Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 444
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 89(5): 629-641, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Apalutamide plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been approved for treatment of patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) based on data from phase 3 TITAN study. This analysis was conducted to describe pharmacokinetics of apalutamide and N-desmethyl-apalutamide and explore relationships between apalutamide exposure and selected clinical efficacy and safety observations. METHODS: 1052 patients were randomized to apalutamide + ADT (n = 525) or placebo + ADT (n = 527). A previously developed population pharmacokinetic model was applied. Cox regression analysis investigated the relationships between apalutamide exposure and overall survival (OS; n = 1004) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS; n = 1003). Logistic regression analysis assessed the relationships between apalutamide exposure and selected clinically relevant adverse events (n = 1051). RESULTS: Apalutamide + ADT treatment was efficacious in extending rPFS and OS versus placebo + ADT. Within a relatively narrow apalutamide exposure range (coefficient of variation: 22%), no statistical association was detected between rPFS, OS and apalutamide exposure quartiles. Incidence of skin rash and pruritus increased significantly with increasing apalutamide exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in apalutamide exposure were not associated with clinically relevant differences in rPFS or OS in patients with mCSPC. Patients with increased apalutamide exposure are more likely to develop skin rash and pruritus. Dose reductions may improve these adverse events, based on an individual risk-benefit approach.


Assuntos
Exantema , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Castração , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Tioidantoínas
2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102517, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Orteronel (TAK-700) is a nonsteroidal 17,20-lyase inhibitor suppressing androgen synthesis. We evaluated the clinical benefit of orteronel when added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: In this open-label randomized phase III study, patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were randomly assigned 1:1 to ADT with orteronel (300 mg oral twice daily; experimental arm) or ADT with bicalutamide (50 mg oral once daily; control arm). The primary objective was the comparison of overall survival (OS), targeting a 33% improvement in median survival. A stratified log-rank test with a one-sided P ≤ .022 would indicate statistical significance. Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at 7 months (≤ 0.2 v 0.2 to ≤ 4 v > 4 ng/mL), and adverse event profile. RESULTS: Among 1,279 patients included in the analysis, 638 were randomly assigned to the ADT plus orteronel arm and 641 to the control arm. The median age was 68 years; 49% had extensive disease. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, there was a significant improvement in PFS (median 47.6 v 23.0 months, hazard ratio 0.58; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.67; P < .0001) and PSA response at 7 months (P < .0001), but not in OS (median 81.1 v 70.2 months, hazard ratio 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.02; P = .040, one-sided). More grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in the experimental versus the control arms (43% v 14%). Postprotocol life-prolonging therapy was received by 77.4% of patients in the control arm and 61.3% of patients in the orteronel arm. CONCLUSION: The study did not meet the primary end point of improved OS with orteronel. The lack of correlation of PFS and PSA response with OS raises concerns over assumption of their consistent surrogacy for OS in the context of extensive postprotocol therapy in this setting.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e225394, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357449

