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1.
Medicines (Basel) ; 6(4)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683875

RESUMO

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following solid-organ transplantation. However, the epidemiology of AKI and mortality risk of AKI among patients undergoing cardiac transplantation is not uniformly described. We conducted this study to assess the incidence of AKI and mortality risk of AKI in adult patients after cardiac transplantation. Methods: A systematic review of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Databases was performed until June 2019 to identify studies evaluating the incidence of AKI (by standard AKI definitions), AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), and mortality risk of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Pooled AKI incidence and mortality risk from the included studies were consolidated by random-effects model. The protocol for this study is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42019134577). Results: 27 cohort studies with 137,201 patients undergoing cardiac transplantation were identified. Pooled estimated incidence of AKI and AKI requiring RRT was 47.1% (95% CI: 37.6-56.7%) and 11.8% (95% CI: 7.2-18.8%), respectively. The pooled ORs of hospital mortality and/or 90-day mortality among patients undergoing cardiac transplantation with AKI and AKI requiring RRT were 3.46 (95% CI, 2.40-4.97) and 13.05 (95% CI, 6.89-24.70), respectively. The pooled ORs of 1-year mortality among patients with AKI and AKI requiring RRT were 2.26 (95% CI, 1.56-3.26) and 3.89 (95% CI, 2.49-6.08), respectively. Conclusion: Among patients undergoing cardiac transplantation, the incidence of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT are 47.1% and 11.8%, respectively. AKI post cardiac transplantation is associated with reduced short term and 1-year patient survival.

2.
Medicines (Basel) ; 6(4)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683968

RESUMO

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-established complication of extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the adult population. The data in the pediatric and neonatal population is still limited. Moreover, the mortality risk of AKI among pediatric patients requiring ECMO remains unclear. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to assess the incidence of AKI, AKI requiring renal replacement therapy and AKI associated mortality in pediatric/neonatal patients requiring ECMO. Methods: A literature search was performed utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database from inception through June 2019. We included studies that evaluated the incidence of AKI, severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) and the risk of mortality among pediatric patients on ECMO with AKI. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled incidence of AKI and the odds ratios (OR) for mortality. Results: 13 studies with 3523 pediatric patients on ECMO were identified. Pooled incidence of AKI and AKI requiring RRT were 61.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 39.0-80.4%) and 40.9% (95%CI: 31.2-51.4%), respectively. A meta-analysis limited to studies with standard AKI definitions showed a pooled estimated AKI incidence of 69.2% (95%CI: 59.7-77.3%). Compared with patients without AKI, those with AKI and AKI requiring RRT while on ECMO were associated with increased hospital mortality ORs of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.38-2.10) and 3.64 (95% CI: 2.02-6.55), respectively. Conclusions: The estimated incidence of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT in pediatric patients receiving ECMO are high at 61.9% and 40.9%, respectively. AKI among pediatric patients on ECMO is significantly associated with reduced patient survival.

3.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5567, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695986

RESUMO

Controversies exist regarding the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) with anticoagulation alone or with thrombolytic therapy. Paradoxical embolism in the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare but well-known entity and should always be looked for in case of a PE associated with systemic thromboembolism. We report a case of acute sub-massive PE treated with thrombolytic therapy in an elderly gentleman who had a paradoxical embolism and ischemic stroke as a result of a clot traversing through a PFO. We discussed diagnostic modalities, treatment of choice, and associated controversies in management.

