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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591521

RESUMO

Most psychopathological disorders develop in adolescence. The biological basis for this development is poorly understood. To enhance diagnostic characterization and develop improved targeted interventions, it is critical to identify behavioural symptom groups that share neural substrates. We ran analyses to find relationships between behavioural symptoms and neuroimaging measures of brain structure and function in adolescence. We found two symptom groups, consisting of anxiety/depression and executive dysfunction symptoms, respectively, that correlated with distinct sets of brain regions and inter-regional connections, measured by structural and functional neuroimaging modalities. We found that the neural correlates of these symptom groups were present before behavioural symptoms had developed. These neural correlates showed case-control differences in corresponding psychiatric disorders, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in independent clinical samples. By characterizing behavioural symptom groups based on shared neural mechanisms, our results provide a framework for developing a classification system for psychiatric illness that is based on quantitative neurobehavioural measures.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1617-1623, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551603

RESUMO

Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether severe obstetric complications (OCs), which harm neural function in offspring, contribute to impaired cognition found in psychiatric disorders is currently unknown. Here, we sought to evaluate how a history of severe OCs is associated with cognitive functioning, indicated by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). METHODS: We evaluated the associations of a history of OCs and IQ in 622 healthy controls (HC) and 870 patients on the schizophrenia (SCZ) - bipolar disorder (BIP) spectrum from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis study cohort, Oslo, Norway. Participants underwent assessments using the NART (premorbid IQ) and the WASI (current IQ). Information about OCs was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. RESULTS: Severe OCs were equally common across groups. SCZ patients with OCs had lower performances on both premorbid and current IQ measures, compared to those without OCs. However, having experienced more than one co-occurring severe OC was associated with lower current IQ in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Severe OCs were associated with lower IQ in the SCZ group and in the BIP and HC groups, but only if they had experienced more than one severe OC. Low IQ might be a neurodevelopmental marker for SCZ; wherein, severe OCs influence cognitive abilities and increase the risk of developing SCZ. Considering OCs as a variable of neurodevelopmental risk for severe mental illness may promote the development of neuroprotective interventions, improve outcome in vulnerable newborns and advance our ability to make clinical prognoses.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 545-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability, and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared with control subjects. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of global and subcortical brain measures of 6008 individuals (1228 FDRs-SZ, 852 FDRs-BD, 2246 control subjects, 1016 patients with schizophrenia, 666 patients with bipolar disorder) from 34 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts with standardized methods. Analyses were repeated with a correction for intracranial volume (ICV) and for the presence of any psychopathology in the relatives and control subjects. RESULTS: FDRs-BD had significantly larger ICV (d = +0.16, q < .05 corrected), whereas FDRs-SZ showed smaller thalamic volumes than control subjects (d = -0.12, q < .05 corrected). ICV explained the enlargements in the brain measures in FDRs-BD. In FDRs-SZ, after correction for ICV, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, and thalamus volumes were significantly smaller; the cortex was thinner (d < -0.09, q < .05 corrected); and third ventricle was larger (d = +0.15, q < .05 corrected). The findings were not explained by psychopathology in the relatives or control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Despite shared genetic liability, FDRs-SZ and FDRs-BD show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities, specifically a divergent effect in ICV. This may imply that the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading to brain anomalies in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are distinct.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; : 101989, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451406

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe manic-depressive illness. Patients with BD have been shown to have gray matter (GM) deficits in prefrontal, frontal, parietal, and temporal regions; however, the relationship between structural effects and clinical profiles has proved elusive when considered on a region by region or voxel by voxel basis. In this study, we applied parallel independent component analysis (pICA) to structural neuroimaging measures and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) in 110 patients (mean age 34.9 ±â€¯11.65) with bipolar disorder, to examine networks of brain regions that relate to symptom profiles. The pICA revealed two distinct symptom profiles and associated GM concentration alteration circuits. The first PANSS pICA profile mainly involved anxiety, depression and guilty feelings, reflecting mood symptoms. Reduced GM concentration in right temporal regions predicted worse mood symptoms in this profile. The second PANSS pICA profile generally covered blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, passive/apathetic social withdrawal, depression and active social avoidance, exhibiting a withdrawal or apathy dominating component. Lower GM concentration in bilateral parietal and frontal regions showed worse symptom severity in this profile. In summary, a pICA decomposition suggested BD patients showed distinct mood and apathy profiles differing from the original PANSS subscales, relating to distinct brain structural networks.