RESUMO

Importance: The most useful biomarkers for clinical decision-making identify patients likely to have improved outcomes with one treatment vs another. Objective: To evaluate treatment class-specific outcomes of patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) vs taxane chemotherapy by tumor mutational burden (TMB). Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness analysis of clinical variables and outcomes used prospectively defined biomarker-stratified genomic data from a deidentified clinicogenomic database. Data included men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) receiving ICI or single-agent taxane chemotherapy from January 2011 to April 2021 at approximately 280 US academic or community-based cancer clinics (approximately 800 sites of care). Data were analyzed from July to August 2021. Exposures: Single-agent ICI or single-agent taxanes. Treatments were assigned at discretion of physician and patient without randomization. Imbalances of known factors between treatment groups were adjusted with propensity weighting. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, time to next therapy (TTNT), and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 741 men (median [IQR], 70 [64-76] years) with mCRPC received comprehensive genomic profiling and were treated with ICI or single-agent taxane therapy. At baseline, the median (IQR) PSA level was 79.4 (19.0-254) ng/mL, 108 men (18.8%) had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status scores of 2 or greater, and 644 men (86.9%) had received prior systemic treatments for mCRPC. A total of 45 patients (6.1%) received ICI therapy and 696 patients (93.9%) received taxane therapy. Among patients with TMB of fewer than 10 mutations per megabase (mt/Mb) receiving ICI, compared with those receiving taxanes, had worse TTNT (median [IQR], 2.4 [1.1-3.2] months vs 4.1 [2.2-6.3] months; hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% CI, 1.78-3.95; P < .001). In contrast, for patients with TMB of 10 mt/Mb or greater, use of ICIs, compared with use taxanes, was associated with more favorable TTNT (median [IQR], 8.0 [3.4 to unknown] months vs 2.4 [2.4-7.3] months; HR, 0.37, 95% CI, 0.15-0.87; P = .02) and OS (median 19.9 [8.06 to unknown] months vs 4.2 [2.69 - 6.12] months; HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.57; P = .001). Among all 741 patients, 44 (5.9%) had TMB of 10 mt/Mb or greater, 22 (3.0%) had high microsatellite instability, and 20 (2.7%) had both. Treatment interactions with TMB of 10 mt/Mb or greater (TTNT: HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.32-0.31; P < .001; OS: HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.076-0.81; P = .02) were stronger than high microsatellite instability alone (TTNT: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51; P = .004; OS: HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.13-1.12; P = .08). Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness study, ICIs were more effective than taxanes in patients with mCRPC when TMB was 10 mt/Mb or greater but not when TMB was fewer than 10 mt/Mb. The results add validity to the existing TMB cutoff of 10 mt/Mb for ICI use in later lines of therapy, and suggest that ICIs may be a viable alternative to taxane chemotherapy for patients with mCRPC with high TMB.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética
4.
Oncologist ; 27(3): 220-227, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) have significantly improved through treatment intensification, yet Black representation in those studies is suboptimal. METHODS: A multi-institutional, retrospective analysis of Black men with mHSPC was conducted, focusing on baseline demographics, treatment patterns, genomic profiles, clinical outcomes including prostate-specific antigen response, time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and subsequent treatments. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients, median age 64 years, 62% with de novo metastases at diagnosis and 64% with high-volume disease, were included. Twenty-nine patients (27%) were treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with and without first generation anti-androgens, while 20%, 38% and 5% received chemotherapy, abiraterone, and enzalutamide, respectively. At time of data cut-off, 57 (54%) patients had developed CRPC, with a median time to CRPC of 25.4 months (95% CI 20.3-30.4). The median time to CRPC was 46.3 months (18.9-73.7) and 23.4 months (18.6-28.2) for patients who received ADT with or without first-generation anti-androgens and treatment intensification, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 93.3%, and estimated median overall survival of was 74.9 months (95% CI, 68.7-81.0). Most patients (90%) underwent germline testing; the most frequent known alterations were found within the DNA repair group of genes. Somatic testing revealed pathogenic alterations of interest, notably TP53 (24%) and CDK12 (12%). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, Black men with mHSPC presented with a high proportion of de novo metastases and high-volume disease. Treatment outcomes were very favorable with ADT-based regimens. The genomic landscape suggests different molecular profile relative to White patients with potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(4): 335-341, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite rapid advances in the treatment landscape of urothelial cancer, there is a substantial unmet need for safe and effective therapies for patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer. Sacituzumab govitecan (SG) is an antibody-drug conjugate, consisting of a Trop-2 directed monoclonal antibody linked to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Trop-2 is a glycoprotein overexpressed in various carcinomas, including urothelial carcinomas. AREAS COVERED: We review the available data on SG, including mechanism of action, pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and clinical studies regarding locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer. EXPERT OPINION: SG performed well in the TROPHY-U-01 phase II trial with an objective response rate of 27%. The most common adverse effects were diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, alopecia, and neutropenia, with the most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-related AEs being neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, diarrhea, and febrile neutropenia. However, these effects were managed effectively with supportive care. SG currently has an accelerated approval for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer who have received platinum-based chemotherapy and either programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor. Several studies are evaluating SG in urothelial cancers as single-agent or in combination with other agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Camptotecina , Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Imunoconjugados , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 18-26, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309660

RESUMO

Since the onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic, various public health measures have been in focus, viz. social distancing, hand hygiene, use of masks, screening of patients for COVID-19 symptoms, development of quarantine and isolation facilities, and public health surveillance. Most of these relate to the principles of prevention, early case detection, and primary care. In the ongoing fight against COVID-19, community medicine (CM) professionals are involved at various positions and have been leading from the front in a variety of activities, be it screening, patient care, surveillance, orientation and training of front line workers, community engagement, evidence generation through research, and development of guidelines. However, their engagement in policymaking has still been limited. The government should work more closely with CM professionals in order to stem the tide of COVID-19 or any such public health emergencies in the future by shifting the focus to preventive and promotive interventions. CM professionals should take a more proactive approach in getting involved in policymaking and demonstrate leadership through their actions to lead the national, state, and district-level public health teams through collaboration across disciplines and sectors. This will help bring the leadership of public health in India in the right hands for optimum population health and appropriate and timely health emergency response.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125301

