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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 38, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend considering life expectancy before aortic valve replacement (AVR). We compared the performance of a general mortality index, the Lee index, to a frailty index. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 246 older adults undergoing surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at a single academic medical center. We compared performance of the Lee index to a deficit accumulation frailty index (FI). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of Lee index or FI with poor outcome, defined as death or functional decline with severe symptoms at 12 months. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistics. RESULTS: In the overall cohort, 44 experienced poor outcome (31 deaths, 13 functional decline with severe symptoms). The risk of poor outcome by Lee index quartiles was 6.8% (reference), 17.9% (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval, [0.9-10.2]), 20.0% (OR 3.4; [1.0-11.4]), and 34.0% (OR 7.1; [2.2-22.6]) (p-for-trend = 0.001). Risk of poor outcome by FI quartiles was 3.6% (reference), 10.3% (OR 3.1; [0.6-15.8]), 25.0% (OR 8.8; [1.9-41.0]), and 37.3% (OR 15.8; [3.5-71.1]) (p-for-trend< 0.001). The Lee index predicted the risk of poor outcome in the SAVR cohort Lee index (quartiles 1-4: 2.1, 4.0, 15.4, and 20.0%; p-for-trend = 0.04), but not in the TAVR cohort (quartiles 1-4: 27.3, 29.0, 21.3, 35.4%; p-for-trend = 0.42). In contrast, the FI did not predict the risk of poor outcome well in the SAVR cohort (quartiles 1-4: 2.3, 4.4, 15.8, and 0%; p-for-trend = 0.24), however in the TAVR cohort (quartiles 1-4: 9.1, 14.3, 29.7, and 40.7%; p-for-trend = 0.004). Compared to the Lee index, an FI demonstrated higher C-statistics in the overall (Lee index versus FI: 0.680 versus 0.735; p = 0.03) and TAVR (0.560 versus 0.644; p = 0.03) cohorts, but not SAVR cohort (0.724 versus 0.766; p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: While a general mortality index Lee index predicted death or functional decline with severe symptoms at 12 months well among SAVR patients, the FI derived from a multi-domain geriatric assessment better informs risk-stratification for high-risk TAVR patients.

3.
CJEM ; 22(1): 65-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of frail older adults are treated in the emergency department (ED) and discharged home. There is an unmet need to identify older adults that are predisposed to functional decline and repeat ED visits so as to target them with proactive interventions. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients 75 years or older who were being discharged from the ED. The objective was to test the value of frailty screening tests, namely 5-meter gait speed and handgrip strength, to predict repeat ED visits at 1 and 6 months and functional decline at 1 month using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: After excluding 7 patients lost to follow-up, 150 patients were available for analysis. The mean age was 81.1 ± 4.9 years with 51% females, 13% arriving by ambulance, and 67% having at least two comorbid conditions. At ED discharge, 41% of patients were found to have slow gait speed, whereas 23% had weak handgrip strength. After adjustment, only slow gait speed was independently associated with functional decline at 1 month (odds ratio [OR] 1.39 per 0.1 meters/second decrement, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.72) and repeat ED visits at 6 months (OR 1.20 per 0.1 meters/second decrement, 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Gait speed can be feasibly measured at the time of ED discharge to identify frail older adults at risk for early functional decline and subsequent return to the ED. Conversely, grip strength was not found to be associated with functional decline or ED visits.

4.
Circulation ; 141(2): e6-e32, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813278

RESUMO

Longevity is increasing, and more adults are living to the stage of life when age-related biological factors determine a higher likelihood of cardiovascular disease in a distinctive context of concurrent geriatric conditions. Older adults with cardiovascular disease are frequently admitted to cardiac intensive care units (CICUs), where care is commensurate with high age-related cardiovascular disease risks but where the associated geriatric conditions (including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive decline and delirium, and frailty) may be inadvertently exacerbated and destabilized. The CICU environment of procedures, new medications, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, prolonged bed rest, malnourishment, and sleep is usually inherently disruptive to older patients regardless of the excellence of cardiovascular disease care. Given these fundamental and broad challenges of patient aging, CICU management priorities and associated decision-making are particularly complex and in need of enhancements. In this American Heart Association statement, we examine age-related risks and describe some of the distinctive dynamics pertinent to older adults and emerging opportunities to enhance CICU care. Relevant assessment tools are discussed, as well as the need for additional clinical research to best advance CICU care for the already dominating and still expanding population of older adults.

