the history of evolutionary thought, including degeneration theory, ethology and the modern synthesis, this introductory paper provides an overview of the many trends and schools in the history of 'psychiatric Darwinism' and 'evolutionary psychiatry'. We conclude with an attempt to distinguish three underlying motives in asking evolutionary questions about mental disorders.

Evolução Biológica , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/história , Animais , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
Med Hypotheses ; 70(6): 1215-22, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18226861


Evolutionary psychiatrists often consider schizophrenia to be an enigma: how come natural selection has not yet eliminated the so-called 'schizophrenia genes' if the disorder is fairly common, heritable and harmful for the reproductive success of its carriers? Usually, the answer is that the schizophrenic genotype is subject to some kind of balancing selection: the benefits it confers would then outbalance the obvious damage it does. However, in this paper I will show that the assumptions underlying such resolution are at least implausible, and sometimes even erroneous. First of all, I will examine some factual assumptions, in particular about schizophrenia's impact on reproductive success, its genetics, its history, and its epidemiology. Secondly, I will take a critical look at a major philosophical assumption in evolutionary psychiatric explanations of schizophrenia. Indeed, evolutionary psychiatrists take it for granted that schizophrenia is a natural kind, i.e. a bounded and objectively real entity with discrete biological causes. My refutation of this natural kind view suggests that schizophrenia is in fact a reified umbrella concept, constructed by psychiatry to cover a heterogeneous group of disorders. Therefore, schizophrenia, as we now know it, simply does not have an evolutionary history.

Evolução Biológica , Modelos Psicológicos , Psiquiatria , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Humanos , Seleção Genética
Perspect Biol Med ; 49(4): 570-85, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17146141


Male homosexuality has been viewed by evolutionary psychologists as a Darwinian paradox, and by other social scientists as a social construction. We argue that it is better understood as an evolutionary social construction. Male homosexuality as we now know it is an 18th-century invention, but nonexclusive same-sex sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history. According to the alliance-formation hypothesis, same-sex sexuality evolved by natural selection because it created or strengthened male-male alliances and allowed low-status males to reposition themselves in the group hierarchy and thereby increase their reproductive success. This hypothesis makes sense of some odd findings about male homosexuality and helps to explain the rise in exclusive male homosexuality in the 18th century. The sociohistorical conditions around 1700 may have resulted in an increase in same-sex sexual behavior. Cultural responses to same-sex sexuality led to the spread of exclusive homosexual behavior and to the creation of a homosexual identity. Understanding male homosexuality as an evolutionary social construction can help us move beyond the traditionally polarized debate between evolutionary psychologists and social constructionists.

Atitude/etnologia , Evolução Cultural , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Sociobiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Reprodutivo/etnologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Seleção Genética , Identificação Social