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genomic and morphologic heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) presents a barrier to prognostication and treatment decisions. Data from pathology are used with clinical markers to predict disease progression after nephrectomy. However, determining the risk of cancer recurrence, and survival with metastatic cancer remains challenging. Recently, analysis of histologic growth patterns (HGP) in ccRCC revealed promising associations with survival outcomes. METHODS: To investigate whether HGPs can be used to predict overall survival (OS) after nephrectomy, we examined 24 HGPs in primary tumors of 147 patients that included 107 patients with metastatic disease. RESULTS: The median number of HGPs per case was 5 and was greater in metastatic and larger tumors. After adjustment for 6 pathologic and demographic variables, HGPs were significantly associated with OS post nephrectomy. Small nests, expansile nests and nests with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio were associated with favorable outcomes; while spindled low grade, fused nests/solid sheets, rhabdoid, and sarcomatoid patterns were associated with unfavorable outcomes. A 3-tiered and a 2-tiered risk model were developed based on combinations of HGPs. The models performed equally well as WHO/ISUP nucleolar plus necrosis grade (necrosis grade), and better than WHO/ISUP nucleolar grade alone in predicting OS at the median OS of 6 years. Pairwise correlations between HGPs revealed 2 tumor evolutionary branches that differed in risk of metastatic disease: one with mesenchymal differentiation, and other with epithelial tubulopapillary differentiation. While 44 of 107 (41%) patients with metastatic ccRCC displayed evidence of mesenchymal differentiation, mesenchymal features were only observed in 1 of 40 (3%) patients without evidence of metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HGPs may provide a novel path to refine the estimation of OS after nephrectomy and to determine the molecular basis of tumor evolution.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The real-world EPIX study was conducted to gather information about the characteristics of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who survived ≥2 years after treatment with the alpha-emitter radium-223. METHODS: This retrospective study of electronic health records in the US Flatiron database (NCT04516161) included patients with mCRPC treated with radium-223 between January 2013 and June 2019. Median overall survival (OS) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (≥50% reduction) from start of radium-223 treatment were the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. Patient characteristics were compared between those who survived ≥2 years versus <2 years, including a subgroup who survived <6 months. RESULTS: In the 1180 patients identified, median OS was 12.9 months (95% CI: 12.1-13.7), and 13% of patients with data at 6 months had a PSA response. The survival groups included 775 patients (65.7%) who survived <2 years (including 264 (22.4%) who survived <6 months) and 185 patients (15.7%) who survived ≥2 years; 220 patients (18.6%) had incomplete follow-up data and were censored. On multivariate analysis, age >75 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 2-4, visceral metastases, prior symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs), and prior chemotherapy were independently prognostic of reduced OS. For patients with survival ≥2 years versus <2 years, median age was 71 versus 75 years, 4% versus 14% had ECOG PS 2-4, 4% versus 10% had visceral metastases, 38% versus 44% had prior SSEs, and 16% versus 32% had prior chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of men with mCRPC treated in real-world clinical practice, median OS was consistent with that seen in the phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial. Patients who survived ≥2 years after the start of radium-223 were younger and had better ECOG PS, lower disease burden, and less use of prior chemotherapy than those who survived <2 years.

9.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 20(2): 165-175, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) improve overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (aUC), but response rates can be modest. We compared outcomes between patients with and without prior intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), who received ICI for aUC, hypothesizing that prior intravesical BCG would be associated with worse outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study across 25 institutions in US and Europe. We compared observed response rate (ORR) using logistic regression; progression-free survival (PFS) and OS using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards. Analyses were stratified by treatment line (first line/salvage) and included multivariable models adjusting for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 1026 patients with aUC were identified; 614, 617, and 638 were included in ORR, OS, PFS analyses, respectively. Overall, 150 pts had history of prior intravesical BCG treatment. ORR to ICI was similar between those with and without prior intravesical BCG exposure in both first line and salvage settings (adjusted odds radios 0.55 [P= .08] and 1.65 [P= .12]). OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.05 [P= .79] and 1.13 [P= .49]) and PFS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.12 [P= .55] and 0.87 [P= .39]) were similar between those with and without intravesical BCG exposure in first line and salvage settings. CONCLUSION: Prior intravesical BCG was not associated with differences in response and survival in patients with aUC treated with ICI. Limitations include retrospective nature, lack of randomization, presence of selection and confounding biases. This study provides important preliminary data that prior intravesical BCG exposure may not impact ICI efficacy in aUC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Administração Intravesical , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 148(5): 1097-1105, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064817