5.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(2): 156-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840834

RESUMO

As the population ages, clinicians will encounter a growing number of nonagenarians suffering from severe aortic stenosis who may be candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). By virtue of a healthy survivor effect or a referral bias, these patients may paradoxically have greater resilience and fewer comorbidities than their octogenarian counterparts. They tend to, on average, tolerate the TAVR procedure quite well with low in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates of 5.5% and 23%, respectively. Appropriate patient selection should consider individualized estimates of procedural risk, potential for functional recovery and for improved quantity and quality of life. Frailty is much more revealing than chronological age, and it can be measured by brief tools such as the Essential Frailty Toolset. Ultimately, the process of shared decision-making is paramount to ensure that the course of action is patient-centered and balances the procedure's expected risks and benefits with the nonagenarian's preferences and values.

6.
Cardiol Clin ; 38(1): 75-87, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753179

RESUMO

Assessment of frailty has become engrained in the preprocedural evaluation of older adults referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Addition of frailty and disability to clinical risk scores results in improved discrimination for short- and midterm mortality and identifies patients less likely to be discharged home and more likely to report worsening quality of life over the ensuing 6 to 12 months. In clinical practice, frailty can be evaluated by a tiered approach starting with a brief screening tool such as the Essential Frailty Toolset.

8.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(11): 1437-1448, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679616

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement has rapidly changed the treatment of patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. It is now the standard of care for patients believed to be inoperable or at high surgical risk, and a reasonable alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for those at intermediate surgical risk. Recent clinical trial data have shown the benefits of this technology in patients at low surgical risk as well. This update of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society TAVI position statement incorporates clinical evidence to provide a practical framework for patient selection that does not rely on surgical risk scores but rather on individual patient evaluation of risk and benefit from either TAVI or surgical aortic valve replacement. In addition, this statement features new wait time categories and treatment time goals for patients accepted for TAVI. Institutional requirements and recommendations for operator training and maintenance of competency have also been revised to reflect current standards. Procedural considerations such as decision-making for concomitant coronary intervention, antiplatelet therapy after intervention, and follow-up guidelines are also discussed. Finally, we suggest that all patients with aortic stenosis might benefit from evaluation by the heart team to determine the optimal individualized treatment decision.

9.
Lancet ; 394(10206): 1365-1375, 2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609228

RESUMO

Frailty is an emerging global health burden, with major implications for clinical practice and public health. The prevalence of frailty is expected to rise alongside rapid growth in the ageing population. The course of frailty is characterised by a decline in functioning across multiple physiological systems, accompanied by an increased vulnerability to stressors. Having frailty places a person at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including falls, hospitalisation, and mortality. Studies have shown a clear pattern of increased health-care costs and use associated with frailty. All older adults are at risk of developing frailty, although risk levels are substantially higher among those with comorbidities, low socioeconomic position, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyles. Lifestyle and clinical risk factors are potentially modifiable by specific interventions and preventive actions. The concept of frailty is increasingly being used in primary, acute, and specialist care. However, despite efforts over the past three decades, agreement on a standard instrument to identify frailty has not yet been achieved. In this Series paper, we provide an overview of the global impact and burden of frailty, the usefulness of the frailty concept in clinical practice, potential targets for frailty prevention, and directions that need to be explored in the future.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Prevalência
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(12): 2593-2599, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The American College of Cardiology (ACC) Geriatric Cardiology Section Leadership Council recently outlined 4 key domains (which are composed of 14 subdomains) that are important to assess in older adults with heart failure (HF). We sought to determine which geriatric domains/subdomains are routinely assessed, how they are assessed, and how they impact clinical management in the care of ambulatory older adults with HF. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Ambulatory. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen active ACC member physicians from the geriatric cardiology community. MEASUREMENTS: Electronic survey assessing which domains/subdomains are currently assessed in these selected real-world practices, how they are assessed, and how they are incorporated into clinical management. RESULTS: Of 15 clinicians, 14 responded to the survey. The majority routinely assess 3 to 4 domains (median, 3; interquartile range, 3-4) and a range of 4 to 12 subdomains (median, 8; interquartile range, 6-11). All respondents routinely assess the medical and physical function domains, 71% routinely assess the mind/emotion domain, and 50% routinely assess the social domain. The most common subdomains included comorbidity burden (100%), polypharmacy (100%), basic function (93%), mobility (86%), falls risk (71%), frailty (64%), and cognition (57%). Sensory impairment (50%), social isolation (50%), nutritional status (43%), loneliness (7%), and financial means (7%) were least frequently assessed. There was significant heterogeneity with regard to the tools used to assess subdomains. Common themes for how the subdomains influenced clinical care included informing prognosis, informing risk-benefit of pharmacologic therapy and invasive procedures, and consideration for palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: While respondents routinely assess multiple domains and subdomains and view these as important to clinical care, there is substantial heterogeneity regarding which subdomains are assessed and the tools used to assess them. These observations provide a foundation that inform a research agenda with regard to providing holistic and patient-centered care to older adults with HF. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2593-2599, 2019.