4.
J Evid Based Med ; 12(4): 291-299, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, increasing ethnic diversity has been apparent. However, the epidemiology and trends of BKV genotypes remain unclear. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim to assess the prevalence of BKV genotypes among kidney transplant (KTx) recipients in the United States. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted through October 2018 utilizing MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database to identify studies that reported the prevalence of BKV subtypes and/or subgroups in KTx recipients in the United States. Pooled prevalence rates were combined using random effects, generic inverse variance method. The protocol for this study is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42019134582). RESULTS: A total of eight observational studies with a total of 193 samples (urine, blood, and kidney tissues) from 188 BKV-infected KTX recipients were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated prevalence rates of BKV subtypes were 72.2% (95% confidence of interval [CI]: 62.7-80.0%) for subtype I, 6.8% (95% CI: 2.5-16.9%) for subtype II, 8.3% (95% CI: 4.4-15.1%) for subtype III, and 16.1% (95% CI: 10.4-24.2%) for subtype IV, respectively. While metaregression analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between year of study and the prevalence of BKV subtype I (slopes = +0.1023, P = .01), there were no significant correlations between year of study and percentages of BKV subtype II-IV (P > .05). Among KTx recipients with BKV subtype I, the pooled estimated percentages of BKV subgroups were 22.4% (95% CI: 13.7-34.5%) for subgroup Ia, 30.6% (95% CI: 17.7-47.5%) for subgroup Ib1, 47.7% (95% CI: 35.8-59.9%) for subgroup Ib2, and 4.1% (95% CI:1.2-13.3%) for subgroup Ic, respectively. CONCLUSION: BKV subtype I is the most prevalent subtype among KTx recipients in the United States and its prevalence seems to increasing overtime. Subgroup Ib2 is the most common subgroup among BKV subtype I.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation has been increasingly performed worldwide and is considered an effective therapy for patients with various causes of end-stage lung diseases. We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence and impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients after lung transplantation. METHODS: A literature search was conducted utilizing Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database from inception through June 2019. We included studies that evaluated the incidence of AKI, severe AKI requiring RRT, and mortality risk of AKI among patients after lung transplantation. Pooled incidence and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained using random-effects meta-analysis. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42019134095). RESULTS: A total of 26 cohort studies with a total of 40,592 patients after lung transplantation were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence rates of AKI (by standard AKI definitions) and severe AKI requiring RRT following lung transplantation were 52.5% (95% CI: 45.8-59.1%) and 9.3% (95% CI: 7.6-11.4%). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that the year of study did not significantly affect the incidence of AKI (p = 0.22) and severe AKI requiring RRT (p = 0.68). The pooled ORs of in-hospital mortality in patients after lung transplantation with AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT were 2.75 (95% CI, 1.18-6.41) and 10.89 (95% CI, 5.03-23.58). At five years, the pooled ORs of mortality among patients after lung transplantation with AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.11-1.94) and 4.79 (95% CI, 3.58-6.40), respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall estimated incidence rates of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT in patients after lung transplantation are 52.5% and 9.3%, respectively. Despite advances in therapy, the incidence of AKI in patients after lung transplantation does not seem to have decreased. In addition, AKI after lung transplantation is significantly associated with reduced short-term and long-term survival.

6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537605

RESUMO

A 26-year-old Caucasian man with no medical history, except years of oral and intravenous drug abuse, presented with fatigue, shortness of breath, epistaxis and uncontrolled hypertension. He was pale with skin ecchymosis over his thighs and was anaemic, with severe renal failure and metabolic acidosis. Following initial clinical stabilisation of the patient, a renal biopsy was obtained, which showed vascular and glomerular changes consistent with thrombotic microangiopathic injury and advanced glomerulosclerosis. He was treated with antihypertensives and required haemodialysis. He admitted using 'crystal meth' regularly for many years, which is likely responsible for his renal failure. We present the case to illustrate methamphetamine-induced renal disease leading to end-stage renal disease and to bring awareness among practising clinicians, ancillary healthcare workers and public health professionals of this often undervalued cause of renal failure, which can be prevented.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Acidose/complicações , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Abuso Oral de Substâncias
7.
Cureus ; 11(6): e5000, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497431

RESUMO

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is an extremely rare central nervous system complication that occurs in patients receiving hemodialysis and can be potentially fatal. The prognosis is poor when this manifests with serious neurological manifestations like seizures and obtundation. Evidence in effective management is sparse. Herein, we present the case of a patient who developed seizures and altered mental status during hemodialysis. The patient successfully recovered with the administration of mannitol and 3% hypertonic saline without any long-term neurologic sequelae.