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has revolutionized the systemic treatment of solid tumors, including advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC), providing durable responses with a favorable safety profile. Multiple immune checkpoint inhibitor agents have been approved in monotherapy in second-line setting, and for a selected group of chemo-naïve cisplatin-ineligible patients with high PD-L1 expression. Despite the incorporation of immunotherapy to the systemic treatment landscape of aUC, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care in frontline setting for vast majority of patients. Urothelial carcinoma is a chemosensitive disease with response rates of up to 50% to frontline chemotherapy. However, the response to chemotherapy is short lasting with vast majority of patients experiencing disease progression and death within months. In this context, maintenance therapy constitutes an attractive therapeutic strategy to maximize the time to treatment failure. Different cytotoxic and targeted agents have been investigated as maintenance therapy for aUC but have not shown an impact on survival. Avelumab has become the first and only drug to improve overall survival as maintenance therapy after frontline platinum-based therapy in aUC patients and the first drug to be approved in this setting. This article will review the rational for maintenance therapy, the different drugs investigated as maintenance therapy for aUC, and the impact of avelumab maintenance therapy as a new standard of care in the management of aUC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Platina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
11.
Future Oncol ; 18(4): 425-436, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080190

RESUMO

PARP inhibitors in combination with androgen receptor-targeted therapy have demonstrated potential in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we describe the design and rationale of the multinational, phase III, two-part TALAPRO-2 study comparing talazoparib plus enzalutamide versus placebo plus enzalutamide as a first-line treatment for patients with mCRPC with or without DNA damage response (DDR) alterations. This study has two co-primary end points: radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) by blinded independent clinical review in all-comers (cohort 1) and in patients with DDR alterations (cohort 2). TALAPRO-2 will demonstrate whether talazoparib plus enzalutamide can significantly improve the efficacy of enzalutamide in terms of rPFS in both molecularly unselected and DDR-deficient patients with mCRPC (NCT03395197). Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03395197 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
12.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(1): 71-90, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991070

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC typically undergo surgery and/or receive systemic therapy. Tumor histology and risk stratification of patients is important in therapy selection. The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer stratify treatment recommendations by histology; recommendations for first-line treatment of ccRCC are also stratified by risk group. To further guide management of advanced RCC, the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel has categorized all systemic kidney cancer therapy regimens as "Preferred," "Other Recommended Regimens," or "Useful in Certain Circumstances." This categorization provides guidance on treatment selection by considering the efficacy, safety, evidence, and other factors that play a role in treatment selection. These factors include pre-existing comorbidities, nature of the disease, and in some cases consideration of access to agents. This article summarizes surgical and systemic therapy recommendations for patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Oncologia
13.
Future Oncol ; 18(10): 1185-1198, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034502

RESUMO

Cabozantinib inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including the TAM kinase family, and may enhance response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. One cohort of the ongoing phase Ib COSMIC-021 study (NCT03170960) evaluating cabozantinib plus the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that has progressed in soft tissue on/after enzalutamide and/or abiraterone treatment for metastatic disease has shown promising efficacy. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a phase III trial of cabozantinib plus atezolizumab versus a second novel hormone therapy (NHT) in patients who have previously received an NHT for mCRPC, metastatic castration-sensitive PC or nonmetastatic CRPC and have measurable visceral disease and/or extrapelvic adenopathy - a population with a significant unmet need for treatment options. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04446117 (ClinicalTrials.gov) Registered on 24 June 2020.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 20(1): 1-10, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (MaRCC) Registry provides prospective data on real-world treatment patterns and outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with mRCC and no prior systemic therapy were enrolled at academic and community sites. End of study data collection was in March 2019. Outcomes included overall survival (OS). A survey of treating physicians assessed reasons for treatment initiations and discontinuations. RESULTS: Overall, 376 patients with mRCC initiated first-line therapy; 171 (45.5%) received pazopanib, 75 (19.9%) sunitinib, and 74 (19.7%) participated in a clinical trial. Median (95% confidence interval) OS was longest in the clinical trial group (50.3 [35.8-not reached] months) versus pazopanib (39.0 [29.7-50.9] months) and sunitinib 26.2 [19.9-61.5] months). Non-clear cell RCC (21.5% of patients) was associated with worse median OS than clear cell RCC (18.0 vs. 47.3 months). Differences in baseline characteristics, treatment starting dose, and relative dose exposure among treatment groups suggest selection bias. Survey results revealed a de-emphasis on quality of life, toxicity, and patient preference compared with efficacy in treatment selection. CONCLUSION: The MaRCC Registry gives insights into real-world first-line treatment selection, outcomes, and physician rationale regarding initial treatment selection prior to the immunotherapy era. Differences in outcomes between clinical trial and off-study patients reflect the difficulty in translating trial results to real-world patients, and emphasize the need to broaden clinical trial eligibility. Physician emphasis on efficacy over quality of life and toxicity suggests more data and education are needed regarding these endpoints.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(1): 45-55, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473525

