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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 1)(2): S37-S41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of motorcycles in causing Road Traffic Accidents and assess the demographics of the drivers, the injury patterns and their outcomes. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at the Surgical Unit 1, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore for a period of 6 months from November 2017 to May 2018. All patients presenting in ER with RTA secondary to motorcycle trauma were included in the study. Data of patients including demographic and medical data, helmet use, spectrum of injuries, specific injury diagnosis, and final disposition of patients was analyzed. The distribution and associations of both victim- and crash-related variables such as crash mechanism, types of involved vehicles, types of injuries, and demographic characteristics were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS v23. RESULTS: A total of 835 patients were included in this study with 685 (82%) being male (mean age 28.38 ± 13.89 years) and775 (92.7%) were motorcycle users. The majority of road traffic crashes, traffic accident's mechanism were motorcycle-vehicle accident 579 (69.3%), followed by collision with slow moving carts and bicycles 104 (12.5%). Inner city main roads were the site for 563 (67.4%) accidents. Only 168 (2.2%) patients were wearing helmets at the time of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle traffic morbidities and mortalities remain to be a major public health issue in Lahore as well as all over Pakistan. There is an urgent need for an efficacious interventional programs to decline the burden of motorcycle related morbidity and mortalities.

2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1109-1114, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417054

RESUMO

Background: The dental graduation program is stressful and challenging as it is essential to master various skills. The emotional intelligence (EI) is reported to help in perceiving, moderating emotions and also play a significant role in academic excellence. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic factors influencing EI and to determine the association of EI in academic performance of clinical and preclinical courses. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included the 113 dental clinical internship students from five different dental schools at Pakistan. The self-administered questionnaire data included sociodemographic factors, academic performance in preclinical, clinical courses, and San Diego City College MESA Program-based EI responses. The results were analyzed with multiple linear regression and ordinal regression to identify the independent predictor for EI and academic performance. Results: The female participants had marginally higher mean EI score (109.67) in comparison to male counterparts (108.10). The independent predictors among sociodemographic factors for EI were having siblings (P = 0.016), loss of parents (P = 0.002), parents' education (P = 0.022), and relation with parents (P = 0.03). The students enjoy studying dentistry were also associated with higher EI scores (P = 0.002). The mean EI score was an independent predictor of academic performance predominantly in clinical courses [ß = -0.041 (95% confidence interval - 0.063 to - 0.020); P = 0.000]. Conclusion: The finding of the study indicates the influence of family and social factors in the development of EI. The dental students' EI is vital for higher academic performance in clinical courses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação em Odontologia , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Faculdades de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
3.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868280

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last 40 years of clinical research in interventional cardiology were extraordinarily innovative. This article will review the most promising up and coming interventional cardiovascular therapies, with a primary focus on the treatment of coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: From the first stent, to the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and the left appendage closure technique, percutaneous interventions revolutionized the treatment of multiple diseases and dramatically improved the prognosis of many patients. While these advances have decreased the risk of mortality in some patients (such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction), 15% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients still experience recurrent ischemic events within the first year, challenging us to develop new pharmaceutical targets and new devices. The continued emergence of data supporting inflammation as a risk factor and pharmacologic target as well as data supporting the importance of cholesterol efflux have identified novel therapeutic targets that may play a major role in the improvement of prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. In addition, novel medical devices are being developed to allow even earlier detection of acute cardiac events and to support high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions. Advances in computing and the ability to analyze large datasets will allow us to use artificial intelligence to augment the clinician patient experience, both in and out of the catheterization laboratory, with live procedural guidance as well as pre- and post-operative prognostication tools.

