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1.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 370(1978): 5213-24, 2012 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23028167

RESUMO

Since its discovery at Jupiter in 1988, emission from H(3)(+) has been used as a valuable diagnostic tool in our understanding of the upper atmospheres of the giant planets. One of the lasting questions we have about the giant planets is why the measured upper atmosphere temperatures are always consistently hotter than the temperatures expected from solar heating alone. Here, we describe how H(3)(+) forms across each of the planetary disks of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, presenting the first observations of equatorial H(3)(+) at Saturn and the first profile of H(3)(+) emission at Uranus not significantly distorted by the effects of the Earth's atmosphere. We also review past observations of variations in temperature measured at Uranus and Jupiter over a wide variety of time scales. To this, we add new observations of temperature changes at Saturn, using observations by Cassini. We conclude that the causes of the significant level of thermal variability observed over all three planets is not only an important question in itself, but that explaining these variations could be the key to answering the more general question of why giant planet upper atmospheres are so hot.

2.
Astrobiology ; 8(3): 613-22, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18680411

RESUMO

The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.


Assuntos
Júpiter , Voo Espacial/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Atmosfera/química , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Água/análise
3.
Appl Opt ; 45(22): 5701-8, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16855669

RESUMO

An innovative balloonborne microjoule lidar (MULID) has been developed within the framework of the HIBISCUS project to provide nighttime measurements of visible and subvisible cirrus and aerosols. MULID has been designed to be a low-cost and an ultralow consumption instrument, due to the remote possibilities of payload recovery and the necessity of a low-weight battery power supply. Ground tests have been performed at the Observatory of Haute Provence (France), and the first technical flight has been made from Trapani, Italy, on a stratospheric balloon; finally, the instrument has been scientifically deployed during the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS tropical campaigns in Bauru, Brazil, in February 2003 and February 2004, respectively. A description of the instrument is provided together with the results of the ground-based and flight tests as well as an overview and discussion of the first results.

4.
Appl Opt ; 44(16): 3302-11, 2005 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15943267

RESUMO

A new algorithm to infer structural parameters such as refractive index and asphericity of cloud particles has been developed by use of in situ observations taken by a laser backscattersonde and an optical particle counter during balloon stratospheric flights. All three main particles, liquid, ice, and a no-ice solid (NAT, nitric acid trihydrate) of polar stratospheric clouds, were observed during two winter flights performed from Kiruna, Sweden. The technique is based on use of the T-matrix code developed for aspherical particles to calculate the backscattering coefficient and particle depolarizing properties on the basis of size distribution and concentration measurements. The results of the calculations are compared with observations to estimated refractive indices and particle asphericity. The method has also been used in cases when the liquid and solid phases coexist with comparable influence on the optical behavior of the cloud to estimate refractive indices. The main results prove that the index of refraction for NAT particles is in the range of 1.37-1.45 at 532 nm. Such particles would be slightly prolate spheroids. The calculated refractive indices for liquid and ice particles are 1.51-1.55 and 1.31-1.33, respectively. The results for solid particles confirm previous measurements taken in Antarctica during 1992 and obtained by a comparison of lidar and optical particle counter data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atmosfera/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lasers , Refratometria/métodos , Água/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Clima Frio , Coloides/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação
5.
J Environ Monit ; 6(9): 721-33, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15346175

RESUMO

The use of assimilation tools for satellite validation requires true estimates of the accuracy of the reference data. Since its inception, the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) has provided systematic lidar measurements of ozone and temperature at several places around the world that are well adapted for satellite validations. Regular exercises have been organised to ensure the data quality at each individual site. These exercises can be separated into three categories: large scale intercomparisons using multiple instruments, including a mobile lidar; using satellite observations as a geographic transfer standards to compare measurements at different sites; and comparative investigations of the analysis software. NDSC is a research network, so each system has its own history, design, and analysis, and has participated differently in validation campaigns. There are still some technological differences that may explain different accuracies. However, the comparison campaigns performed over the last decade have always proved to be very helpful in improving the measurements. To date, more efforts have been devoted to characterising ozone measurements than to temperature observations. The synthesis of the published works shows that the network can potentially be considered as homogeneous within +/-2% between 20-35 km for ozone and +/-1 K between 35-60 km for temperature. Outside this altitude range, larger biases are reported and more efforts are required. In the lower stratosphere, Raman channels seem to improve comparisons but such capabilities were not systematically compared. At the top of the profiles, more investigations on analysis methodologies are still probably needed. SAGE II and GOMOS appear to be excellent tools for future ozone lidar validations but need to be better coordinated and take more advantage of assimilation tools. Also, temperature validations face major difficulties caused by atmospheric tides and therefore require intercomparisons with the mobile systems, at all sites.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Luz , Controle de Qualidade , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software , Astronave , Temperatura
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