6.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

8.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 288: 29-36, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071542

RESUMO

Clinical studies of patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence are challenging both from an ethical and practical perspective, and the neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unknown. We here present a comprehensive account of the brain cortical characteristics associated with violence in schizophrenia. We obtained 3T MRI scans and thorough clinical characterization of schizophrenia patients with a history of violence (murder, attempted murder, criminal assault, SCZ-V, n = 11), schizophrenia patients with no history of violence (SCZ-NV, n = 17), and healthy controls (HC, n = 19). Cortical thickness, area, and folding were analyzed vertex-wise across the cortical mantle (FreeSurfer). SCZ-V had significantly increased cortical folding in the visual and orbitofrontal cortex, and reduced cortical thickness within the precentral-, parietal-, temporal-, and fusiform cortex compared to SCZ-NV, as well as widespread regional thinning and increased folding compared to HC. There were no group differences in cortical area. A major limitation is the small subject sample. If replicated, the results from this pilot study suggest cortical abnormalities in areas involved in sensory processing, emotion recognition, and reward to be of importance to the neurobiology of violence in schizophrenia.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We propose and develop a novel biclustering (N-BiC) approach for performing N-way biclustering of neuroimaging data. Our approach is applicable to an arbitrary number of features from both imaging and behavioral data (e.g., symptoms). We applied it to structural MRI data from patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: It uses a source-based morphometry approach (i.e., independent component analysis (ICA) of gray matter segmentation maps) to decompose the data into a set of spatial maps, each of which includes regions that covary among individuals. Then the loading parameters for components of interest are entered to an exhaustive search, which incorporates a modified depth-first search (DFS) technique to carry out the biclustering, with the goal of obtaining submatrices where the selected rows (individuals) show homogeneity in their expressions of selected columns (components) and vice versa. RESULTS: Findings demonstrate multiple biclusters have an evident association with distinct brain networks for the different types of symptoms in schizophrenia. The study identifies two components: inferior temporal gyrus (16) and brainstem (7), which are related to positive (distortion/excess of normal function) and negative (diminution/loss of normal function) symptoms in schizophrenia respectively. CONCLUSION: N-BiC is a data-driven method of biclustering MRI data that can exhaustively explore relationships/substructures from a dataset without any prior information with a higher degree of robustness than earlier biclustering applications. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of such approaches is important to investigate the underlying biological substrates of mental illness by grouping patients into homogeneous subjects as the schizophrenia diagnosis is known to be relatively nonspecific and heterogeneous.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 109, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961550

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], it was brought to our attention that some of the numbers in Table 3were incorrect.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 114-123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006616

RESUMO

Antipsychotic treatment may affect brain morphology, and enlargement of the basal ganglia (BG) is a replicated finding. Here we investigated associations between antipsychotic treatment and BG volumes in patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders. We hypothesized that current treatment and, among those medicated, higher dosage, estimated D2R occupancy and being in remission would predict larger BG volumes. Structural covariance analysis was performed to examine if correlations between BG volumes and cortical thickness differed by treatment status. 224 patients treated with antipsychotics; 26 previously treated, 29 never treated and 301 healthy controls (HC) were included from the TOP study cohort (NORMENT, Norway). T1-weighted MR images were processed using FreeSurfer. D2R occupancy was estimated based on serum concentration measurements for patients receiving stable monotherapy. Statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender and estimated intracranial volume (ICV). We found larger right (p < 0.003) and left putamen (p < 0.02) and right globus pallidus (GP) (p < 0.03) in currently medicated patients compared to HC. Bilateral regional cortical thinning was also observed in currently and previously medicated patients compared to HC. In medicated patients, higher chlorpromazine equivalent dose (CPZ) was associated with larger left GP (p < 0.04). There was no association with estimated D2R occupancy (n = 47) or remission status. Lower positive correlation between left putamen volume and cortical thickness of the left lateral occipital cortex was found in medicated patients compared to HC. We replicated the BG enlargement in medicated patients, but found no association with estimated D2R occupancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(7): 739-748, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969333