11.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(4): 445-457, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543177

RESUMO

The benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are well-suited to counteract the deficits of frailty such as sarcopenia, inactivity, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression. After a cardiovascular hospitalization, older patients are at increased risk for deconditioning and functional decline and thus should be evaluated for frailty and targeted for early CR referral. At the initial CR visit, frail older patients should undergo a 6-minute walk test and short physical performance battery to tailor their aerobic and resistance exercise plan, and they should be screened for geriatric impairments and environmental barriers to facilitate their participation in centre-based or home-based CR.

12.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(9): 1250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492396
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(10): 1095-1100, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults undergoing major surgery have increased protein requirements in the postoperative period, but there are limited data describing actual protein intake following cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective sub-study within a registry of older adults ≥60 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery at a tertiary care centre. A dietician administered a food frequency questionnaire before surgery and 1-4 months after surgery. In-hospital food intake was recorded by direct observation for 3 days in the early postoperative period. Food intake was analyzed to calculate the protein intake per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/d) during the three phases of care, compared to the dietary reference intake. Frailty was measured by a questionnaire and physical performance tests before surgery. There were 22 patients (8 females, 14 males; 59% frail) enrolled in the study with a mean age of 72.0 ± 7.8 years. The mean protein intake was 1.3 ± 0.5 g/kg/d, 0.7 ± 0.3 g/kg/d, and 1.3 ± 0.6 g/kg/d in the preoperative, early postoperative, and postdischarge periods, respectively (P < 0.0001 for early postoperative compared to other periods). Compared to the targeted dietary reference intake of 1.5 g/kg/d, there was a mean protein deficit of 0.8 g/kg/d in the early postoperative period. Only one patient (5%) met the protein dietary reference intake in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSION: In older adults undergoing cardiac surgery, dietary protein intake was substantially lower than the recommended target in the early postoperative period. Strategies to improve protein intake, particularly in frail older patients, may be considered as a therapeutic target.

14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(12): 2221-2229, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388815

RESUMO

While diagnostic criteria were elaborated for acute myocarditis using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 2009, studies have since examined the yield of traditional and novel CMR parameters to achieve greater accuracy and to predict clinical outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of CMR parameters for acute myocarditis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for original studies that reported CMR parameters in adult patients suspected of acute myocarditis. Each CMR parameter's binary prevalence, mean value and standard deviation were extracted. Parameters were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to generate standardized mean differences. After screening 1492 abstracts, 53 studies were included encompassing 2823 myocarditis patients and 803 controls. Pooled standardized mean differences between myocarditis patients and controls were: T2 mapping time 2.26 (95% CI 1.50-3.02), extracellular volume 1.64 (95% CI 0.87-2.42), LGE percentage 1.30 (95% CI 0.95-1.64), T1 mapping time 1.18 (95% CI 0.35-2.01), T2 ratio 1.17 (95% CI 0.80-1.54), and EGE ratio 0.93 (95% CI 0.66-1.19). Prolonged T1 mapping time had the highest sensitivity (82%), pericardial effusion had the highest specificity (99%). Baseline LV dysfunction and the presence of LGE were predictive of major adverse cardiac events. The results support integration of parametric mapping criteria in the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis. The presence of baseline LV dysfunction and LGE predict patients at higher risk of adverse events.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 156, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for inpatients at risk for long length of stay (LOS) is the first step of an effective hospital care plan for older inpatients. This study aims, in older adults admitted to a geriatric acute care ward, to examine and compare the 6-item brief geriatric assessment (BGA) and the "Programme de Recherche sur l'Intégration des Services pour le Maintien de l'Autonomie" (PRISMA-7) risk levels with long LOS, and to establish their performance criteria (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratios) for LOS. METHODS: Based on an observational, retrospective, cohort design, 166 inpatients aged ≥75 admitted to a geriatric acute care ward of a McGill University-affiliated hospital (Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were recruited. The risk levels of the 6-item BGA (low, moderate and high) and the PRISMA-7 (low versus high) were calculated from a baseline assessment. The LOS was subsequently calculated in number of days. RESULTS: Only the 6-item BGA high risk level was associated with a long LOS (Odds ratio = 1.1 with P = 0.028 and Hazard ratio = 2.1 with P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier distributions showed that there was no significant difference in the delay of hospital discharge between the low and high-risk level reported by the PRISMA-7 (P = 0.381), whereas the 6-item BGA three risk levels differed significantly (P = 0.008), with individuals at high risk levels being discharged later when compared to those with low (P = 0.001) and moderate (P = 0.019) risk levels. Both tools' performance criteria were poor (i.e., < 0.70), except for PRISMA-7's sensitivity which was 100%. CONCLUSION: The 6-item BGA risk levels were associated with LOS, low risk-level being associated with short LOS and high-risk level with long LOS, but no association was reported with the PRISMA-7 risk levels. Both tools had poor performance criteria for long LOS, suggesting that they cannot be used as prognostic tools with current scientific knowledge.