8.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(10): 1855-1865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental iron is used to optimize hemoglobin and enhance erythropoiesis in end-stage renal disease along with erythropoietin-stimulating agents. Safety of iron has been debated extensively and there is no definite evidence whether parenteral iron increases the risk of infections and mortality. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of infectious complications, hospitalizations and mortality with use of parenteral iron. METHODS: Medical electronic databases [PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and cochrane central register for controlled clinical trials (CENTRAL)] were queried for studies that investigated the association between intravenous iron administration and infection in hemodialysis patients. 24 studies (8 Randomized control trials (RCTs) and 16 observational studies) were considered for qualitative and quantitative analysis. RESULTS: All-cause mortality Data from 6 RCTs show that high-dose IV iron conferred 17% less all-cause mortality compared to controls; however, this outcome was not statistically significant (OR = 0.83, CI [0.7, 1.01], p = 0.07). Nine observational studies were pooled under the random effects model due to significant heterogeneity (I2 = 83%, p < 0.001). The overall HR showed increased risk of all-cause mortality in the high-dose group but was statistically non-significant (HR = 1.1, CI [1, 1.22], p = 0.06). Infections Four RCTs with no heterogeneity among their data (I2 = 0%, p = 0.61). Under the fixed effect model, there was no difference in the infection rate between high-dose iron and control group (OR = 0.97, CI [0.82, 1.16], p = 0.77); eight observational studies with significant heterogeneity and utilizing random effects model. Summary HR showed increased yet non-significant risk of infection in the high-dose group (HR = 1.13, CI [0.99, 1.28], p = 0.07) Hospitalization 1 RCT and six observational studies provided data for the rate of all-cause hospitalization. There was marked heterogeneity among observational studies. RCT showed no significant difference between high-dose iron and controls in the rate of hospitalization (OR = 1.03, CI [0.87, 1.23], p = 0.71). Summary HR for observational data showed increased rate of hospitalization in the high-dose group; however, this effect was not statistically significant (HR = 1.11, CI [0.99, 1.24], p = 0.07). Cardiovascular events One RCT compared the rate of adverse cardiovascular events between high-dose and low-dose iron. No significant difference was observed between the two groups (22.3% vs 25.6%, p = 0.12). Six heterogeneous observational studies (I2 = 65%, p < 0.001) reported on the rate of cardiovascular events. No significant difference was observed between high-dose iron and controls (HR = 1.18, CI [0.89, 1.57], p = 0.24). CONCLUSION: High-dose parenteral iron does not seem to be associated with higher risk of infection, all-cause mortality, increased hospitalization or increased cardiovascular events on analysis of RCTs. Observational studies show increased risk for all-cause mortality, infections and hospitalizations that were not statistically significant and were associated with significant heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , /mortalidade , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Anemia/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2019(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398723

RESUMO

A 40-year-old Caucasian lady with focal crescentic glomerulonephritis (p-ANCA) demonstrated by kidney biopsy, was treated with intravenous pulse steroids followed by weekly outpatient rituximab infusions (375 mg/m2). Five days after the fourth and final rituximab infusion, she developed headaches, altered mental status and seizures. Upon transfer to our facility, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed cortical white matter changes suggestive of possible progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). She was aggressively treated with antihypertensives, anti-seizure medications, intravenous steroids, plasmapheresis and ventilatory support while awaiting cerebrospinal fluid analysis and polymerase chain reaction on John Cunningham virus DNA. She had a complete recovery and, at 1 year follow up, was found to be doing well. Awareness of potential complications of rituximab therapy, such as PRES or PML is critical in providing appropriate treatment.