4.
Brain Stimul ; 12(4): 868-876, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed loop deep brain stimulation (clDBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) using subthalamic (STN) neural feedback has been shown to be efficacious only in the acute post-operative setting, using externalized leads and stimulators. OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of neural (N)clDBS using the clinical implanted neurostimulator (Activa™ PC + S, FDA IDE approved) and a novel beta dual threshold algorithm in tremor and bradykinesia dominant PD patients on chronic DBS. METHODS: 13 PD subjects (20 STNs), on open loop (ol)DBS for 22 ±â€¯7.8 months, consented to NclDBS driven by beta (13-30 Hz) power using a dual threshold algorithm, based on patient specific therapeutic voltage windows. Tremor was assessed continuously, and bradykinesia was evaluated after 20 min of NclDBS using a repetitive wrist flexion-extension task (rWFE). Total electrical energy delivered (TEED) on NclDBS was compared to olDBS using the same active electrode. RESULTS: NclDBS was tolerated for 21.67 [21.10-26.15] minutes; no subject stopped early. Resting beta band power was measurable and similar between tremor and bradykinesia dominant patients. NclDBS improved bradykinesia and tremor while delivering only 56.86% of the TEED of olDBS; rWFE velocity (p = 0.003) and frequency (p < 0.001) increased; tremor was below 0.15 rad/sec for 95.4% of the trial and averaged 0.26 rad/sec when present. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that STN NclDBS is feasible, efficacious and more efficient than olDBS in tremor and bradykinesia dominant PD patients, on long-term DBS, using an implanted clinical neurostimulator and driven by beta power with a novel dual threshold algorithm, based on customized therapeutic voltage windows.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis/tendências , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocinesia/epidemiologia , Hipocinesia/fisiopatologia , Hipocinesia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor/epidemiologia , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Tremor/terapia
6.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(1): 89-98, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728874

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma is emerging as one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in thousands of death worldwide. The purpose of this study was to screen nimesulide for anticancer activity in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats as well as in BEL 7402 and HEP G2 cell lines. HCC in rats was induced by administering a single dose of diethyl nitrosamine (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Duration of the in vivo study was 12 weeks and the anticancer potential was further confirmed by in vitro cell line study. Administration of DENA in Wistar rats significantly elevated the levels of serum biochemical parameters and α-feto protein. Treatment with different dose of nimesulide significantly decreased the markedly raised serum levels of biochemical parameters as well as maintained the histology of the liver tissues nearly similar to the normal. Further study of hepatocytes enzymes showed that treatment with nimesulide also improved the antioxidant enzyme levels. Our study also examined the cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis inhibition by nimesulide in BEL 7402 and Hep G2 cell lines. Cell viability was assessed by [3H]-thymidine uptake procedure. The results obtained by in vitro cell line study, histopathological and biochemical data concluded that nimesulide, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, has anticancer activity, which is by first reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species and second by inhibiting the PGE2 effect via Wnt signaling pathway (cell invasion, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206823, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418981

RESUMO

Regulation of mRNA stability by RNA-protein interactions contributes significantly to quantitative aspects of gene expression. We have identified potential mRNA targets of the AU-rich element binding protein AUF1. Myc-tagged AUF1 p42 was induced in mouse NIH/3T3 cells and RNA-protein complexes isolated using anti-myc tag antibody beads. Bound mRNAs were analyzed with Affymetrix microarrays. We have identified 508 potential target mRNAs that were at least 3-fold enriched compared to control cells without myc-AUF1. 22.3% of the enriched mRNAs had an AU-rich cluster in the ARED Organism database, against 16.3% of non-enriched control mRNAs. The enrichment towards AU-rich elements was also visible by AREScore with an average value of 5.2 in the enriched mRNAs versus 4.2 in the control group. Yet, numerous mRNAs were enriched without a high ARE score. The enrichment of tetrameric and pentameric sequences suggests a broad AUF1 p42-binding spectrum at short U-rich sequences flanked by A or G. Still, some enriched mRNAs were highly unstable, as those of TNFSF11 (known as RANKL), KLF10, HES1, CCNT2, SMAD6, and BCL6. We have mapped some of the instability determinants. HES1 mRNA appeared to have a coding region determinant. Detailed analysis of the RANKL and BCL6 3'UTR revealed for both that full instability required two elements, which are conserved in evolution. In RANKL mRNA both elements are AU-rich and separated by 30 bases, while in BCL6 mRNA one is AU-rich and 60 bases from a non AU-rich element that potentially forms a stem-loop structure.


Assuntos
Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Elementos Ricos em Adenilato e Uridilato/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células HEK293 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 16(11): 845-855, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compared to other direct oral anticoagulants, betrixaban has a longer half-life, smaller peak-trough variance, minimal renal clearance, and minimal hepatic Cytochrome P (CYP) metabolism. The Acute Medically Ill VTE Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of extended duration betrixaban compared to standard duration enoxaparin in acutely ill hospitalized patients. Areas covered: This article describes the role of betrixaban in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. This article provides a consolidated summary of the primary APEX study findings as well as prespecified and exploratory substudies. This article also provides a review of the results of studies in which other direct factor Xa inhibitors have been evaluated in an extended duration regimen in this patient population. Expert commentary: While previous agents have demonstrated that extended duration VTE prophylaxis can be efficacious, betrixaban is the first agent to demonstrate efficacy without an increase in major bleeding. The totality of the data from the APEX trial supports extended duration betrixaban for VTE prophylaxis in the acute medically ill patient population. As such, betrixaban has been approved in the USA for extended VTE prophylaxis in at-risk acute medically ill patients.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 32(2): 379-384, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685022