RESUMO

Management of metastatic prostate cancer has undergone a revolution over the past decade with the introduction of several novel agents and repurposing of others. Several clinical trials reported improved outcomes with the intensification of androgen deprivation therapy by the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or novel hormonal agents (abiraterone, enzalutamide, or apalutamide) in the metastatic castration-sensitive state. Relugolix has been recently approved as the first oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist agent with a superior cardiovascular side-effect profile, and serum testosterone suppression compared with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, leuprolide. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (olaparib and rucaparib) have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for patients harboring deleterious mutations in genes belonging to the homologous recombination repair pathway and have received Food and Drug Administration approval. Recently, lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen-617 with standard of care treatment has shown to improve overall survival in men with advanced-stage prostate-specific membrane antigen-positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These recent approvals, successes, and the ongoing investigation of multiple novel agents are expected to continue to dramatically improve survival outcomes of men with metastatic prostate cancer in the coming years.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
17.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 38(1): 92-95, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898884

RESUMO

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is a rare variety of renal tumor accounting for less than 5% of all pediatric renal tumors. Cardiopulmonary bypass along with hypothermic circulatory arrest is frequently used for management of tumor thrombus extending into supra-hepatic inferior vena cava and right atrium. In this paper, we present a strategy of avoiding circulatory arrest and hypothermia and thereby fast-tracking the recovery in managing a case of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney in a 3.5-year-old child with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium.

18.
Future Oncol ; 18(1): 35-45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636627

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate real-world clinical outcomes of radium-223 or alternative novel hormonal therapy (NHT) following first-line NHT for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients & methods: Retrospective analysis of the US Flatiron database (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03896984). Results: In the radium-223 cohort (n = 120) versus the alternative NHT cohort (n = 226), proportionally more patients had prior symptomatic skeletal events and bone-only metastases, and first-line NHT duration was shorter. Following second-line therapy, 49 versus 39% of patients received subsequent life-prolonging therapy; of these, 47 versus 76% received taxane. Median overall survival was 10.8 versus 11.2 months. Conclusion: Real-world patients with mCRPC had similar median overall survival following second-line radium-223 or alternative NHT after first-line NHT. Many patients received subsequent therapy, with less taxane use after radium-223.


Lay abstract Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer are often first treated with novel hormonal therapy (NHT) using abiraterone or enzalutamide. To aid decisions about what treatment to use next, we reviewed information about patients who were treated with an alternative NHT (226 patients) or the nuclear medicine radium-223 (120 patients) after the first NHT. Most patients given radium-223 had cancer that had spread to their bones only, whereas many patients given an alternative NHT had cancer in their bones and other parts of their body. Around one in four patients given radium-223 and one in five given an alternative NHT had symptoms related to their bone metastases after starting treatment. Five in every ten patients given radium-223 received further therapy, including chemotherapy in 50% of these patients, while four in every ten patients given an alternative NHT received further therapy, including chemotherapy in 75%. On average, patients lived for almost a year after starting radium-223 or an alternative NHT.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(10): 3876-3881, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Covid19 has emerged as a greatest threat of the decade worldwide. At present there is no certain treatment for treating coronavirus diseases, while some antiviral drugs (Remdesivir , Lopinavir and Ritonavir) are under investigation. Many countries including India have adopted the convalescent plasma therapy in the treatment of moderate to severely ill patients. Despite the treatment being given ,there are no such evidences on the utility and efficacy of convalescent plasma. Hence this study tries to find out the impact on the discharge status from hospital of the patients receiving the very therapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta analysis. SETTING: An extensive search was made, following PRISMA guidelines on online databases such as Pubmed, Google scholar and Science direct. Studies those fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria ,were included and reviewed and analyzed for a common outcome(discharge status). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6 eligible studies were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively which included three case control, two case series and one case report. RESULTS: The overall pooled discharge rate from the above studies was 75.7% after the CP therapy. When analyzed for relative risk , it showed CP therapy having a lower risk of staying in hospital (not getting discharged) when compared to Standard therapy ,overall RR (relative risk) being 0.946. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that there is always a higher rate of discharge and low risk of prolonged hospital stay in those patients who receive plasma therapy. CP therapy being a low cost and easy to administer therapy with very less adverse events, requires more focus on further research as it has a potential to become an ideal effective treatment option for COVID-19.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...