10.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 7: 2324709619870311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434506

RESUMO

Adrenal myelolipomas (AMLs) are rare benign adrenal tumors, containing adipose and hematopoietic tissue, a result of reticuloendothelial cell metaplasia. Incidence on autopsy has been reported from 0.08% to 0.4%. AMLs are generally considered nonsecretory. The functional aspect of adrenal incidentaloma should be evaluated. In this article, we report a case of a 40-year-old male, who presented with uncontrolled hypertension and renal failure, with imaging revealing an adrenal incidentaloma. He was started on dialysis for acute fluid overload, and workup for pheochromocytoma revealed an elevated serum norepinephrine level of 1181 pg/mL. Free metanephrine and normetanephrine levels were low when checked pre- and post-dialysis. Complete resection of the encapsulated right adrenal mass was performed. Pathology of the adrenal tumor demonstrates an 11.5 × 9.5 × 7.5 cm well-circumscribed, partially encapsulated proliferation of mature adipose tissue with admixed hemopoietic elements consistent with myelolipoma weighing 29.3 g. This case highlights the inclusion of a full metabolic workup for all adrenal incidentalomas, including AML.

11.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the incidence and impact of AKI on mortality among patients on ECMO remain unclear. We conducted this systematic review to summarize the incidence and impact of AKI on mortality risk among adult patients on ECMO. METHODS: A literature search was performed using EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane Databases from inception until March 2019 to identify studies assessing the incidence of AKI (using a standard AKI definition), severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), and the impact of AKI among adult patients on ECMO. Effect estimates from the individual studies were obtained and combined utilizing random-effects, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian-Laird. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42018103527). RESULTS: 41 cohort studies with a total of 10,282 adult patients receiving ECMO were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT were 62.8% (95%CI: 52.1%-72.4%) and 44.9% (95%CI: 40.8%-49.0%), respectively. Meta-regression showed that the year of study did not significantly affect the incidence of AKI (p = 0.67) or AKI requiring RRT (p = 0.83). The pooled odds ratio (OR) of hospital mortality among patients receiving ECMO with AKI on RRT was 3.73 (95% CI, 2.87-4.85). When the analysis was limited to studies with confounder-adjusted analysis, increased hospital mortality remained significant among patients receiving ECMO with AKI requiring RRT with pooled OR of 3.32 (95% CI, 2.21-4.99). There was no publication bias as evaluated by the funnel plot and Egger's regression asymmetry test with p = 0.62 and p = 0.17 for the incidence of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among patients receiving ECMO, the incidence rates of AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT are high, which has not changed over time. Patients who develop AKI requiring RRT while on ECMO carry 3.7-fold higher hospital mortality.

12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320374

RESUMO

A 30-year-old Caucasian woman with no prior medical history presented with pedal oedema, arthralgias and abdominal pain with diarrhoea, following a respiratory infection. She had mild abdominal tenderness along with a purpuric rash on the extremities and was anaemic. Following initial workup for anaemia and rash, her condition deteriorated with renal impairment, respiratory failure and seizures necessitating ventilatory support, dialysis and steroids. Serologies were negative, and skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis without vascular IgA deposition, and renal biopsy showed subendothelial, mesangial deposits of IgA with C3 indicative of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). She was treated with steroids, haemodialysis and on 6-month follow-up recovered renal function. We present the case to illustrate that HSP, though rare in adults, can present with multiorgan failure, with renal, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement, and the need for early diagnosis and prompt treatment for rapid clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/diagnóstico , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/patologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/terapia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300598

RESUMO

A 61-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension presented with a week's history of confusion falls and back pain was found to have hyponatraemia from secretion of antidiuretic hormone and treated appropriately. Given her persistent symptoms, despite a normal CT head on presentation, an MRI head was obtained, showing vasogenic oedema in line with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Despite aggressive antihypertensives and supportive measures, unfortunately, her condition deteriorated, with increased confusion, new left-sided flaccid paresis, paraesthesias and worsening of the back pain. Following further testing including a cerebrospinal fluid analysis, finally diagnosed with an atypical presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and prompt management with intravenous immunoglobulins was initiated. She recovered clinically and returned to near-normal function on follow-up. We use this case to suggest the importance of dysautonomia in GBS and various clinical manifestations it can present with, including PRES and hyponatraemia.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/fisiopatologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/fisiopatologia , Acidentes por Quedas , Confusão/etiologia , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 7: 2324709619858643, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234647