RESUMO

The current study was designed to evaluate bioactive compounds under the influence of biotic stress on seedlings of Peganum harmala. Biologically active compounds were determined by using different techniques. The HPLC and GC-MS analyses detected the significant amount of phenolic acids and active biological compound. Total protein content, activity of proteases, α-amylases, catalases and peroxidases were observed to be accelerated under fungal stress. The seedling extracts exhibited prominent antifungal and antimicrobial activity against selected strains. The present study showed that P. harmala is a good candidate to be used in natural therapies and medicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peganum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(2): 534-546, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034593

RESUMO

We report the laboratory analysis of 125 clinical samples from suspected cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and Asian buffalo collected in Pakistan between 2008 and 2012. Of these samples, 89 were found to contain viral RNA by rRT-PCR, of which 88 were also found to contain infectious FMD virus (FMDV) by virus isolation (VI), with strong correlation between these tests (κ = 0.96). Samples that were VI-positive were serotyped by antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 sequence acquisition and analysis. Sequence data identified FMDV serotypes A (n = 13), O (n = 36) and Asia-1 (n = 41), including three samples from which both serotypes Asia-1 and O were detected. Serotype A viruses were classified within three different Iran-05 sublineages: HER-10, FAR-11 and ESF-10. All serotype Asia-1 were within Group VII (Sindh-08 lineage), in a genetic clade that differs from viruses isolated prior to 2010. All serotypes O were classified as PanAsia-2 within two different sublineages: ANT-10 and BAL-09. Using VP1 sequencing as the gold standard for serotype determination, the overall sensitivity of Ag-ELISA to correctly determine serotype was 74%, and serotype-specific sensitivity was 8% for serotype A, 88% for Asia-1 and 89% for O. Serotype-specific specificity was 100% for serotype A, 93% for Asia-1 and 94% for O. Interestingly, 12 of 13 serotype A viruses were not detected by Ag-ELISA. This study confirms earlier accounts of regional genetic diversity of FMDV in Pakistan and highlights the importance of continued validation of diagnostic tests for rapidly evolving pathogens such as FMDV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Variação Genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Paquistão , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorogrupo
11.
Br J Surg ; 105(3): 209-222, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to carry out phase 4 international field-testing of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) breast reconstruction (BRECON) module. The primary objective was finalization of its scale structure. Secondary objectives were evaluation of its reliability, validity, responsiveness, acceptability and interpretability in patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and reconstruction. METHODS: The EORTC module development guidelines were followed. Patients were recruited from 28 centres in seven countries. A prospective cohort completed the QLQ-BRECON15 before mastectomy and the QLQ-BRECON24 at 4-8 months after reconstruction. The cross-sectional cohort completed the QLQ-BRECON24 at 1-5 years after reconstruction, and repeated this 2-8 weeks later (test-retest reliability). All participants completed debriefing questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 438 patients were recruited, 234 in the prospective cohort and 204 in the cross-sectional cohort. A total of 414 reconstructions were immediate, with a comparable number of implants (176) and donor-site flaps (166). Control groups comprised patients who underwent two-stage implant procedures (72, 75 per cent) or delayed reconstruction (24, 25 per cent). Psychometric scale validity was supported by moderate to high item-own scale and item-total correlations (over 0·5). Questionnaire validity was confirmed by good scale-to-sample targeting, and computable scale scores exceeding 50 per cent, except nipple cosmesis (over 40 per cent). In known-group comparisons, QLQ-BRECON24 scales and items differentiated between patient groups defined by clinical criteria, such as type and timing of reconstruction, postmastectomy radiotherapy and surgical complications, with moderate effect sizes. Prospectively, sexuality and surgical side-effects scales showed significant responsiveness over time (P < 0·001). Scale reliability was supported by high Cronbach's α coefficients (over 0·7) and test-retest (intraclass correlation more than 0·8). One item (finding a well fitting bra) was excluded based on high floor/ceiling effects, poor test-retest and weak correlations in factor analysis (below 0·3), thus generating the QLQ-BRECON23 questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The QLQ-BRECON23 is an internationally validated tool to be used alongside the EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer) and QLQ-BR23 (breast cancer) questionnaires for evaluating quality of life and satisfaction after breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Mamoplastia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 2594-2597, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060430