RESUMO

Importance: Between-individual variability in brain structure is determined by gene-environment interactions, possibly reflecting differential sensitivity to environmental and genetic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed thinner cortices and smaller subcortical volumes in patients with schizophrenia. However, group-level comparisons may mask considerable within-group heterogeneity, which has largely remained unnoticed in the literature. Objectives: To compare brain structural variability between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to test whether respective variability reflects the polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in an independent sample of healthy controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control and polygenic risk analysis compared MRI-derived cortical thickness and subcortical volumes between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia across 16 cohorts and tested for associations between PRS and MRI features in a control cohort from the UK Biobank. Data were collected from October 27, 2004, through April 12, 2018, and analyzed from December 3, 2017, through August 1, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean and dispersion parameters were estimated using double generalized linear models. Vertex-wise analysis was used to assess cortical thickness, and regions-of-interest analyses were used to assess total cortical volume, total surface area, and white matter, subcortical, and hippocampal subfield volumes. Follow-up analyses included within-sample analysis, test of robustness of the PRS threshold, population covariates, outlier removal, and control for image quality. Results: A comparison of 1151 patients with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age, 33.8 [10.6] years; 68.6% male [n = 790] and 31.4% female [n = 361]) with 2010 healthy controls (mean [SD] age, 32.6 [10.4] years; 56.0% male [n = 1126] and 44.0% female [n = 884]) revealed higher heterogeneity in schizophrenia for cortical thickness and area (t = 3.34), cortical (t = 3.24) and ventricle (t range, 3.15-5.78) volumes, and hippocampal subfields (t range, 2.32-3.55). In the UK Biobank sample of 12 490 participants (mean [SD] age, 55.9 [7.5] years; 48.2% male [n = 6025] and 51.8% female [n = 6465]), higher PRS was associated with thinner frontal and temporal cortices and smaller left CA2/3 (t = -3.00) but was not significantly associated with dispersion. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that schizophrenia is associated with substantial brain structural heterogeneity beyond the mean differences. These findings may reflect higher sensitivity to environmental and genetic perturbations in patients, supporting the heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia. A higher PRS was associated with thinner frontotemporal cortices and smaller hippocampal subfield volume, but not heterogeneity. This finding suggests that brain variability in schizophrenia results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors that are not captured by the PRS. Factors contributing to heterogeneity in frontotemporal cortices and hippocampus are key to furthering our understanding of how genetic and environmental factors shape brain biology in schizophrenia.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed at exploring potential pathophysiological processes across psychotic disorders, applying metabolomics in a large and well-characterized sample of patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (N = 212) and healthy controls (N = 68) had blood sampling with subsequent metabolomics analyses using electrochemical coulometric array detection. Concentrations of 52 metabolites including tyrosine, tryptophan and purine pathways were compared between patients and controls while controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Significant findings were further tested in medication-free subsamples. RESULTS: Significantly decreased plasma concentrations in patients compared to healthy controls were found for 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKY, p = 0.0008), xanthurenic acid (XANU, p = 1.5×10-5), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA, p = 4.5×10-5) and metanephrine (MN, p = 0.0001). Plasma concentration of xanthine (XAN) was increased in the patient group (p = 3.5×10-5). Differences of 3OHKY, XANU, VMA and XAN were replicated across schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorders subsamples of medication-free individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although prone to residual confounding, the present results suggest the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, noradrenergic and purinergic system dysfunction as trait factors in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Of special interest is XANU, a metabolite previously not found to be associated with bipolar disorders.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 242-249, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819594

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects perception, cognition, and emotion causing symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and suspiciousness. Schizophrenia is also associated with structural cortical abnormalities including lower gray matter (GM) concentration, GM volume, and cortical thickness relative to healthy control individuals. However, the association between GM measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenia is still not well understood. Here, we applied parallel independent component analysis (pICA), a higher-order statistical approach that identifies covarying patterns within two (or more) data modalities simultaneously, to link covarying brain networks of GM concentration with covarying linear combinations of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). In a large sample of patients with schizophrenia (n = 337) the association between these two data modalities was investigated. The pICA revealed a distinct PANSS profile characterized by increased delusional symptoms, suspiciousness, hallucinations, and anxiety, that was associated with a pattern of lower GM concentration in inferior temporal gyri and fusiform gyri and higher GM concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. GM alterations replicate previous findings; additionally, applying a multivariate technique, we were able to map a very specific symptom profile onto these GM alterations extending our understanding of cortical abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Techniques like parallel ICA can reveal linked patterns of alterations across different data modalities that can help to identify biologically-informed phenotypes which might help to improve future treatment targets.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 97, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898995