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by clonal proliferation of follicular mantle zone B lymphocytes. It is caused by abnormal chromosomal translocation t(11;14) resulting in aberrant expression of cyclin D1. This leads to activation of anti-apoptotic pathways and abnormal proliferation of MCL cells. Patients can present with an indolent course or a fulminant disease with short overall survival. The disease frequently involves extranodal organs, but rarely manifests with neurological symptoms. We report a rare case of aberrant CD5-negative MCL presenting with aseptic meningitis.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after kidney transplantation (KTx) remain unclear. This study's aims were (1) to investigate the pooled incidence/incidence trends, and (2) to assess the mortality/mortality trends in KTx patients with RCC. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception through October 2018. Studies that reported the incidence or mortality of RCC among kidney transplant recipients were included. The pooled incidence and 95% CI were calculated using a random-effect model. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO; no. CRD42018108994. RESULTS: A total of 22 observational studies with a total of 320,190 KTx patients were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence of RCC after KTx was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8%, I2 = 93%). While the pooled estimated incidence of de novo RCC in the native kidney was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6-0.9%, I2 = 88%), the pooled estimated incidence of RCC in the allograft kidney was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4%, I2 = 64%). The pooled estimated mortality rate in KTx recipients with RCC was 15.0% (95% CI: 7.4-28.1%, I2 = 80%) at a mean follow-up time of 42 months after RCC diagnosis. While meta-regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between year of study and incidence of de novo RCC post-KTx (slopes = -0.05, P = 0.01), there were no significant correlations between the year of study and mortality of patients with RCC (P = 0.50). Egger's regression asymmetry test was performed and showed no publication bias in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The overall estimated incidence of RCC after KTX was 0.7%. Although there has been a potential decrease in the incidence of RCC post-KTx, mortality in KTx patients with RCC has not decreased over time.

16.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fluid overload and central sleep apnea are highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). We performed this meta-analysis to assess the effects of acetazolamide therapy on acid/base balance and apnea indexes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database from inception through 18 November 2017 to identify studies evaluating the use of acetazolamide in HF. Study results were analyzed using a random effects model. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42017065401). RESULTS: Nine studies (three randomized controlled trials and six cohort studies) with a total of 229 HF patients were enrolled. After acetazolamide treatment, there were significant decreases in serum pH (mean difference (MD) of -0.04 (95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02)), pCO2 (MD of -2.06 mmHg (95% CI, -3.60 to -0.53 mmHg)), and serum bicarbonate levels (MD of -6.42 mmol/L (95% CI, -10.05 to -2.79 mmol/L)). When compared to a placebo, acetazolamide significantly increased natriuresis (standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.27)), and decreased the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (SMD of -1.06 (95% CI, -1.75 to -0.36)) and central apnea index (CAI) (SMD of -1.10 (95% CI, -1.80 to -0.40)). Egger's regression asymmetry tests revealed no publication bias with p = 0.20, 0.75 and 0.59 for analysis of the changes in pH, pCO2, and serum bicarbonate levels with use of acetazolamide in HF patients. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates significant reduction in serum pH, increase in natriuresis, and improvements in apnea indexes with use of acetazolamide among HF patients.

