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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299793

RESUMO

Grounded in SDT, several studies have highlighted the role of teachers' motivating and demotivating styles for students' motivation, learning, and physical activity in physical education (PE). However, most of these studies focused on a restricted number of motivating strategies (e.g., offering choice) or dimensions (e.g., autonomy support). Recently, researchers have developed the Situations-in-School (i.e., SIS-Education) questionnaire, which allows one to gain a more integrative and fine-grained insight into teachers' engagement in autonomy-support, structure, control, and chaos through a circular structure (i.e., a circumplex). Although teaching in PE resembles teaching in academic courses in many ways, some of the items of the original situation-based questionnaire (e.g., regarding homework) are irrelevant to the PE context. In the present study, we therefore sought to develop a modified, PE-friendly version of this earlier validated SIS-questionnaire-the SIS-PE. Findings in a sample of Belgian (N = 136) and French (N = 259) PE teachers, examined together and as independent samples, showed that the variation in PE teachers' motivating styles in this adapted version is also best captured by a circumplex structure, with four overarching styles and eight subareas differing in their level of need support and directiveness. The SIS-PE possesses excellent convergent and concurrent validity. With the adaptations being successful, great opportunities for future research on PE teachers (de-)motivating styles are created.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Motivação , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 89(1): 22-40, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that well-established classroom rules prevent problem behaviour, while also supporting students' achievement gains. Yet, there might be considerable variability in students' underlying motives to comply or refrain from complying with classroom rules, with some students adhering to them because they fully accept them as their own, and others feeling compelled by external or internal demands to do so or even defying the rules altogether. AIMS: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed to examine whether students' reasons for following (i.e., internalization) and for refraining from following (i.e., defiance) classroom rules differentially and uniquely predict student outcomes, including feelings of resentment, acting out, cheating, and truancy. SAMPLE: A total of 1006 students (46.7% boys; M = 14.18 years ± 1.73) out of 56 different secondary school classes participated in the study. METHODS: Students were invited to fill out an online survey about experiences with their head teacher. RESULTS: For three out of four outcomes, identified regulation and external regulation to follow classroom rules were found to be, respectively, negatively and positively related, whereas a null relationship with introjected rule following was found. Controlled non-rule following was most strongly predictive of maladaptive functioning, as indexed by more feelings of resentment, acting out, cheating, and truancy. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas students' ownership of rules is critical to prevent classroom misbehaviour, their pressured non-adherence is a risk factor.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 39(1): 67-80, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253062

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory, this experimental study examined whether the valence (i.e., positive vs. negative) and style (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling) of normative feedback impact the self-talk, motivational experiences (i.e., psychological need satisfaction and enjoyment), and behavioral functioning (i.e., perseverance and performance) of tennis players (N = 120; Mage = 24.50 ± 9.86 years). Positive feedback and an autonomy-supportive style positively influenced players' enjoyment and perseverance, with psychological need satisfaction and self-talk playing an intervening role. While positive feedback yielded its beneficial effect via greater competence satisfaction and decreased negative self-talk, the beneficial impact of an autonomy-supportive communication style was explained via greater autonomy satisfaction.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Motivação , Satisfação Pessoal , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychol Belg ; 56(3): 288-310, 2016 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479441

RESUMO

In a sample of long distance runners, we examined the role of type of intrapersonal achievement goals (i.e., approach versus avoidance) and type of underlying reasons (i.e., autonomous and controlled), assessed prior to the race, as predictors of both pre-race (e.g., race appraisals) and post-race (e.g., flow experience) outcomes. Of 221 (62.4% males) runners, 111 reported pursuing an intrapersonal-approach goal (i.e., doing better than before) as their dominant or preferred achievement goal for the race, while 86 prioritized intrapersonal-avoidance goals (i.e., avoiding to perform worse than before). Regression and path analyses showed that the type of achievement goals predicted none of the outcomes except for running time, with approach goals predicting better performance when compared to avoidance goals. Path analyses revealed that autonomous reasons underlying intrapersonal goal pursuit related positively to pre-race challenge appraisals, performance and, via need satisfaction, to flow experience. Interestingly, controlled reasons positively related to pre-race threat appraisals and positively predicted both positive and negative self-talk, with both yielding opposing relations with flow. These findings complement past research on the intersection between the Achievement Goal Approach and Self-Determination Theory and highlight the value of studying the reasons underlying intrapersonal achievement goals.

5.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(4): 353-66, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26442767

RESUMO

Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers' need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers' causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students' (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Docentes , Relações Interpessoais , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Dev Psychol ; 51(1): 67-74, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25419798

RESUMO

In this longitudinal study, we tested whether the association between oppositional defiance to parental authority (i.e., adolescents' tendency to bluntly reject parental rules) and autonomy would depend upon the specific conceptualization of autonomy. Whereas oppositional defiance would yield more interpersonal distance from parents, because it involves turning away from parental authority, it would also yield less volitional functioning, as oppositional defiance would come at the expense of acting upon one's personal values and interests. A sample of 387 middle and late adolescents (age range = 14-20 years at Time 1) filled out questionnaires at 2 time points, separated by a 2-year interval. With increasing age, adolescents reported less oppositional defiance and more volitional functioning. Late adolescents in particular reported less interpersonal distance from their parents. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that oppositional defiance predicted increases in interpersonal distance as well as decreases in volitional functioning across time. Conversely, higher scores on volitional functioning predicted decreases in oppositional defiance. These findings emphasize the necessity of a differentiated approach to autonomy.


Assuntos
Negativismo , Relações Pais-Filho , Autonomia Pessoal , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Volição , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 11: 48, 2014 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24708585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. METHODS: One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. RESULTS: More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (ß = 157.62, p < 0.001). Significant three-way interactions (sex × extracurricular school-based sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (ß = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. CONCLUSIONS: If extracurricular school-based sports are offered at school, the vast majority of elementary school children participate. Although extracurricular school-based sports attract many children already engaging in community sports, they also reach almost two third of the children who do not participate in community sports but who might also be optimally motivated towards sports. As children participating in extracurricular school-based sports are more physically active than children who do not participate, extracurricular school-based sports participation can be considered to contribute to an active lifestyle for these participating children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Esportes , Bélgica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Análise Multinível , Educação Física e Treinamento , Análise de Regressão , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 36(6): 595-609, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602142

RESUMO

The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers' beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers' in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers' beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers' actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Docentes , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Competência Profissional , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 35(1): 3-17, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23404876

RESUMO

According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Ensino/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia
10.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 34(4): 457-80, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22889689

RESUMO

Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.


Assuntos
Motivação , Atividade Motora , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 42(1): 24-41, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20730484

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality framework (e.g. Five Factor of Personality; FFM) for understanding early OCD symptomatology in a referred sample of 274 children and adolescents, relying on age-specific measures of general and maladaptive personality. Differences in general and maladaptive personality traits for high versus low-scoring children and adolescents on the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) were explored. The discriminant validity of both higher-and lower-order personality traits was supported, showing that high CBCL-OCS scorers are characterized by specific personality features ranging from adaptive to pathological, especially in terms of Conscientiousness. In addition, personality traits contributed to the accurate classification of high- versus low-scorers on the CBCL-OCS. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/classificação , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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