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1.
Am J Public Health ; 109(5): 748-754, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of state texting bans on motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related emergency department (ED) visits. METHODS: We used ED data from 16 US states between 2007 and 2014. We employed a difference-in-difference approach and conditional Poisson regressions to estimate changes in counts of MVC-related ED visits in states with and without texting bans. We also constructed age cohorts to explore whether texting bans have differential impacts by age group. RESULTS: On average, states with a texting ban saw a 4% reduction in MVC-related ED visits (incidence rate ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 0.97). This equates to an average of 1632 traffic-related ED visits prevented per year in states with a ban. Both primary and secondary bans were associated with significant reductions in MVC-related visits to the ED regardless of whether they were on all drivers or young drivers only. Individuals aged 64 years and younger in states with a texting ban saw significantly fewer MVC-related ED visits following its implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that states' efforts to curb distracted driving through texting bans and decrease its negative consequences are associated with significant decreases in the incidence of ED visits that follow an MVC.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/legislação & jurisprudência , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(5): e117, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation rates are low in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral factors such as a belief that donated blood would be used for performing rituals deter people from donating blood. There is a need for culturally appropriate communication interventions to encourage individuals to donate blood. Health care interventions that use mobile phones have increased in developing countries, although many of them focus on SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS). A unique feature of mobile phones that has so far not been used for aiding blood donation is caller tunes. Caller tunes replace the ringing sound heard by a caller to a mobile phone before the called party answers the call. In African countries such as Ghana, instead of the typical ringing sound, a caller may hear a message or song. Despite the popularity of such caller tunes, there is a lack of empirical studies on their potential use for promoting blood donation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use the technology acceptance model to explore the influence of the factors-perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and free of cost-on intentions of blood or nonblood donors to download blood donation-themed caller tunes to promote blood donation, if available. METHODS: A total of 478 blood donors and 477 nonblood donors were purposively sampled for an interviewer-administered questionnaire survey at blood donation sites in Accra, Ghana. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factory analysis or structural equation modeling, leading to hypothesis testing to examine factors that determine intention to use caller tunes for blood donation among blood or nonblood donors who use or do not use mobile phone caller tunes. RESULTS: Perceived usefulness had a significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.293, P<.001), blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.165, P=.02, nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.278, P<.001), and nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.164, P=.01). Attitudes had significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.351, P<.001), nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.384, P<.001), nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.539, P<.001) but not among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.056, P=.44). The effect of free-of-cost caller tunes on the intention to use for blood donation was statistically significant (beta=.169, P<.001) only in the case of nonblood donors without caller tunes, whereas this path was statistically not significant in other models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide empirical evidence for designing caller tunes to promote blood donation in Ghana. The study found that making caller tunes free is particularly relevant for nonblood donors with no caller tunes.

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