17.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study's aim was to summarize the incidence and impacts of post-liver transplant (LTx) acute kidney injury (AKI) on outcomes after LTx. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Databases from inception until December 2018 to identify studies assessing the incidence of AKI (using a standard AKI definition) in adult patients undergoing LTx. Effect estimates from the individual studies were derived and consolidated utilizing random-effect, the generic inverse variance approach of DerSimonian and Laird. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42018100664). RESULTS: Thirty-eight cohort studies, with a total of 13,422 LTx patients, were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence rates of post-LTx AKI and severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) were 40.7% (95% CI: 35.4%⁻46.2%) and 7.7% (95% CI: 5.1%⁻11.4%), respectively. Meta-regression showed that the year of study did not significantly affect the incidence of post-LTx AKI (p = 0.81). The pooled estimated in-hospital or 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality rates of patients with post-LTx AKI were 16.5% (95% CI: 10.8%⁻24.3%) and 31.1% (95% CI: 22.4%⁻41.5%), respectively. Post-LTx AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT were associated with significantly higher mortality with pooled ORs of 2.96 (95% CI: 2.32⁻3.77) and 8.15 (95%CI: 4.52⁻14.69), respectively. Compared to those without post-LTx AKI, recipients with post-LTx AKI had significantly increased risk of liver graft failure and chronic kidney disease with pooled ORs of 3.76 (95% CI: 1.56⁻9.03) and 2.35 (95% CI: 1.53⁻3.61), respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall estimated incidence rates of post-LTx AKI and severe AKI requiring RRT are 40.8% and 7.0%, respectively. There are significant associations of post-LTx AKI with increased mortality and graft failure after transplantation. Furthermore, the incidence of post-LTx AKI has remained stable over the ten years of the study.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832377

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is derived from splanchnic mesoderm, localized anatomically between the myocardium and pericardial visceral layer, and surrounds the coronary arteries. Being a metabolically active organ, EAT secretes numerous cytokines, which moderate cardiovascular morphology and function. Through its paracrine and vasocrine secretions, EAT may play a prominent role in modulating cardiac function. EAT protects the heart in normal physiological conditions by secreting a variety of adipokines with anti-atherosclerotic properties, and in contrast, secretes inflammatory molecules in pathologic conditions that may play a dynamic role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases by promoting atherosclerosis. Considerable research has been focused on comparing the anatomical and biochemical features of EAT in healthy people, and a variety of disease conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and renal diseases. The global cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal disease are high, and there is a paucity of concrete evidence and societal guidelines to detect early cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this group of patients. Here we performed a clinical review on the existing evidence and knowledge on EAT in patients with renal disease, to evaluate its application as a reliable, early, noninvasive biomarker and indicator for CVD, and to assess its significance in cardiovascular risk stratification.

20.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 35, 2019 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of immunosuppressive agents, especially glucocorticoids, are associated with increased risks of bone loss in kidney transplant patients. Denosumab, a potent antiresorptive agent, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CKD. However, its effects on bone metabolism and BMD in kidney transplant patients remain unclear. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database from inception through April 2018 to identify studies evaluating denosumab's effect on changes in bone metabolism and BMD from baseline to post-treatment course in kidney transplant patients. Study results were pooled and analyzed utilizing random-effects model. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42018095055). RESULTS: Five studies (a clinical trial and four cohort studies) with a total of 162 kidney transplant patients were identified. The majority of patients had a baseline eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. After treatment (≥ 6 to 12 months), there were significant increases in BMD with standardized mean differences (SMDs) of 3.26 (95% CI 0.88-5.64) and 1.83 (95% CI 0.43 to 3.22) for lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. There were also significant increases in T scores with SMDs of 0.92 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI 0.17 to 2.10) for lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. After treatment, there were no significant changes in serum calcium (Ca) or parathyroid hormone (PTH) from baseline to post-treatment course (≥ 6 months) with mean differences (MDs) of 0.52 (95% CI, - 0.13 to 1.16) mmol/L and - 13.24 (95% CI, - 43.85 to 17.37) ng/L, respectively. The clinical trial data demonstrated more asymptomatic hypocalcemia in the denosumab (12 episodes in 39 patients) than in the control (1 episode in 42 patients) group. From the cohort studies, the pooled incidence of hypocalcemia following denosumab treatment was 1.7% (95% CI 0.4 to 6.6%). All reported hypocalcemic episodes were mild and asymptomatic, but the majority of patients required Ca and vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSION: Among kidney transplant patients with good allograft function, denosumab effectively increases BMD and T scores in the lumbar spine and femur neck. From baseline to post-treatment, there are no differences in serum Ca and PTH. However, mild hypocalcemia can occur following denosumab treatment, requiring monitoring and titration of Ca and vitamin D supplements.

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