RESUMO

Reduced telomere length (TL) and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Childhood traumatic events are more frequent in SZ and BD than in healthy individuals (HC), and based on recent findings in healthy individuals could represent one important factor for TL and brain aberrations in patients. The study comprised 1024 individuals (SZ [n = 373]; BD [n = 249] and HC [n = 402]). TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Diagnosis was obtained by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV). FreeSurfer was used to obtain regional and global brain volumes from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. All analyses were adjusted for current age and sex. Patients had on average shorter TL (F = 7.87, p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.17) and reported more childhood trauma experiences than HC (χ2 = 148.9, p < 0.001). Patients with a history of childhood sexual, physical or emotional abuse had shorter TL relative to HC and to patients without a history of childhood abuse (F = 6.93, p = 0.006, Cohen's d = 0.16). After adjusting for childhood abuse, no difference in TL was observed between patients and HC (p = 0.12). There was no statistically significant difference in reported childhood abuse exposure or TL between SZ and BD. Our analyses revealed no significant associations between TL and clinical characteristics or brain morphometry. We demonstrate shorter TL in SZ and BD compared with HC and showed that TL is sensitive to childhood trauma experiences. Further studies are needed to identify the biological mechanisms of this relationship.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 213: 65-71, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neural diathesis-stress model is useful to understand schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BD) disorders. Childhood maltreatment could affect the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis and lead to chronic changes in stress-sensitivity, which can be measured with hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), representing long-term, cumulative cortisol levels. Here we investigated if childhood trauma experiences are associated with chronic changes in the HPA axis in severe mental disorders. METHODS: Participants with SZ or BD (N = 63) and healthy controls (N = 94) were included, and HCC was measured by ELISA. History of childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Global function and symptom levels were obtained using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A neuropsychological test battery (MATRICS) was performed to assess cognitive functions. RESULTS: Our study shows for the first time that patients with a history of childhood maltreatment have higher HCC relative to both healthy controls and patients without a history of childhood maltreatment (P = 0.01, ƞp2 = 0.046). In addition, patients experiencing a mood episode had higher HCC than patients in remission (P = 0.03). Lastly, we are the first to show that patients with higher HCC had poorer cognitive performance, specifically working memory (P = 0.01). All associations were irrespective of diagnostic group. A factor analysis confirmed a subgroup within the patients characterized by childhood maltreatment and elevated HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the neural diathesis-stress model in SZ and BD pointing to long-term changes in HPA-axis following childhood maltreatment experiences.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694361

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is associated with increased risk of violence compared to the general population. Neuroimaging research suggests SCZ to be a disorder of disrupted connectivity, with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicating white matter (WM) abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that SCZ patients with a history of violence (SCZ-V) have brain abnormalities distinguishing them from SCZ patients with no history of violence (SCZ-NV). Yet, a thorough investigation of the neurobiological underpinnings of state and trait measures of violence and aggression in SCZ derived from DTI indices is lacking. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we compared DTI-derived microstructural indices: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial (AD) and radial diffusivity across the brain; (1) between SCZ-V (history of murder, attempted murder, or severe assault towards other people, n = 24), SCZ-NV (n = 52) and healthy controls (HC, n = 94), and (2) associations with current aggression scores among both SCZ groups. Then, hypothesis-driven region of interest analyses of the uncinate fasciculus and clinical characteristics including medication use were performed. SCZ-V and SCZ-NV showed decreased FA and AD in widespread regions compared to HC. There were no significant differences on any DTI-based measures between SCZ-V and SCZ-NV, and no significant associations between state or trait measures of aggression and any of the DTI metrics in the ROI analyses. The DTI-derived WM differences between SCZ and HC are in line with previous findings, but the results do not support the hypothesis of specific brain WM microstructural correlates of violence or aggression in SCZ.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 12, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664633

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Med ; 49(10): 1749-1757, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite high level of comorbidity, many studies of the immune system in severe mental disorders have not systematically taken cardiometabolic risk factors into account. METHODS: We investigated if inflammatory markers were increased in schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective (AFF) disorders independently of comorbid CVD risk factors. Cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, body mass index and glucose) and CVD-related inflammatory markers CXCL16, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble CD14 (sCD14), macrophage inhibitory factor and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) were measured in n = 992 patients (SCZ, AFF), and n = 647 healthy controls. We analyzed the inflammatory markers before and after controlling for comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors, and tested for association with psychotropic medication and symptom levels. RESULTS: CXCL16 (p = 0.03) and sIL-2R (p = 7.8 × 10-5) were higher, while sCD14 (p = 0.05) were lower in patients compared to controls after controlling for confounders, with significant differences in SCZ for CXCL16 (p = 0.04) and sIL-2R (p = 1.1 × 10-5). After adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors higher levels of sIL-2R (p = 0.001) and lower sCD14 (p = 0.002) remained, also in SCZ (sIL-2R, p = 3.0 × 10-4 and sCD14, p = 0.01). The adjustment revealed lower ALCAM levels (p = 0.03) in patients. We found no significant associations with psychotropic medication or symptom levels. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that inflammation, in particular enhanced T cell activation and impaired monocyte activation, are associated with severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests a role of novel pathophysiological mechanisms in severe mental disorders, particularly SCZ.

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