RESUMO

Concussion management has become one of the most popular topics in sports medicine. Significant resources are being invested in developing protocols for professional sport associations such as the NFL and FIFA. These protocols are often expensive and require substantial resources to implement. The problem, however, runs much deeper than just professional sports. Currently there exists little infrastructure to effectively manage concussion in amateur settings such as high school, club and university sport. A more holistic approach is required to ensure that the same standard of concussion management is being implemented across the board, regardless of the available medical and financial resources. An application was developed that will allow for easily accessible baseline testing and access to a player's concussion history from anywhere in the world. The application will be used to monitor players from the day they start playing sport until they potentially become professional sport players.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas , Humanos , Esportes , Medicina Esportiva
13.
F1000Res ; 6: 208, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649365

RESUMO

Background Citations of papers are positively influenced by the journal's impact factor (IF). For non-open access (non-OA) journals, this influence may be due to the fact that high-IF journals are more often purchased by libraries, and are therefore more often available to researchers, than low-IF journals. This positive influence has not, however, been shown specifically for papers published in open access (OA) journals, which are universally accessible, and do not need library purchase. It is therefore important to ascertain if the IF influences citations in OA journals too. Methods 203 randomized controlled trials (102 OA and 101 non-OA) published in January 2011 were included in the study. Five-year citations for papers published in OA journals were compared to those for non-OA journals. Source papers were derived from PubMed. Citations were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The Thompson-Reuter's IF was used. Results OA journals were found to have significantly more citations overall compared to non-OA journals (median 15.5 vs 12, p=0.039). The IF did not correlate with citations for OA journals (Spearman's rho =0.187, p=0.60). The increase in the citations with increasing IF was minimal for OA journals (beta coefficient = 3.346, 95% CI -0.464, 7.156, p=0.084). In contrast, the IF did show moderate correlation with citations for articles published in non-OA journals (Spearman's rho=0.514, p<0.001). The increase in the number of citations was also significant (beta coefficient = 4.347, 95% CI 2.42, 6.274, p<0.001). Conclusion It is better to publish in an OA journal for more citations. It may not be worth paying high publishing fees for higher IF journals, because there is minimal gain in terms of increased number of citations. On the other hand, if one wishes to publish in a non-OA journal, it is better to choose one with a high IF.

14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(4): 691-695, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247287

RESUMO

In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes 'O' (PanAsia-2), 'A' (Iran-05), and 'Asia-1' (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country ('O'-PanAsia-2; 'A'-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes 'O,' 'A,' and 'Asia-1.' These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia
17.
Inflammopharmacology ; 24(2-3): 67-79, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27068721

RESUMO

The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb.


Assuntos
Nigella sativa/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
18.
Br J Surg ; 103(5): 524-36, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the impact 2 and 3 years after surgery of implant-assisted latissimus dorsi (LDI) and autologous latissimus dorsi (ALD) flap breast reconstructions on patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and, secondarily, to determine whether baseline characteristics can predict PROs. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast (FACT-B), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) PROs were completed before surgery and at 2 and 3 years after breast reconstruction. The effects of LDI and ALD, adjusted for baseline clinicodemographic characteristics, were estimated with multiple linear regressions. Effect sizes above 0·5 were considered clinically important. RESULTS: Some 206 patients (LDI 93, ALD 113) were recruited in 2007-2013; 66·5 per cent were node-negative and 34·6 per cent received radiotherapy. Women with adverse clinicopathological factors were more likely to have received radiotherapy and to undergo ALD. Patients in both surgical groups showed clinically important effects at 2 and 3 years, including improvements in emotional scales, but worse physical functioning, social well-being, body image and anxiety. Radiotherapy adversely affected social functioning at 2 years (P = 0·002). Women undergoing ALD reconstruction had significantly improved sexual functioning at 3 years (P = 0·003) relative to those who had LDI procedures, even after adjusting for case mix (P = 0·007). At 3 years, younger women experienced worse physical well-being than older women (P = 0·006), and chemotherapy was associated with worse arm symptoms (P = 0·005). CONCLUSION: Clinically important changes occurred in physical functioning, breast symptoms, body image and psychological distress. These results will guide selections of key PRO domains and sample-size calculation of future studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radioterapia Adjuvante
19.
Neotrop Entomol ; 45(3): 310-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868652

RESUMO

Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Ivermectina/farmacologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(7): 6188-96, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26606932

RESUMO

Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Especificidade da Espécie
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