16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(10): 2031-2037, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence, frailty is not routinely assessed before cardiac surgery. We compared five brief frailty tests for predicting poor outcomes after aortic valve replacement and evaluated a strategy of performing comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in screen-positive patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A single academic center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) (n = 91; mean age = 77.8 y) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) (n = 137; mean age = 84.5 y) from February 2014 to June 2017. MEASUREMENTS: Brief frailty tests (Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness, and Loss of weight [FRAIL] scale; Clinical Frailty Scale; grip strength; gait speed; and chair rise) and a deficit-accumulation frailty index based on CGA (CGA-FI) were measured at baseline. A composite of death or functional decline and severe symptoms at 6 months was assessed. RESULTS: The outcome occurred in 8.8% (n = 8) after SAVR and 24.8% (n = 34) after TAVR. The chair rise test showed the highest discrimination in the SAVR (C statistic = .76) and TAVR cohorts (C statistic = .63). When the chair rise test was chosen as a screening test (≥17 s for SAVR and ≥23 s for TAVR), the incidence of outcome for screen-negative patients, screen-positive patients with CGA-FI of .34 or lower, and screen-positive patients with CGA-FI higher than .34 were 1.9% (n = 1/54), 5.3% (n = 1/19), and 33.3% (n = 6/18) after SAVR, respectively, and 15.0% (n = 9/60), 14.3% (n = 3/21), and 38.3% (n = 22/56) after TAVR, respectively. Compared with routinely performing CGA, targeting CGA to screen-positive patients would result in 54 fewer CGAs, without compromising sensitivity (routine vs targeted: .75 vs .75; P = 1.00) and specificity (.84 vs .86; P = 1.00) in the SAVR cohort; and 60 fewer CGAs with lower sensitivity (.82 vs.65; P = .03) and higher specificity (.50 vs .67; P < .01) in the TAVR cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The chair rise test with targeted CGA may be a practical strategy to identify older patients at high risk for mortality and poor recovery after SAVR and TAVR in whom individualized care management should be considered. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2031-2037, 2019.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(8): 1559-1564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045254

RESUMO

Frailty has long been an important concept in the practice of geriatric medicine and in gerontological research, but integration and implementation of frailty concepts into clinical practice in the United States has been slow. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) Intramural Research Program and the Johns Hopkins Older Americans Independence Center sponsored a symposium to identify potential barriers that impede the movement of frailty into clinical practice and to highlight opportunities to facilitate the further integration of frailty into clinical practice. Primary and subspecialty care providers, and investigators working to integrate and translate new biological aging knowledge into more specific preventive and treatment strategies for frailty provided the meeting content. Recommendations included a call for more specific language that clarifies conceptual differences between frailty definitions and measurement tools; the development of randomized controlled trials to test whether specific intervention strategies for a variety of conditions differently affect frail and non-frail individuals; development of implementation studies and therapeutic trials aimed at tailoring care as a function of pragmatic frailty markers; the use of deep learning and dynamic systems approaches to improve the translatability of findings from epidemiological studies; and the incorporation of advances in aging biology, especially focused on mitochondria, stem cells, and senescent cells, toward the further development of biologically targeted intervention and prevention strategies that can be used to treat or prevent frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1559-1564, 2019.

18.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(5): 1594-1602.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that influences postoperative morbidity and mortality after vascular procedures; however, its integration in clinical practice has been limited, given the lack of consensus on how to measure it. This study sought to compare the incremental predictive value of six different nonphysical performance frailty scales to predict poor outcomes after interventions for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: This preplanned analysis of the FRailty Assessment In Lower Extremity arterial Disease (FRAILED) prospective cohort included two centers recruiting patients between July 1, 2015, and October 1, 2016. Individuals who underwent vascular interventions for Rutherford class 3 or higher PAD were enrolled. The following scales were compared: Edmonton Frail Scale, Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), modified Essential Frailty Toolset (mEFT), modified Frailty Index, Multidimensional Prognostic Index, and the Risk Analysis Index-C. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality and major disability at 12 months after the procedure. The secondary end point was length of stay. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of frailty with the primary end point after adjusting for confounders. To compare the incremental predictive value of each frailty scale, model performance statistics were calculated. RESULTS: The cohort was composed of 148 patients with a mean age of 70 years. Depending on the scale used, the prevalence of frailty ranged from 16% to 70%. Frailty as measured by the GFI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.72) and mEFT (adjusted odds ratio, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) predicted mortality and worsening disability at 12 months after interventions for PAD. Furthermore, there was statistically significant C-statistic, Bayesian information criterion, and integrated discrimination improvement when the GFI and mEFT were added to the baseline model. Frailty was not associated with length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is associated with mortality and worsening disability after interventions for PAD. The GFI and mEFT performed well and identified vulnerable older adults who are at risk of poor outcomes after interventions for PAD and recommended for use in this setting.

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): 781-789, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the distribution and prognostic significance of habitual physical activity (HPA) in older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Low HPA is associated with mortality and disability in community-dwelling older adults. In the setting of TAVR, it is unclear whether low HPA is a risk factor for downstream morbidity or a byproduct of severe aortic stenosis that improves following its correction. METHODS: Older adults undergoing TAVR in the prospective multicentre FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty in Aortic Valve Replacement) study were interviewed to quantify their HPA in kilocalories/week using a validated questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 12 months. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 755 patients with a median age of 84.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 80.0 to 87.0 years). At baseline, median HPA was 1,116 kcal/week (IQR: 227 to 2,715 kcal/week) with 73% of patients performing <150 min/week of moderate or vigorous HPA. Sedentary patients were more likely to be older, female, frail, cognitively impaired, depressed, and have multimorbidity, although they had similar left ventricular function and aortic stenosis severity. In the logistic regression model adjusting for these covariates, HPA was found to be associated with mortality at 12 months (odds ratio: 0.84/100 kcal; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.98). HPA was associated with longer length of stay, discharge to health care facilities, and disability. At 12 months, median HPA among survivors was 933 kcal/week (IQR: 0 to 2,334 kcal/week) with pre-existing frailty being independently predictive of worsening HPA following TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary patients have a higher risk of mortality and functional decline following TAVR.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(3): e005363, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879326

RESUMO

Background Women account for a large proportion of patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, yet there remain conflicting reports about the effect of sex on outcomes. Moreover, the sex-specific prevalence and prognostic impact of frailty has not been systematically studied in the context of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods and Results A preplanned analysis of the FRAILTY-AVR study (Frailty Aortic Valve Replacement) was performed to analyze the determinants of outcomes in older women and men undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. FRAILTY-AVR was a multinational, prospective, observational cohort assembled at 14 institutions in North America and Europe from 2012 to 2017. Multivariable logistic regression models were stratified by sex and adjusted for covariates. Interaction between sex and each of these covariates was assessed. The primary outcome was 12-month mortality, and the secondary outcome was 1-month composite mortality or major morbidity. The cohort consisted of 340 women and 419 men. Women were older and had higher predicted risk of mortality. Women were more likely to have physical frailty traits, but not cognitive or psychosocial frailty traits, and global indices of frailty were similarly associated with adverse events regardless of sex. Women were more likely to require discharge to a rehabilitation facility, particularly those with physical frailty at baseline, although their functional status was similar to men at 12 months. The risk of 1-month mortality or major morbidity was greater in women, particularly those treated with larger prostheses. The risk of 12-month mortality was not greater in women, with the exception of those with pulmonary hypertension, in whom, there was a significant interaction for increased mortality. Conclusions The present study highlights sex-specific differences in older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement and draws attention to the impact of physical frailty in women and their potential risk associated with oversized prostheses and pulmonary hypertension.

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